Urinary expression of let-7c cluster as non-invasive tool to assess the risk of disease progression in patients with high grade non-muscle invasive bladder Cancer: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:High grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (HG-NMIBC) is a heterogeneous disease with variable risk of progression. Urinary microRNAs are promising biomarkers for BC detection and surveillance. Let-7c-5p miRNA, clustered with miR-99a-5p and -125b-5p, is deregulated in cancer, including BC. The aim of this study is to evaluate urinary let-7c cluster expression in Ta/T1 HG-NMIBC patients and its impact on progression-free survival (PFS). METHODS:Quantitative Real-Time-Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the let-7c cluster expression in 57 urine and 49 neoplastic paired tissue samples prospectively collected from transurethral resection (TUR) HG-NMIBC patients. Twenty urine and 10 bladder tissue samples were collected and analyzed as normal controls. QRT-PCR was also used to detect intra-/extra-cellular let-7c cluster in BC cells. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify urinary miRNAs cut-off values predicting T-stage and PFS. Uni/multivariable Cox regression was performed to identify predictors of PFS. A nomogram predicting progression risk and a decision curve analysis (DCA) were performed. RESULTS:Urinary let-7c was significantly up-regulated in patients compared with controls, while the whole cluster was down-regulated in tumor tissues. Supporting these findings, in vitro comparison of extra-/intra-cellular ratios of cluster levels between BC cells, showed a higher ratio for let-7c in HG-NMIBC versus low-grade cells. Urinary let-7c cluster expression was increased in higher T-stage and was an independent predictor of progression. Lower EORTC-score and downregulation of urinary cluster were predictors of higher PFS on univariable Cox regression, while on multivariable analysis only cluster expression was an independent progression predictor. On DCA, a benefit was evident for patients with a PFS probability >?20%. CONCLUSIONS:Urinary let-7c cluster evaluation may improve prognosis, identifying patients at risk of progression and addressing early radical treatment.
Project description:Bladder cancer (BC) is still characterized by a very high death rate in patients with this disease. One of the reasons for this is the lack of adequate markers which could help determine the biological potential of the tumor to develop into its invasive stage. It has been found that some microRNAs (miRNAs) correlate with disease progression. The purpose of this study was to identify which miRNAs can accurately predict the presence of BC and can differentiate low grade (LG) tumors from high grade (HG) tumors. The study included 55 patients with diagnosed bladder cancer and 30 persons belonging to the control group. The expression of seven selected miRNAs was estimated with the real-time PCR technique according to miR-103-5p (for the normalization of the results). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the feasibility of using selected markers as biomarkers for detecting BC and discriminating non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) from muscle invasive BC (MIBC). For HG tumors, the relevant classifiers are miR-205-5p and miR-20a-5p, whereas miR-205-5p and miR-182-5p are for LG (AUC = 0.964 and AUC = 0.992, respectively). NMIBC patients with LG disease are characterized by significantly higher miR-130b-3p expression values compared to patients in HG tumors.
Project description:High-grade (HG) bladder cancers (BCs) are genetically unstable and have an unpredictable course. The identification of prognostic factors in HG non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) is crucial for improving patients' quality of life and preventing BC-specific mortality. Here, we used an antibody microarray (AbM) to identify novel candidate biomarkers in primary HG NMIBC and validated the prognostic significance of the candidate biomarkers. Three pairs of tissue samples from primary HG NMIBC and normal urothelium were analyzed using an AbM kit containing 656 antibodies, and differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among the 42 upregulated and 14 downregulated proteins with statistical significance in BC tissues, CREB-binding protein and CD81 were selected as representative upregulated and downregulated candidate biomarkers, respectively. We then validated the expression of these candidate biomarkers in primary human urothelial cells and BC cell lines by western blotting and immunofluorescence assays, and the results were consistent with the AbM expression profiles. Additionally, Kaplan-Meier survival using immunohistochemical data from an independent primary HG NMIBC cohort comprising 113 patients showed that expression of the 2 biomarkers was significantly associated with recurrence-free and progression-free survival. In multivariate analysis, the 2 biomarkers remained significant predictors for recurrence-free survival. Taken together, our findings suggest that expression of CREB-binding protein and CD81 in BC tissue specimens may have prognostic value in patients with primary HG NMIBC.
Project description:Urinary microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers for the noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). In this study, we aimed to develop a urinary miRNAs panel for diagnosing and predicting recurrence of BC. Genome-wide miRNAs analysis by deep sequencing followed by two phases of quantitative real-time PCR assays were performed on urine supernatant of 276 BC patients and 276 controls. We identified a seven-miRNA panel (miR-7-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-126-5p, miR-200a-3p, miR-375, and miR-423-5p) that provided high diagnostic accuracy of BC with an AUC of 0.923 and 0.916 in training and validation set, respectively. The corresponding AUCs of this panel for Ta, T1 and T2-T4 were 0.864, 0.930 and 0.978, significantly higher than those of urine cytology, which were 0.531, 0.628 and 0.724, respectively (all p < 0.05). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that nonmuscle-invasive BC (NMIBC) patients with high miR-22-3p and low miR-200a-3p level had worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p = 0.002 and 0.040, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that miR-22-3p and miR-200a-3p were independently associated with RFS of NMIBC (p = 0.024 and 0.008, respectively). In conclusion, our results suggested that urinary miRNAs may have considerable clinical value in diagnosis and recurrence prediction of BC.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate whether elevated urinary HAI-1, EpCAM and EGFR are independent prognostic biomarkers within non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients, and have utility for risk stratification to facilitate treatment decisions.<h4>Results</h4>After accounting for EAU risk group in NMIBC patients, the risk of BC-specific death was 2.14 times higher (95% CI: 1.08 to 4.24) if HAI-1 was elevated and 2.04 times higher (95% CI: 1.02 to 4.07) if EpCAM was elevated. The majority of events occurred in the high-risk NMIBC group and this is where the biggest difference is seen in the survival curves when plotted for EAU risk groups separately. In MIBC patients, being elevated for any of the three biomarkers was significantly associated with BC-specific mortality after accounting for other risk factors, HR = 4.30 (95% CI: 1.85 to 10.03).<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Urinary levels of HAI-1, EpCAM and EGFR were measured by ELISA in 683 and 175 patients with newly-diagnosed NMIBC and MIBC, respectively, recruited to the Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme. Associations between biomarkers and progression, BC-specific mortality and all-cause mortality were evaluated using univariable and multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for European Association of Urology (EAU) NMIBC risk groups. The upper 25% of values for each biomarker within NMIBC patients were considered as elevated. Exploratory analyses in urine from MIBC patients were also undertaken.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Urinary HAI-1 and EpCAM are prognostic biomarkers for NMIBC patients. These biomarkers have potential to guide treatment decisions for high-risk NMIBC patients. Further analyses are required to define the roles of HAI-1, EpCAM and EGFR in MIBC patients.
Project description:Bladder cancer (BC), the most frequent malignancy of the urinary system, is ranked the sixth most prevalent cancer worldwide. Of all newly diagnosed patients with BC, 70-75% will present disease confined to the mucosa or submucosa, the non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC) subtype. Of those, approximately 70% will recur after transurethral resection (TUR). Due to high rate of recurrence, patients are submitted to an intensive follow-up program maintained throughout many years, or even throughout life, resulting in an expensive follow-up, with cystoscopy being the most cost-effective procedure for NMIBC screening. Currently, the gold standard procedure for detection and follow-up of NMIBC is based on the association of cystoscopy and urine cytology. As cystoscopy is a very invasive approach, over the years, many different noninvasive assays (both based in serum and urine samples) have been developed in order to search genetic and protein alterations related to the development, progression, and recurrence of BC. TERT promoter mutations and FGFR3 hotspot mutations are the most frequent somatic alterations in BC and constitute the most reliable biomarkers for BC. Based on these, we developed an ultra-sensitive, urine-based assay called Uromonitor®, capable of detecting trace amounts of TERT promoter (c.1-124C > T and c.1-146C > T) and FGFR3 (p.R248C and p.S249C) hotspot mutations, in tumor cells exfoliated to urine samples. Cells present in urine were concentrated by the filtration of urine through filters where tumor cells are trapped and stored until analysis, presenting long-term stability. Detection of the alterations was achieved through a custom-made, robust, and highly sensitive multiplex competitive allele-specific discrimination PCR allowing clear interpretation of results. In this study, we validate a test for NMIBC recurrence detection, using for technical validation a total of 331 urine samples and 41 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of the primary tumor and recurrence lesions from a large cluster of urology centers. In the clinical validation, we used 185 samples to assess sensitivity/specificity in the detection of NMIBC recurrence vs. cystoscopy/cytology and in a smaller cohort its potential as a primary diagnostic tool for NMIBC. Our results show this test to be highly sensitive (73.5%) and specific (93.2%) in detecting recurrence of BC in patients under surveillance of NMIBC.
Project description:Current prognostic tools for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) do not have enough discriminative capacity to predict the risk of tumour progression. This study aimed to identify urinary cell microRNAs that may be useful as non-invasive predictive biomarkers of tumour progression in NMIBC patients. To this end, 210 urine samples from NMIBC patients were included in the study. RNA was extracted from urinary cells and expression of 8 microRNAs, previously described by our group, was analysed by quantitative PCR. A tumour progression predicting model was developed by Cox regression analysis and validated by bootstrapping. Regression analysis identified miR-140-5p and miR-92a-3p as independent predictors of tumour progression. The risk score derived from the model containing these two microRNAs was able to discriminate between two groups with a highly significant different probability of tumour progression (HR, 5.204; p<0.001) which was maintained when patients were stratified according to tumour risk. The algorithm was also able to identify two groups with different cancer-specific survival (HR, 3.879; p=0.021). Although the data needs to be externally validated, miRNA analysis in urine appears to be a valuable prognostic tool in NMIBC patients.
Project description:Bladder cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignancy of the urinary tract with a high incidence in men and smokers. Currently, there are no non-invasive markers useful for BC diagnosis and subtypes classification that could overcome invasive procedures such as cystoscopy. Dysregulated miRNA profiles have been associated with numerous cancers, including BC. Cell-free miRNAs are abundantly present in a variety of biofluids including urine and make them promising candidates in cancer biomarker discovery. In the present study, the identification of miRNA fingerprints associated with different BC status was performed by next-generation sequencing on urine samples from 66 BC and 48 controls. Three signatures based on dysregulated miRNAs have been identified by regression models, assessing the power to discriminate different BC subtypes. Altered miRNAs according to invasiveness and grade were validated by qPCR on 112 cases and 65 controls (among which 46 cases and 16 controls were an independent group of subjects while the rest were replica samples). The area under the curve (AUC) computed including three miRNAs (miR-30a-5p, let-7c-5p and miR-486-5p) altered in all BC subtypes showed a significantly increased accuracy in the discrimination of cases and controls (AUC model = 0.70; p-value = 0.01). In conclusions, the non-invasive detection in urine of a selected number of miRNAs altered in different BC subtypes could lead to an accurate early diagnosis of cancer and stratification of patients.
Project description:A history of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in first-degree relatives increases UBC risk by twofold. The influence of positive family history on UBC prognosis is unknown. Here, we investigated association of first-degree UBC family history with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of UBC patients. Detailed clinical data of 1,465 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 250 muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (MIBC) patients, diagnosed from 1995 to 2010, were collected through medical file review. Competing risk analyses were used to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of NMIBC patients according to self-reported UBC family history. Overall survival in MIBC patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The added value of family history in prediction of NMIBC prognosis was quantified with Harrell's concordance-index. Hundred (6.8%) NMIBC and 14 (5.6%) MIBC patients reported UBC in first-degree relatives. Positive family history was statistically significantly associated with smaller tumor size and non-significantly with more favorable distribution of other tumor characteristics. In univariable analyses, positive family history correlated with longer RFS (p = 0.11) and PFS (p = 0.04). Hazard ratios for positive vs. negative family history after adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics were 0.75 (95% CI = 0.53-1.07) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.18-1.12) for RFS and PFS, respectively. Five familial and 48 sporadic MIBC patients (Kaplan-Meier 10-year risk: 41% and 25%) died within 10 years. Family history did not improve the c-index of prediction models. This study shows that a first-degree family history of UBC is not clearly associated with NMIBC prognosis. Family history does not aid in prediction of NMIBC recurrence or progression.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Clinical outcomes of bladder cancer (BC) are tightly associated with the stage and grade of the initial diagnosis of BC because early detection is clearly important for patients with BC. However, the diagnostic capability of current detection methods, such as urinary cytology, cystoscopy, imageology method, and several urine-based tests, is inadequate for early detection of BC. The objective of our study is to discover novel biomarkers for detecting BC at an early stage, called non-muscle invasive (NMI) BC, using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS)-based metabolomics. <b>Methods:</b> First, morning midstream urine samples were collected from healthy adult and NMIBC patients. The LC-HRMS-based metabolomics were applied to distinguish the NMIBC group without hematuria from the controls (gender- and age-matched volunteers with normal clinically healthy index), low-grade NMIBC from the controls, and high-grade from low-grade NMIBC. <b>Results:</b> A total of 284 subjects were enrolled in our study including 117 healthy adults, 80 NMIBC patients without hematuria, and 87 NMIBC patients with hematuria. The metabolite panel including dopamine 4-sulfate, MG00/1846Z,9Z,12Z,15Z/00, aspartyl-histidine, and tyrosyl-methionine was found in a discovery set, which showed the predictive ability to distinguish the NMIBC group from the control group with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.838 in an external validation set. The AUC of the panel for low-grade NMIBC samples, which consisted of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-tetradecenoylcarnitine, 6-ketoestriol, beta-cortolone, tetrahydrocorticosterone, and heptylmalonic acid, was 0.899. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.881 and 0.786, respectively. The AUC of the panel for distinction of low-grade NMIBC with and without hematuria against high-grade NMIBC with and without hematuria were 0.827 and 0.755, respectively. In addition, metabolites involved in tryptophan metabolism were upregulated in the urine of high-grade NMIBC patients when compared with low-grade NMIBC patients with the presence or absence of hematuria. <b>Conclusion:</b> The NMIBC urine metabolic profiling was able to assist in the early detection of BC. Panels of metabolites were discovered to have a potential value for high-grade NMIBC and low-grade NMIBC diagnosis as well as for NMIBC grading distinction.
Project description:Screening for genes or markers relevant to bladder cancer (BC) tumorigenesis and progression is of vital clinical significance. The present study used reverse-transcription quantitative PCR reaction assays to examine the expression of mRNA encoding Rho GTPase-activating protein 9 (ARHGAP9) in BC tissue samples and to determine whether ARHGAP9 is an independent prognostic biomarker for non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) and muscle invasive BC (MIBC). The results revealed that the downregulation of ARHGAP9 expression in the tissue of patients with NMIBC or MIBC was significantly associated with a poor prognosis. In patients with NMIBC, a high expression of ARHGAP9 was significantly associated with prolonged recurrence-free survival, whereas in MIBC patients, it was significantly associated with an increased progression-free and cancer-specific survival. The risk of cancer-specific death was 2.923 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.192-7.163) when ARHGAP9 levels were decreased. In conclusion, lower expressions of ARHGAP9 correlated with BC prognosis, indicating that it may be a useful marker for guiding treatment application.