Reduction in Exposure to Selected Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents Approaching Those Observed Upon Smoking Abstinence in Smokers Switching to the Menthol Tobacco Heating System 2.2 for 3 Months (Part 1).
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:The Tobacco Heating System (THS) is a "heat-not-burn" tobacco product designed to generate significantly lower levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) and present lower risk of harm than cigarettes. This study assessed the exposure reduction to selected HPHCs in smokers switching to menthol Tobacco Heating System (mTHS) 2.2 compared with smokers continuing smoking menthol cigarettes (mCCs) and smoking abstinence (SA) for 5 days in a confined setting, followed by an 86-day ambulatory period. METHODS:A total of 160 healthy adult US smokers participated in this randomized, three-arm parallel group, controlled clinical study. Biomarkers of exposure to 16 HPHCs were measured in blood and 24-hour urine. Safety was monitored throughout the study. Information was also gathered on product evaluation, product use, subjective effects, and clinical risk markers (co-publication Part 2). RESULTS:Nicotine uptake was comparable in both exposure groups (mTHS:mCC ratio of 96% on day 90). On day 5, biomarker of exposure levels to other HPHCs were reduced by 51%-96% in the mTHS group compared with the mCC group, and these reductions were sustained for most biomarkers of exposure over ambulatory period. After 90 days of use, the level of satisfaction with mTHS and suppression of urge to smoke were comparable to mCC. CONCLUSION:Switching from mCCs to mTHS significantly reduced the exposure to HPHCs to levels approaching those observed in subjects who abstained from smoking for the duration of the study. IMPLICATIONS:This study compared the impact of switching to mTHS on biomarkers of exposure, relative to continued smoking or SA. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01989156 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
Project description:Introduction:The menthol Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (mTHS) is a newly developed candidate modified-risk tobacco product intended to reduce exposure to the harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) of conventional cigarette (CC) smoke. This study examined the impact of switching to mTHS on biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs relative to menthol CCs (mCCs) and smoking abstinence (SA). Methods:In this three-arm, parallel-group study, 160 Japanese adult smokers (23-65 years; smoking ?10 mCCs per day) were randomized to mTHS (n = 78), mCC (n = 42), or SA (n = 40) for 5 days in confinement and 85 days in ambulatory settings. Endpoints included biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs, human puffing topography, safety, and subjective effects of smoking measures. Results:After 5 days of product use, the concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid, monohydroxybutenyl mercapturic acid, and S-phenylmercapturic acid were 55%, 49%, 87%, and 89% lower (p < .001), respectively, in the mTHS group than in the mCC group. Other biomarkers of exposure (measured as secondary endpoints) were 50%-94% lower in the mTHS group than in the mCC group on day 5. These reductions in the mTHS group were maintained at day 90, similar to the SA group. Switching to mTHS was associated with changes in human puffing topography (shorter puff intervals and more frequent puffs). The urge-to-smoke and smoking satisfaction levels on day 90 were similar in the mTHS and the mCC groups. Conclusion:Switching from mCCs to mTHS significantly reduced exposure to HPHCs relative to continuing smoking mCCs with concentrations similar to those observed following SA in Japanese adult smokers. Implications:This randomized study compared the impact of switching to a modified-risk tobacco product candidate mTHS on biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs of cigarette smoke relative to continuing smoking cigarettes or abstaining from smoking in sequential confinement and ambulatory settings. The study showed that switching to mTHS was associated with significant biomarker reductions within 5 days in confinement, these reductions being maintained throughout the ambulatory setting up to day 90. The results provide evidence that switching to mTHS reduces real-life exposure to HPHCs in adult smokers.
Project description:Introduction:Modified-risk tobacco products are expected to reduce exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents of cigarette smoke, and ultimately reduce the health burden of smoking-related diseases. Clinically relevant risk markers of smoking-related diseases inform about the risk profile of new tobacco products in the absence of in-market epidemiological data. The menthol Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (mTHS) is a modified-risk tobacco product in development as an alternative to cigarettes (conventional cigarettes [CCs]). Methods:In this parallel-group study, Japanese adult smokers (23-65 years; ?10 mCCs/day) were randomized to mTHS, menthol CCs (mCC), or smoking abstinence (SA) for 5 days in confinement and 85 days in ambulatory settings. Endpoints included biomarkers of exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents and clinically relevant risk markers of smoking-related diseases. Results:One-hundred and sixty participants were randomized to the mTHS (n = 78), mCC (n = 42), and SA (n = 40) groups. Switching to the mTHS was associated with reductions in biomarkers of exposure compared with continuing mCCs. Reductions in 8-epi-prostaglandin F2? (biomarker of oxidative stress), 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (biomarker of platelet activation), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (biomarker of endothelial function), and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (biomarker of lipid metabolism) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (biomarker of lung function) occurred in the mTHS group compared with the mCC group. The changes in the mTHS group approached those in the SA group. Conclusions:Switching from mCCs to mTHS was associated with improvements in clinically relevant risk markers linked to mechanistic pathways involved in smoking-related diseases. Implications:In this three-way randomized study, switching from menthol cigarettes to mTHS for 5 days in confinement and 85 days in ambulatory settings was associated with reductions in biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoke, and changes were observed in clinically relevant biomarkers of oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2?), platelet activity (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2), endothelial function (soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1), lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), similar to the SA group. The results suggest that switching to the mTHS has the potential to reduce the adverse health effects of conventional cigarettes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, aims at offering an alternative to cigarettes for smokers while substantially reducing the exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke. METHODS:One hundred and sixty healthy adult US smokers participated in this randomized, three-arm parallel group, controlled clinical study. Subjects were randomized in a 2:1:1 ratio to menthol Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (mTHS), menthol cigarette, or smoking abstinence for 5 days in confinement and 86 subsequent ambulatory days. Endpoints included biomarkers of exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents (reported in our co-publication, Part 1) and biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH). RESULTS:Compliance (protocol and allocated product exposure) was 51% and 18% in the mTHS and smoking abstinence arms, respectively, on day 90. Nonetheless, favorable changes in BOPHs of lipid metabolism (total cholesterol and high- and low-density cholesterol), endothelial dysfunction (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2?), and cardiovascular risk factors (eg, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were observed in the mTHS group. Favorable effects in other BOPHs, including ones related to platelet activation (11-dehydrothromboxane B2) and metabolic syndrome (glucose), were more pronounced in normal weight subjects. CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that the reduced exposure demonstrated when switching to mTHS is associated with overall improvements in BOPHs, which are indicative of pathomechanistic pathways underlying the development of smoking-related diseases, with some stronger effects in normal weight subjects. IMPLICATIONS:Switching to mTHS was associated with favorable changes for some BOPHs indicative of biological pathway alterations (eg, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction). The results suggest that switching to mTHS has the potential to reduce the adverse health effects of smoking and ultimately the risk of smoking-related diseases. Switching to mTHS for 90 days led to reductions in a number of biomarkers of exposure in smokers, relative to those who continued smoking cigarettes, which were close to those observed when stopping smoking (reported in our co-publication, Part 1). Initial findings suggest reduced levels of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2? and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, when switching to mTHS for 90 days. These changes are comparable to what is observed upon smoking cessation. In normal weight subjects, additional favorable changes were seen in 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, fibrinogen, homocysteine, hs-CRP, percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A1, and triglycerides. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01989156.
Project description:Tobacco harm reduction aims to provide reduced risk alternatives to adult smokers who would otherwise continue smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). This randomized, open-label, three-arm, parallel-group, single-center, short-term confinement study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) of cigarette smoke in adult smokers who switched to a carbon-heated tobacco product (CHTP) compared with adult smokers who continued to smoke CCs and those who abstained from smoking for 5 days.Biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs, including nicotine and urinary excretion of mutagenic material, were measured in 24-hour urine and blood samples in 112 male and female Caucasian smokers switching from CCs to the CHTP ad libitum use. Puffing topography was assessed during product use.Switching to the CHTP or smoking abstinence (SA) resulted in marked decreases from baseline to Day 5 in all biomarkers of exposure measured, including carboxyhemoglobin (43% and 55% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). The urinary excretion of mutagenic material was also markedly decreased on Day 5 compared with baseline (89% and 87% decrease in the CHTP and SA groups, respectively). No changes in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs or urinary mutagenic material were observed between baseline and Day 5 in the CC group.Our results provide clear evidence supporting a reduction in the level of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in smokers who switch to CHTP under controlled conditions, similar to that observed in SA.The reductions observed in biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs of tobacco smoke in this short-term study could potentially also reduce the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in those smokers who switch to a heated tobacco product.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to use inserts to communicate with consumers about harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products; however, little is known about the most effective manner for presenting HPHC information. METHODS:In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link). For each choice set, participants were asked: (1) which package is more harmful and (2) which motivates them to not smoke; each with a 'no difference' option. Alternative-specific logit models regressed choice on attribute levels. RESULTS:1212 participants were recruited from an online consumer panel (725 18-29-year-old smokers and susceptible non-smokers and 487 30-64-year-old smokers). Participants were more likely to endorse high-tar products as more harmful than low-tar products, with a greater effect when numeric HPHC information was present. Compared with a simple warning statement, the statement linking HPHCs with disease encouraged quit motivation. CONCLUSIONS:Numeric HPHC information on inserts appears to produce misunderstandings that some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Furthermore, brief narratives that link HPHCs to smoking-related disease may promote cessation versus communications that do not explicitly link HPHCs to disease.
Project description:As part of current harm reduction strategies, candidate modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) are developed to offer adult smokers who want to continue using tobacco product an alternative to cigarettes while potentially reducing individual risk and population harm compared to smoking cigarettes. One of these candidate MRTPs is the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2 which does not burn tobacco, but instead heats it, thus producing significantly reduced levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) compared with combustible cigarettes (CC). A controlled, parallel group, open-label clinical study was conducted with subjects randomized to three monitored groups: (1) switching from CCs to THS2.2; (2) continuous use of non-menthol CC brand (CC arm); or (3) smoking abstinence (SA arm) for five days. Exposure response was assessed by measuring biomarkers of exposure to selected HPHCs. To complement the classical exposure response measurements, we have used the previously reported whole blood derived gene signature that can distinguish current smokers from either non-smokers or former smokers with high specificity and sensitivity. We tested the small signature consisting of only 11 genes on the blood transcriptome of subjects enrolled in the clinical study and showed a reduced exposure response in subjects that either stopped smoking or switched to a candidate MRTP, the THS2.2, compared with subjects who continued smoking their regular tobacco product.
Project description:Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject's usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29-95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25-40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7-38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1-20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75-96%) and exclusive use groups (11-83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88-89% and 27-32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46-63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Because 30% of cigarettes sold in the United States are characterized as menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand how menthol preference may affect the impact of a nicotine reduction policy.<h4>Methods</h4>In a recent trial, non-treatment-seeking smokers were randomly assigned to receive very low nicotine cigarettes (VLNC; 0.4 mg nicotine/g tobacco) or normal nicotine cigarettes (NNC; 15.5 mg/g) for 20 weeks. On the basis of preference, participants received menthol or non-menthol cigarettes. We conducted multivariable regression analyses to examine whether menthol preference moderated the effects of nicotine content on cigarettes per day (CPD), breath carbon monoxide (CO), urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE), urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA), and abstinence.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, menthol smokers (n = 346) reported smoking fewer CPD (14.9 vs. 19.2) and had lower TNE (52.8 vs. 71.6 nmol/mg) and CO (17.7 vs. 20.5 ppm) levels than non-menthol smokers (n = 406; ps < .05). At week 20, significant interactions indicated that menthol smokers had smaller treatment effects than non-menthol smokers for CPD (-6.4 vs. -9.3), TNE (ratio of geometric means, 0.22 vs. 0.10) and CEMA (ratio, 0.56 vs. 0.37; ps < .05), and trended toward a smaller treatment effect for CO (-4.5 vs. -7.3 ppm; p = .06). Odds ratios for abstinence at week 20 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8 to 4.4) for menthol and 9.11 (95% CI = 3.3 to 25.2) for non-menthol VLNC smokers (p = .02) relative to the NNC condition.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although menthol smokers experienced reductions in smoking, toxicant exposure, and increases in quitting when using VLNC cigarettes, the magnitude of change was smaller than that observed for non-menthol smokers.<h4>Implications</h4>Results of this analysis suggest that smokers of menthol cigarettes may respond to a nicotine reduction policy with smaller reductions in smoking rates and toxicant exposure than would smokers of non-menthol cigarettes.
Project description:In addition to smoking cessation, for those who would otherwise continue to smoke, replacing cigarettes with less harmful alternatives can reduce the harms of smoking. Heating instead of burning tobacco reduces, or eliminates, the formation of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) that are found in cigarette smoke. The Carbon-Heated Tobacco Product (CHTP), a heat-not-burn tobacco product, mimics the cigarette smoking ritual. This randomized, open-label, two-arm, parallel-group, short-term confinement study tested the hypothesis that the geometric means of the BoExp levels for subjects switching to CHTP 1.0 for 5 days are lower relative to those continuing to smoke cigarettes. Biomarkers of exposure (BoExp), including nicotine, urinary excretion of mutagenic constituents (Ames test), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 activity, were measured in blood and/or 24-h urine samples during ad libitum product use. Nicotine exposure remained at similar levels in individuals using CHTP as in those continuing to smoke cigarettes. Switching to CHTP resulted in marked decreases in all other urinary BoExp (56-97%), carboxyhemoglobin (59%), urinary mutagenic constituents, and CYP1A2 activity compared with continued cigarette smoking. Our results provide evidence of decreased exposure to 15 selected HPHCs in smokers switching from cigarettes to exclusive CHTP use.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02503254; Date of first registration: 20/07/2015 https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02503254 .Study protocol Study protocol published at: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ProvidedDocs/54/NCT02503254/Prot_000.pdf .