MicroRNA-505 is involved in the regulation of osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells partially by targeting RUNX2.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of genes involved in bone metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-505 in the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. METHODS:We performed miRNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed miRNAs between MC3T3-E1 cells treated with osteogenic induction medium (OIM) and control cells. Bioinformatics analysis was performed by using the TargetScan and miRDB databases. The expression of miR-505 in MC3T3-E1 cells was detected during osteogenic differentiation. After transfection with miR-505 mimic or miR-505 inhibitor, MC3T3-E1 cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, and the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers (Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and osterix (OSX)) was detected. RESULTS:miR-505 was the most downregulated miRNA among the differentially expressed miRNAs. The RUNX2 gene was identified as a potential target of miR-505 using the target prediction program. miR-505 expression was downregulated during osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression of osteogenic marker genes was inhibited in MC3T3-E1 cells after transfection with miR-505. However, the expression of osteogenic marker genes was upregulated after transfection with miR-505 inhibitor. CONCLUSION:This study is the first to report miR-505 could bind to the RUNX2 gene and thus regulate partly the dysfunction of osteoblasts differentiation, which is expected to be targets for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Project description:The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is considered one of the primary neural signaling pathways. NPY, produced by osteoblasts and other peripheral tissues, is known to inhibit biological functions of osteoblasts. However, until recently, little was known of the autocrine mechanism by which NPY is regulated. To investigate this mechanism, overexpression plasmids and small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NPY were transfected into the MC3T3?E1 cell line to observe its effects on osteogenesis. NPY overexpression was found to markedly enhance the osteogenic ability of MC3T3?E1 cells by an autocrine mechanism, coincident with the upregulation of osterix and runt?related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). Furthermore, NPY increased the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) by upregulating their osteoblastic expression in vitro (as well as that of osterix and Runx2). Following transfection with NPY?siRNA, the osteoblastic ability of MC3T3?E1 cells was markedly decreased, and NPY deficiency inhibited the protein expression of osterix, Runx2, OCN and ALP in primary osteoblasts. Collectively, these results indicated that NPY played an important role in osteoblast differentiation by regulating the osterix and Runx2 pathways.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small fragments of single-stranded RNA containing 18-24 nucleotides, and are generated from endogenous transcripts. MicroRNAs function in post-transcriptional gene silencing by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs, resulting in translational repression. We have developed a system to study the role of miRNAs in cell differentiation. We have found that one of the miRNAs tested in our system (miR-378, also called miR-378*) plays a role in modulating nephronectin-mediated differentiation in the osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1. Nephronectin is an extracellular matrix protein, and we have demonstrated that its over-expression enhanced osteoblast differentiation and bone nodule formation. Furthermore, we found that the nephronectin 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) contains a binding site for miR-378. Stable transfection of MC3T3-E1 cells with miR-378 inhibited cell differentiation. MC3T3-E1 cells stably transfected with nephronectin exhibited higher rates of differentiation and nodule formation as compared with cells transfected with nephronectin containing the 3'UTR in the early stages of development, suggesting that endogenous miR-378 is present and active. However, in the later stages of MC3T3-E1 development, the differentiation rates were opposite, with higher rates of differentiation and nodule formation in the cells over-expressing the 3'UTR of nephronectin. This appeared to be the consequence of competition between nephronectin and UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 7 (GalNAc-T7 or GalNT7) for miR-378 binding, resulting in increased GalNT7 activity, which in turn lead to increased nephronectin glycosylation and product secretion, thereby resulting in a higher rate of osteoblast differentiation.
Project description:Bone fracture is a common medical condition, which may occur due to traumatic injury or disease-related conditions. Evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate osteoblast differentiation and function. In this study, we explored the effects and mechanism of miR-221 on the growth and migration of osteoblasts using MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression levels of miR-221 in the different groups were measured by qRT-PCR. Then, miR-221 mimic and inhibitor were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells, and cell viability and migration were measured using the CCK-8 assay and the Transwell migration assay. Additionally, the expression levels of differentiation-related factors (Runx2 and Ocn) and ZFPM2 were measured by qRT-PCR. Western blot was used to measure the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins, ZFPM2, and Wnt/Notch, and Smad signaling pathway proteins. miR-221 was significantly up-regulated in the patients with lumbar compression fracture (LCM) and trochanteric fracture (TF). miR-221 promoted ALP, Runx2, and OPN expressions in MC3T3-E1 cells. miR-221 overexpression significantly increased cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and matrix mineralization, whereas suppression of miR-221 reversed these effects. Additionally, the results displayed that ZFPM2 was a direct target gene of miR-221, and overexpression of ZFPM2 reversed the promoting effects of miR-221 overexpression on osteoblasts. Mechanistic study revealed that overexpression of miR-221 inactivated the Wnt/Notch and Smad signaling pathways by regulating ZFPM2 expression. We drew the conclusions that miR-221 overexpression promoted osteoblast proliferation, migration, and differentiation by regulation of ZFPM2 expression and deactivating the Wnt/Notch and Smad signaling pathways.
Project description:In patients who were treated with exogenous BMP-2 to repair bone fractures or defects, the levels of the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in sera are significantly elevated, which may affect the outcome of bone regeneration. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) have a crucial role in osteogenic differentiation and are activated by both BMP-2 and TNF-α/IL-1β. However, previous studies suggested that the effects of BMP-2 and TNF-α/IL-1β in osteoblastic differentiation are opposite. Here, we investigated the exact role of MAPKs in a BMP-2 and TNF-α/IL-1β co-existed condition. Treatment with TNF-α/IL-1β inhibited BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, osteogenic transcriptional factor Runx2, and the expression of osteogenic markers in C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 cells. This inhibitory effect was independent of the canonical BMP/Smad pathway, suggesting the presence of an alternate regulatory pathway for BMP-2-induced Runx2 activity and subsequent osteoblastic differentiation. We then confirmed that BMP-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β alone can activate p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2, respectively. However, only inhibition of p38 and ERK1/2 signaling were required to modulate BMP-2-induced Runx2 expression. Finally, we determined that TNF-α/IL-1β decreased BMP-2-induced Runx2 expression through the activation of p38 and ERK1/2 signaling. Furthermore, strong activation of p38 and ERK1/2 signaling by transfection with CA-MKK3 or CA-MEK1 inhibited BMP-2-induced Runx2 expression and osteoblastic differentiation in C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 cells. Based on these results, we conclude that TNF-α/IL-1β- and BMP-2-activated p38 and ERK1/2 signaling have opposing roles that converge on Runx2 to regulate osteoblastic differentiation. The elucidation of these mechanisms may hasten the development of new strategies and improve the osteoinductive efficacy of BMP-2 in the clinic to enhance osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation.
Project description:Sustained hypoxia inhibits osteogenesis and osteoblast differentiation by downregulating the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate osteogenesis and osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we profiled miRNAs, with microRNA array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods, in mouse osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells under hypoxia. Then, we investigated regulation by miRNA-21-5p on the expression of Runx2 and other osteoblast differentiation-associated markers via gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies. We found that expression of miRNA-21-5p, miRNA-210-5p, and other eight miRNAs was upregulated significantly in hypoxia-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. miRNA-21-5p overexpression downregulated the expression of the mRNA and protein of suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD7) markedly, the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of which was highly homologous with the miRNA-21-5p sequence. miRNA-21-5p overexpression upregulated the protein expression of Runx2 in hypoxia-treated MC3T3-E1 cells, although mRNA expression of Runx2 and other osteoblast differentiation-associated molecules (eg, osteocalcin, procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, P1NP) were not regulated by it; such upregulation was SMAD7-dependent. In conclusion, hypoxia-responsive miRNA-21-5p promoted Runx2 expression (at least in part) by targeting the 3'-UTR and downregulating SMAD7 expression. Our study suggests a protective role of miRNA-21-5p in promoting osteoblast differentiation under hypoxia.
Project description:Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor) is a newly discovered adipokine that widely participates in diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian syndrome and other disorders of metabolism. However, the effect of vaspin on the regulation of osteogenesis and the mechanism responsible are still unclear. Here, we found that vaspin can attenuate the osteogenic differentiation of the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 in a dose-dependent way; also, during this process, the expression of miRNA-34c (miR-34c) was significantly increased. Down-regulation of the expression of miR-34c in MC3T3-E1 diminished the osteogenic inhibitory effect of vaspin, while the up-regulation of miR-34c increased this effect through its target gene Runx2. Meanwhile, we found that vaspin could also activate the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway. Blocking the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway with specific inhibitors could decrease the osteogenic inhibitory effect of vaspin as well as the expression level of miR-34c. Furthermore, knock-down of miR-34c could promote the activation of Akt, which was probably realised by targeting c-met expression. Thus, PI3K-Akt and miR-34c constituted a modulation loop and controlled the expression of each other. Taken together, our study showed that vaspin could inhibit the osteogenic differentiation in vitro, and the PI3K-Akt/miR-34c loop might be the underlying mechanism.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for approximately 90% of all diabetic patients, and osteoporosis is one of the complications during T2DM process. ATP6V1H (V-type proton ATPase subunit H) displays crucial roles in inhibiting bone loss, but its role in osteogenic differentiation remains unknown. Therefore in this study, we aimed to explore the biological role of ATP6V1H in osteogenic differentiation. OM (osteogenic medium) and HG (high glucose and free fatty acids) were used to induce the MC3T3-E1 cells into osteogenic differentiation in a T2DM simulating environment. CCK8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Alizarin Red staining was used to detect the influence of ATP6V1H on osteogenic differentiation. ATP6V1H expression increased in OM-MC3T3-E1 cells, while decreased in OM+HG-MC3T3-E1 cells. ATP6V1H promoted osteogenic differentiation of OM+HG-MC3T3-E1 cells. Overexpression of ATP6V1H inhibited Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway, while knockdown of ATP6V1H promoted Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway. ATP6V1H overexpression promoted osteogenic differentiation of OM+HG-MC3T3-E1 cells. The role of ATP6V1H in osteogenic differentiation in a T2DM simulating environment involved in Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway. These data demonstrated that ATP6V1H could serve as a potential target for osteogenic differentiation in a T2DM simulating environment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMScs) are modulated by a variety of microRNAs (miRNAs). SATB homeobox 2 (SATB2) is a critical transcription factor that contributes to maintain the balance of bone metabolism. However, it remains unclear how the regulatory relationship between miR-103 and SATB2 on HBMScs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. METHODS:HBMScs were obtained from Cyagen Biosciences and successful induced osteogenic differentiation. The proliferation abilities of HBMScs after treatment with agomiR-103 and antagomiR-103 were assessed using a cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and osteogenic differentiation was determined using alizarin red S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. The expression levels of miR-103, SATB2, and associated osteogenic differentiation biomarkers, including RUNX family transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP), and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), were evaluated using real-time qPCR and Western blot. The regulatory sites of miR-103 on SATB2 were predicted using bioinformatics software and validated using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The underlying mechanism of miR-103 on SATB2-medicated HBMScs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed by co-transfection of antagomiR-103 and SATB2 siRNA. RESULTS:The expression of miR-103 in HBMScs after induction of osteogenic differentiation was reduced in a time-dependent way. Overexpression of miR-103 by transfection of agomiR-103 suppressed HBMScs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, while silencing of miR-103 by antagomiR-103 abolished these inhibitory effects. Consistently, RUNX2, BGLAP and SPP1 mRNA and protein expression were decreased in agomiR-103 treated HBMScs compared with those in agomiR-NC group. Meanwhile, antagomiR-103 upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of RUNX2, BGLAP and SPP1 in HBMScs. Further studies revealed that SATB2 was a direct target gene of miR-103. BMSCs transfected with agomiR-103 exhibited significantly downregulated protein expression level of SATB2, whereas knockdown of miR-103 promoted it. Additionally, rescue assays confirmed that silencing of SATB2 partially reversed the effects of antagomiR-103 induced HBMScs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:The present results suggested that miR-103 negatively regulates SATB2 to serve an inhibitory role in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of HBMScs, which sheds light upon a potential therapeutic target for treating bone-related diseases.
Project description:Lineage progression in osteoblasts and chondrocytes is stringently controlled by the cell-fate-determining transcription factor Runx2. In this study, we directly addressed whether microRNAs (miRNAs) can control the osteogenic activity of Runx2 and affect osteoblast maturation. A panel of 11 Runx2-targeting miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-30c, miR-34c, miR-133a, miR-135a, miR-137, miR-204, miR-205, miR-217, miR-218, and miR-338) is expressed in a lineage-related pattern in mesenchymal cell types. During both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, these miRNAs, in general, are inversely expressed relative to Runx2. Based on 3'UTR luciferase reporter, immunoblot, and mRNA stability assays, each miRNA directly attenuates Runx2 protein accumulation. Runx2-targeting miRNAs differentially inhibit Runx2 protein expression in osteoblasts and chondrocytes and display different efficacies. Thus, cellular context contributes to miRNA-mediated regulation of Runx2. All Runx2-targeting miRNAs (except miR-218) significantly impede osteoblast differentiation, and their effects can be reversed by the corresponding anti-miRNAs. These findings demonstrate that osteoblastogenesis is limited by an elaborate network of functionally tested miRNAs that directly target the osteogenic master regulator Runx2.
Project description:A complex network of transcription factors contributes to the establishment and maintenance of the osteoblastic phenotype. Although relatively few transcription factors, such as Runx2 and osterix, are essential to the process of osteoblastic differentiation, others serve the purpose of fine-tuning in response to various environmental and hormonal cues. The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors are involved in numerous aspects of bone biology. In this study, we characterized the expression pattern of the entire NR superfamily in differentiating primary murine calvarial cells in order to identify novel NR regulatory patterns. Dynamic patterns of NR expression were observed throughout the differentiation process. Interestingly, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ? (Ror?) expression was markedly suppressed at later stages of differentiation. To gain further insight into the function of NRs in bone biology, the NR superfamily was also profiled in mouse bone marrow precursor cells isolated from either young (6-month) or aging, osteoporotic (18-22-month) mice. Of interest, Ror? was potently overexpressed in the aged cohort. Collectively, these data provided evidence that Ror? expression is inversely correlated with osteogenic potential, suggesting Ror? may be an important and unexplored regulator of osteogenesis. To validate this hypothesis, a cell model stably expressing Ror? in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was produced (MC3T3-Ror?). These cells displayed markedly suppressed bone nodule formation as well as reduced osteocalcin and osterix gene expression. Because these genes are Runx2 targets, we reasoned that Ror? may interfere with Runx2 activity. Consistent with this, transient transfection analysis demonstrated that Ror? inhibited Runx2-dependent activation of a Runx2-reporter construct. In summary, our data provide a comprehensive profile of NR expression during osteoblast differentiation and identify Ror? as a novel regulator of osteogenesis and potentially of age-related bone loss through antagonism of Runx2 activity.