Attachment style and addictions (alcohol, cigarette, waterpipe and internet) among Lebanese adolescents: a national study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The prevalence in the Lebanese general population of cigarette and waterpipe smoking, alcohol drinking and internet use seems to be increasing lately. So far, no study was done relating the above to attachment styles in Lebanese adolescents. Consequently, the objective of our study was to assess the relationship between attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing) and addictions (cigarettes, water pipes, alcohol, and internet) among this population. METHODS:It is a cross-sectional study that took place between January and May 2019. Two thousand questionnaires were distributed out of which 1810 (90.5%) were completed and collected back. A proportionate random sample of schools from all Lebanese Mohafazat was used as recruitment method. RESULTS:A secure attachment style was significantly associated with lower addiction to alcohol, cigarette, and waterpipe, whereas insecure attachment styles (preoccupied, dismissing and fearful) were significantly associated with higher addiction to cigarette, waterpipe, alcohol, and internet. CONCLUSION:Lebanese adolescents with insecure attachment had higher rates of addiction to cigarette, waterpipe, alcohol, and internet. They should be closely monitored in order to reduce the risk of future substance use disorder and/or behavioral addiction development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Since divorce rates are on the rise in Lebanon (an increase of 101% between 2006 and 2017) and since previous international studies have shown a relationship between divorced parents and adolescents' addiction to smoking, alcohol, and the internet, assessing the background of the Lebanese situation was deemed necessary. The study objective was to investigate the association between the divorce of parents and smoking, alcohol, and internet addiction among a representative sample of Lebanese adolescents. METHODS:This study was a cross-sectional, conducted between January and May 2019 using a proportionate random sample of schools from all Lebanese Mohafazat. Out of 2000 questionnaires distributed; 1810 (90.5%) were completed and collected back. RESULTS:The mean age was 15.42?±?1.14?years, with 53.3% females and 74.1% smokers. In addition, 11.9% [95% CI 0.104-0.134] of the adolescents had separated/divorced parents. Divorce in parents was significantly associated with higher alcohol use disorder (Beta?=?8.035), higher cigarette dependence (Beta?=?2.767) and a higher waterpipe dependence (Beta?=?5.263) in adolescents. However, divorce in parents was not associated with internet addiction in adolescents. CONCLUSION:Parental divorce is correlated to higher alcohol and smoking, but not internet addiction among adolescents. Children whose parents are divorced should be subject to continuous follow-up by their parents and by a psychiatrist/psychologist in order not to develop an addiction that could potentially harm them.
Project description:Insecure attachment is a predisposing risk factor for the development of functional neurological disorder (FND). There is limited research investigating connections between attachment styles, other predisposing vulnerabilities, and symptom severity in patients with motor FND. By using a within-group design with prospective data collection, the authors performed univariate tests followed by multivariate linear regressions to investigate neuropsychiatric factors associated with four attachment styles (secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing) among 56 patients with motor FND (mean age=40.2 years [SD=13.0]; women, N=41; men, N=15). In univariate analyses, fearful attachment style was associated with self-reported adverse life event burden, alexithymia, dissociation, depression, anxiety, impaired stress coping skills, functional neurologic symptom severity, and marital status. In a multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis, childhood abuse, alexithymia, depression, and not being married independently predicted fearful attachment. In a post hoc analysis, childhood sexual and emotional abuse were each independently associated with fearful attachment tendencies. There were no independent predictors of secure, preoccupied, or dismissing attachment styles in this study population. Future studies with larger cohorts are needed to investigate nuanced relationships among predisposing vulnerabilities for the development of FND, as well as potential links between risk factors, functional neurologic symptom severity, and clinical outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-C is well shown in tobacco users, as compared to non-tobacco users. The additive effects of waterpipe and cigarette smoking on LDL levels have not been studied. The study's objective was to assess the correlation between cigarette smoking and LDL levels in Lebanese cigarette smokers and to check the interaction effect of waterpipe and cigarette smoking on LDL levels. METHODS:This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2016 and February 2017 in 4 different laboratories, enrolling 308 patients (188 non-smokers, 105 cigarette smokers, 15 previous smokers). RESULTS:Current cigarette smoking (Beta=25.57; p<0.0001) was significantly associated with higher LDL levels and higher total cholesterol levels (Beta=53.29; p<0.0001) in exclusive cigarette smokers. Among current cigarette smokers who were current waterpipe smokers, a significant increase in LDL level was observed relative to current cigarette smokers who were not waterpipe smokers (Beta=66.64 vs Beta=37.37; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION:Among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, LDL levels increased relative to nonsmokers, consistent with findings in other populations. In addition, among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, current waterpipe smoking might increase adverse lipid profiles associated with adverse coronary effects more than cigarette smoking alone. The direct cause responsible for these observed variations in our study remains unidentified, with the hope that future research will reveal it.
Project description:Research examining the development of online addictions has grown greatly over the last decade with many studies suggesting both risk factors and protective factors. In an attempt to integrate the theories of attachment and identity formation, the present study investigated the extent to which identity styles and attachment orientations account for three types of online addiction (i.e., internet addiction, online gaming addiction, and social media addiction). The sample comprised 712 Italian students (381 males and 331 females) recruited from schools and universities who completed an offline self-report questionnaire. The findings showed that addictions to the internet, online gaming, and social media were interrelated and were predicted by common underlying risk and protective factors. Among identity styles, 'informational' and 'diffuse-avoidant' styles were risk factors, whereas 'normative' style was a protective factor. Among attachment dimensions, the 'secure' attachment orientation negatively predicted the three online addictions, and a different pattern of causal relationships were observed between the styles underlying 'anxious' and 'avoidant' attachment orientations. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that identity styles explained between 21.2 and 30% of the variance in online addictions, whereas attachment styles incrementally explained between 9.2 and 14% of the variance in the scores on the three addiction scales. These findings highlight the important role played by identity formation in the development of online addictions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While cigarette smoking has been considered the most relevant tobacco product worldwide, waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) has increased in prevalence globally and calls for more considerable attention now. However, little is known about WTS cessation knowledge and clinical practices among physicians, particularly in Lebanon. This study aims to examine the knowledge, barriers, and cessation practices of primary care practitioners towards WTS. METHODS:A cross-sectional study where an anonymous self-reported questionnaire was completed by physicians attending the Annual Conference of the Lebanese Society of Family Medicine for family medicine physicians, general practitioners, and internists in Lebanon. RESULTS:Out of 180 attendees, 105 primary care practitioners (PCPs) responded to the questionnaire. Only 38.1% of the physicians think similar techniques are used for the cessation of smoking of both cigarette and waterpipe. Similarly, 30.5% of the physicians believe that nicotine replacement therapy works in the cessation of waterpipe smoking. There was a statistically significant difference between the percentage of physicians who counsel for cigarette smoking and those who counsel for waterpipe smoking cessation (p?=?0.005) where 30% of the physicians tend to counsel against cigarette smoking more than waterpipe smoking. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows a difference in the attitude and behavior of PCPs towards cigarette and waterpipe smoking cessation. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge about water pipe smoking cessation techniques. There is a great room for continued medical education to PCPs in their private practice to improve their knowledge.
Project description:To understand the interplay between affective social information processing and its influence on mental states we investigated changes in functional connectivity (FC) patterns after audio exposure to emotional biographic narratives.While lying in the 7T MR scanner, 23 male participants listened to narratives of early childhood experiences of three persons, each having either a secure, dismissing, or preoccupied attachment representation. Directly after having listened to each of the prototypical narratives, participants underwent a 10-minute resting-state fMRI scan. To study changes in FC patterns between experimental conditions, three post-task conditions were compared to a baseline condition. Specific local alterations, as well as differences in connectivity patterns between distributed brain regions, were quantified using Network-based statistics (NBS) and graph metrics.Using NBS, a nine-region subnetwork showing reduced FC after having listened to the dismissing narrative was identified. Of this subnetwork, only the left Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) exhibited a decrease in the nodal graph metrics degree and strength exclusively after listening to the dismissing narrative. No other region showed post-task changes in nodal metrics. A post hoc analysis of dynamic characteristics of FC of the left SMA showed a significant decrease in the dismissing condition when compared with the other conditions in the first three minutes of the scan, but faded away in the two subsequent intervals the differences.Nodal metrics and NBS converge on reduced connectivity measures exclusively in left SMA in the dismissing condition, which may specifically reflect ongoing network changes underlying prolonged emotional reactivity to attachment-related processing.
Project description:A longstanding question for attachment theory and research is whether genetically based characteristics of the child influence the development of attachment security and its stability over time. This study attempted to replicate and extend recent findings indicating that the developmental stability of attachment security is moderated by oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genetic variants. Using longitudinal data from over 550 individuals, there was no evidence that OXTR rs53576 moderated the association between attachment security during early childhood and overall coherence of mind ("security") during the Adult Attachment Interview at age 18 years. Additional analyses involving a second commonly investigated OXTR variant (rs2254298) and indices of individuals' dismissing and preoccupied attachment states of mind also failed to provide robust evidence for oxytonergic moderation of the stability in attachment security across development. The discussion focuses on research strategies for investigating genetic contributions to attachment security across the life span.
Project description:Attachment experiences substantially influence emotional and cognitive development. Narratives comprising attachment-dependent content were proposed to modulate activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We studied the effects after listening to prototypical attachment narratives on wellbeing and countertransference-reactions in 149 healthy participants. Neural correlates of these cognitive-emotional schema activations were investigated in a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-study (23 healthy males) using functional connectivity (FC) analysis of the social approach network (seed regions: left and right Caudate Nucleus, CN). Reduced FC between left CN and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) represented a general effect of prior auditory stimulation. After presentation of the insecure-dismissing narrative, FC between left CN and bilateral temporo-parietal junction, and right dorsal posterior Cingulum was reduced, compared to baseline. Post-narrative FC-patterns of insecure-dismissing and insecure-preoccupied narratives differed in strength between left CN and right DLPFC. Neural correlates of the moderating effect of individual attachment anxiety were represented in a reduced CN-DLPFC FC as a function of individual neediness-levels. These findings suggest specific neural processing of prolonged mood-changes and schema activation induced by attachment-specific speech patterns. Individual desire for interpersonal proximity was predicted by attachment anxiety and furthermore modulated FC of the social approach network in those exposed to such narratives.
Project description:The ultimate goal of this research was twofold: (1) to investigate the associations between narcissism, intentions towards infidelity, and relationship satisfaction; and (2) to explore the moderating effect of attachment styles on the link between intentions towards infidelity and narcissism. The findings revealed that the link between narcissism and relationship satisfaction is fully mediated by intentions towards infidelity. Similarly, the full mediating effect of relationship satisfaction exists in the association between narcissism and intentions towards infidelity. Mediational analyses further revealed that narcissism is a predictor of intentions towards infidelity, and this link is moderated by preoccupied, fearful, and dismissive attachment styles. As the results indicate, narcissism plays a significant role in young adults' intimate relationships, and attachment styles have a moderating role in narcissism's effect on romantic relationships. Results and implications are discussed in light of the relevant research findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Waterpipe smoking has gained global popularity in recent years, especially among young people. However, there is a lack of empirical investigation into waterpipe smoking in East Asia. This study aimed to investigate the demographical and psycho-social characteristics and patterns of waterpipe smoking (WPS) among university students in Hong Kong. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted via online questionnaires administered to 1288 Hong Kong university students (mean age: 22.4 [SD?=?3.8]). Logistic regressions were used to compute adjusted odd ratios (aOR) for waterpipe ever-smoking in relation to respondents' characteristics. Moreover, multinomial logistic regression yielded adjusted RR (aRR) for four different smoking status (i.e., never, waterpipe-only, cigarette-only, and dual smoking) regarding the characteristics. RESULTS:23.8% of participants reported having ever smoked a waterpipe (vs. cigarette ever-smoking: 21.1%). Factors including being female (aOR:1.57; 95% CI: 1.22-2.02), older age (?24?years: 4.17; 1.35-12.93), frequent alcohol consumption (>monthly: 26.02; 10.91-62.09), and higher sensation-seeking behaviours (high level: 2.98;1.46-6.08) were associated with waterpipe ever-smokers. The study also identified that demographical and psycho-social characteristics were variably associated with students' smoking status. Particularly, more frequent alcohol consumption was most significantly associated with waterpipe-only smoking (aRR:45.73; 95% CI:11.44-182.73) (vs. cigarette-only smoking: 3.01; 1.76-5.14). CONCLUSIONS:WPS is the most common form of tobacco smoking among university students in Hong Kong, and characteristics unique to the population were identified. There is no legislation of relevant policies on WPS despite its concerning significance in public health among young people, therefore immediate action to monitor and control WPS is needed in Hong Kong.