Depression, cognitive, and functional outcomes of Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) in older adults with major depression and mild cognitive deficits.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Antidepressants have limited efficacy in older adults with depression and cognitive impairment, and psychosocial interventions for this population have been inadequately investigated. Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) is a psychosocial intervention for older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. DESIGN:This study tests the efficacy of PATH versus Supportive Therapy for Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI) in reducing depression (Montgamery Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS]) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessments Schedule-II [WHODAS-II]) and improving cognitive outcomes (Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE]) over 24 weeks (12 weeks of treatment and 12-week post-treatment follow-up). SETTING:Participants were recruited through collaborating community agencies of Weill Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry. Both interventions and all research assessments were conducted at home. PARTICIPANTS:Thirty-five older adults (age ? 65 years) with major depression and cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND). INTERVENTIONS:PATH aims to increase emotion regulation by incorporating a problem-solving approach, teaching compensatory strategies, and inviting caregiver participation. Supportive Therapy aims to facilitate the expression of affect, as well as promote empathy. MEASUREMENTS:Depression was measured using the MADRS, disability using the WHODAS-II, and cognition using the MMSE. RESULTS:PATH participants showed significantly greater reduction in MADRS total score (7.04 points at 24 weeks, treatment group by time interaction: F[1,24.4] = 7.61, p = 0.0108), greater improvement in MMSE total score (2.30 points at 24 weeks, treatment group by time interaction: F[1,39.8] = 13.31, p = 0.0008), and greater improvement in WHODAS-II total score (2.95 points at 24 weeks, treatment group by time interaction: F[1,89] = 4.93, p = 0.0290) than ST-CI participants over the 24-week period. CONCLUSIONS:PATH participants had better depression, cognitive, and disability outcomes than ST-CI participants over 6 months. PATH may provide relief to depressed older adults with CIND who currently have limited treatment options.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship of negative emotions with suicidal ideation during 12 weeks of Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) versus Supportive Therapy of Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI), hypothesizing that improved negative emotions are associated with reduced suicidal ideation, PATH improves negative emotions more than ST-CI, and improved negative emotions, rather than other depression symptoms, predict reduction in suicidal ideation. METHODS:In a randomized controlled trial of two home-delivered psychosocial interventions, 74 older participants (65-95 years old) with major depressive disorder and cognitive impairment were recruited in collaboration with community agencies. The sample reported less intense feelings than suicidal intention. Interventions and assessments were conducted in participants' homes. PATH focuses on improving emotion regulation, whereas ST-CI focuses on nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as understanding and empathy. Improved negative emotions were measured as improvement in Montgomery Asberg's Depression Rating Scales' (MADRS) observer ratings of sadness, anxiety, guilt, hopelessness, and anhedonia. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the MADRS Suicide Item. RESULTS:MADRS Negative Emotions scores were significantly associated with suicidal ideation during the course of treatment (F[1,165]?=?12.73, p?=?0.0005). PATH participants had significantly greater improvement in MADRS emotions than ST-CI participants (treatment group by time: F[1,63.2]?=?7.02, p?=?0.0102). Finally, improved negative emotions, between lagged and follow-up interview, significantly predicted reduction in suicidal ideation at follow-up interview (F[1, 96]?=?9.95, p?=?0.0022). CONCLUSION:Findings thatimprovement in negative emotions mediates reduction in suicidal ideation may guide the development of psychosocial interventions for reduction of suicidal ideation (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00368940).
Project description:IMPORTANCE:Problem adaptation therapy (PATH) is a treatment for older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment (from mild cognitive deficits to moderate dementia), and disability. Antidepressants have limited efficacy in this population and psychosocial interventions are inadequately investigated. OBJECTIVE:To test the efficacy of 12-week PATH vs supportive therapy for cognitively impaired patients (ST-CI) in reducing depression and disability in 74 older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A randomized clinical trial at the Weill Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry from April 1, 2006, to September 31, 2011. Interventions were administered at the participants' homes. Participants included 74 older individuals (age ? 65 years) with major depression and cognitive impairment to the level of moderate dementia. They were recruited through collaborating community agencies of Weill Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry and were randomly assigned to 12 weekly sessions of PATH or ST-CI (14.8% attrition rate). INTERVENTIONS:Home-delivered PATH vs home-delivered ST-CI. Problem adaptation therapy integrates a problem-solving approach with compensatory strategies, environmental adaptations, and caregiver participation to improve patients' emotion regulation. Supportive therapy for cognitively impaired patients focuses on expression of affect, understanding, and empathy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Mixed-effects models for longitudinal data compared the efficacy of PATH with that of ST-CI in reducing depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II) during 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS:Participants in PATH had significantly greater reduction in depression (Cohen d, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.13-1.06; treatment × time, F(1,179) = 8.03; P =?.005) and disability (Cohen d, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.20-1.14; treatment × time, F(1,169) = 14.86; P =?.001) than ST-CI participants during the 12-week period (primary outcomes). Furthermore, PATH participants had significantly greater depression remission rates than ST-CI participants (37.84% vs 13.51%; ?(2) = 5.74; P =?.02; number needed to treat = 4.11) (secondary outcome). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Problem adaptation therapy was more efficacious than ST-CI in reducing depression and disability. Problem adaptation therapy may provide relief to a large group of depressed and cognitively impaired older adults who have few treatment options. TRIALS REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00368940.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cognitive and physical deficits independently raise the risk for negative events in older adults. Less is known about whether their co-occurrence constitutes a distinct risk profile. This study quantifies the association between cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND), slow walking speed (WS) and their combination and disability and mortality. METHODS:We examined 2546 dementia-free people aged ??60 years, part of the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) up to 12 years. The following four profiles were created: (1) healthy profile; (2) isolated CIND (scoring 1.5 SD below age-specific means on at least one cognitive domain); (3) isolated slow WS (<?0.8 m/s); (4) CIND+ slow WS. Disability was defined as the sum of impaired activities of daily living and trajectories of disability were derived from mixed-effect linear regression models. Piecewise proportional hazard models were used to estimate mortality rate [hazard ratios (HRs)]. Population attributable risks of death were calculated. RESULTS:Participants with both CIND and slow WS had the worst prognosis, especially in the short-term period. They experienced the steepest increase in disability and five times the mortality rate (HR 5.1; 95% CI 3.5-7.4) of participants free from these conditions. Similar but attenuated results were observed for longer follow-ups. Co-occurring CIND and slow WS accounted for 30% of short-term deaths. CONCLUSIONS:Co-occurring cognitive and physical limitations constitute a distinct risk profile in older people, and account for a large proportion of short-term deaths. Assessing cognitive and physical function could enable early identification of people at high risk for adverse events.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The relative contributions of depression, cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND), and dementia to the risk of potentially preventable hospitalizations in older adults are not well understood.<h4>Objective(s)</h4>To determine if depression, CIND, and/or dementia are each independently associated with hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) and rehospitalizations within 30 days after hospitalization for pneumonia, congestive heart failure (CHF), or myocardial infarction (MI).<h4>Design</h4>Prospective cohort study.<h4>Participants</h4>Population-based sample of 7,031 Americans?>?50 years old participating in the Health and Retirement Study (1998-2008).<h4>Main measures</h4>The eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and/or International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) depression diagnoses were used to identify baseline depression. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status and/or ICD-9-CM dementia diagnoses were used to identify baseline CIND or dementia. Primary outcomes were time to hospitalization for an ACSC and presence of a hospitalization within 30 days after hospitalization for pneumonia, CHF, or MI.<h4>Key results</h4>All five categories of baseline neuropsychiatric disorder status were independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization for an ACSC (depression alone: Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 1.18, 1.52; CIND alone: HR: 1.25, 95%CI: 1.10, 1.41; dementia alone: HR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.12, 1.55; comorbid depression and CIND: HR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.20, 1.69; comorbid depression and dementia: HR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.38, 2.00). Depression (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.84), comorbid depression and CIND (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.40, 2.81), or comorbid depression and dementia (OR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.06, 2.35) were independently associated with increased odds of rehospitalization within 30 days after hospitalization for pneumonia, CHF, or MI.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Depression, CIND, and dementia are each independently associated with potentially preventable hospitalizations in older Americans. Older adults with comorbid depression and cognitive impairment represent a particularly at-risk group that could benefit from targeted interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical frailty is a powerful tool for identifying nondisabled individuals at high risk of adverse outcomes. The extent to which cognitive impairment in those without dementia adds value to physical frailty in detecting high-risk individuals remains unclear. OBJECTIVES:To estimate the effects of combining physical frailty and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) on the risk of basic activities of daily living (ADL) dependence and death over 8 years. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:The Health and Retirement Study (HRS). PARTICIPANTS:A total of 7338 community-dwelling people, 65 years or older, without dementia and ADL dependence at baseline (2006-2008). Follow-up assessments occurred every 2 years until 2014. MEASUREMENTS:The five components of the Cardiovascular Health Study defined physical frailty. A well-validated HRS method, including verbal recall, series of subtractions, and backward count task, assessed cognition. Primary outcomes were time to ADL dependence and death. Hazard models, considering death as a competing risk, associated physical frailty and CIND with outcomes after adjusting for sociodemographics, comorbidities, depression, and smoking status. RESULTS:The prevalence of physical frailty was 15%; CIND, 19%; and both deficits, 5%. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, combining these factors identified older adults at an escalating risk for ADL dependence (no deficit = 14% [reference group]; only CIND = 26%, sub-hazard ratio [sHR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-1.8; only frail = 33%, sHR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.0; both deficits = 46%, sHR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.6-2.6) and death (no deficit = 21%; only CIND = 41%, HR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.4-1.9; only frail = 56%, HR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.7-2.7; both deficits = 66%, HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 2.0-3.3) over 8-year follow-up. Adding the cognitive measure to models that already included physical frailty alone increased accuracy in identifying those at higher risk of ADL dependence (Harrell's concordance [C], 0.74 vs 0.71; P < .001) and death (Harrell's C, 0.70 vs 0.67; P < .001). CONCLUSION:Physical frailty and CIND are independent predictors of incident disability and death. Because together physical frailty and CIND identify vulnerable older adults better, optimal risk assessment should supplement measures of physical frailty with measures of cognitive function. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:477-483, 2019.
Project description:The aim of the study was to address issues arising from fracture of the femoral neck in elderly individuals, the prevalence of which continues to increase in Japan. The prevalence is increasing in Japan and there have been many reports on physical functions such as prevention of a fall. However, there have been a few studies that focus on psycho-cognitive functions. We must examine factors in patients with fractured femur necks to develop methods to assist affected patients. The current study aimed to examine factors associated with psycho-cognitive functions after surgery for fractured femoral neck in the Japanese elderly.In this study, we examined the relationships among sex, age, fracture site, operative procedure, body mass index, lifestyle, psycho-cognitive functions, and types of pain in 142 patients, performed multiple regression analysis using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) scores as dependent variables, and created MMSE and MADRS models.Analysis of MMSE and MADRS models identified night pain and the number of family members as factors that affected mental function in a population with persistent pain for 1 week after surgery for fractured femoral neck. In addition, the number of family members was identified in multiple regression analysis models as a factor associated with psycho-cognitive functions. Pain, and night pain in particular, affect psycho-cognitive functions.We speculated that emotional changes were associated with number of family members. Patients living with family members maintained psycho-cognitive functions better than did those living alone, even when they experienced pain in their daily lives.
Project description:To determine if depression, cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND), and/or dementia are each independently associated with risk of ischemic stroke and to identify characteristics that could modify these associations.This retrospective-cohort study examined a population-based sample of 7031 Americans older than 50 years participating in the Health and Retirement Study (1998-2008) who consented to have their interviews linked to their Medicare claims. The eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and/or International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) depression diagnoses were used to identify baseline depression. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status and/or ICD-9-CM dementia diagnoses were used to identify baseline CIND or dementia. Hospitalizations for ischemic stroke were identified via ICD-9-CM diagnoses.After adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and health-risk behaviors, CIND alone (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.69) and co-occurring depression and CIND (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.24-2.18) were independently associated with increased odds of ischemic stroke. Depression alone was not associated with odds of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.88-1.40) in unadjusted analyses. Neither dementia alone (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.82-1.45) nor co-occurring depression and dementia (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.89-1.76) were associated with odds of ischemic stroke after adjusting for demographics.CIND and co-occurring depression and CIND are independently associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Individuals with co-occurring depression and CIND represent a high-risk group that may benefit from targeted interventions to prevent stroke.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>prevention of disability is an important aim of healthcare for older persons. Selection of persons at risk is a first crucial step in this process.<h4>Objectives</h4>this study investigates the predictive value of multimorbidity for the development of disability in the general population of very old people and the role of cognitive impairment in this association.<h4>Design</h4>the Leiden 85-plus Study (1997-2004) is an observational prospective cohort study with 5 years of follow-up.<h4>Setting</h4>general population of the city of Leiden, the Netherlands.<h4>Subjects</h4>population based sample of 594 participants aged 85 years.<h4>Methods</h4>disability in activities of daily living (ADL) was measured annually for 5 years with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (range 9-36, 9 = optimal). Multimorbidity is defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases at age 85 years. Cognitive function was measured at baseline with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).<h4>Results</h4>at baseline participants with multimorbidity had higher ADL disability scores compared with those without [median 11 inter-quartile range (IQR 9-16) versus 9 (IQR 9-13) ADL points, Mann-Whitney U test P < 0.001]. Stratified into four MMSE groups, ADL disability increased over time in all groups, even in participants without multimorbidity (P trend <0.001). Multimorbidity predicted accelerated increase in ADL disability in participants with MMSE of 28-30 points (n = 205, 0.67 points/year, P < 0.001), but not in participants with lower MMSE scores (all P > 0.100).<h4>Conclusion</h4>the predictive value of multimorbidity for the increase in ADL disability varies with cognitive function in very old people. In very old people with good cognitive function, multimorbidity predicts accelerated increase in ADL disability. This relation is absent in very old people with cognitive impairment.
Project description:Research on vascular depression has used 2 approaches to subtype late-life depression, based on executive dysfunction or white matter hyperintensity severity.To evaluate the relationship of neuropsychological performance and white matter hyperintensity with clinical response in late-life depression.Two-site, prospective, nonrandomized controlled trial.Outpatient clinics at Washington University and Duke University.A total of 217 subjects aged 60 years or older met DSM-IV criteria for major depression, scored 20 or more on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and received vascular risk factor scores, neuropsychological testing, and magnetic resonance imaging; they were excluded for cognitive impairment or severe medical disorders. Fazekas rating was conducted to grade white matter hyperintensity lesions. Intervention Twelve weeks of sertraline treatment, titrated by clinical response. Main Outcome Measure Participants' MADRS scores over time.Baseline neuropsychological factor scores correlated negatively with baseline Fazekas scores. A mixed model examined effects of predictor variables on MADRS scores over time. Baseline episodic memory (P = .002), language (P = .007), working memory (P = .01), processing speed (P < .001), executive function factor scores (P = .002), and categorical Fazekas ratings (P = .05) predicted MADRS scores, controlling for age, education, age of onset, and race. Controlling for baseline MADRS scores, these factors remained significant predictors of decrease in MADRS scores, except for working memory and Fazekas ratings. Thirty-three percent of subjects achieved remission (MADRS < or =7). Remitters differed from nonremitters in baseline cognitive processing speed, executive function, language, episodic memory, and vascular risk factor scores.Comprehensive neuropsychological function and white matter hyperintensity severity predicted MADRS scores prospectively over a 12-week treatment course with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in late-life depression. Baseline neuropsychological function differentiated remitters from nonremitters and predicted time to remission in a proportional hazards model. Predictor variables correlated highly with vascular risk factor severity. These data support the vascular depression hypothesis and highlight the importance of linking subtypes based on neuropsychological function and white matter integrity.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00045773.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Late-life depression (LLD) is characterized by poor antidepressant response and cognitive dysfunction. This study examined whether transdermal nicotine benefits mood symptoms and cognitive performance in LLD. METHODS:In a 12-week open-label outpatient study conducted between November 2016 and August 2017, transdermal nicotine was given to 15 nonsmoking older adults (? 60 years of age). Eligible participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive disorder with ? 15 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating scale (MADRS) and endorsed subjective cognitive impairment. Transdermal nicotine patches were applied daily and titrated in a rigid dose escalation strategy to a maximum dose of 21.0 mg/d, allowing dose reductions for tolerability. The primary mood outcome was MADRS change measured every 3 weeks, with response defined as ? 50% improvement from baseline and remission as MADRS score ? 8. The primary cognitive outcome was the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT), a test of attention. RESULTS:Robust rates of response (86.7%; 13/15 subjects) and remission (53.3%; 8/15 subjects) were observed. There was a significant decrease in MADRS scores over the study (? = -1.51, P < .001), with improvement seen as early as 3 weeks (Bonferroni-adjusted P value = .004). We also observed improvement in apathy and rumination. We did not observe improvement on the CPT but did observe improvement in subjective cognitive performance and signals of potential drug effects on secondary cognitive measures of working memory, episodic memory, and self-referential emotional processing. Overall, transdermal nicotine was well tolerated, although 6 participants could not reach the maximum targeted dose. CONCLUSIONS:Nicotine may be a promising therapy for depressed mood and cognitive performance in LLD. A definitive placebo-controlled trial and establishment of longer-term safety are necessary before clinical usage. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02816138?.