Interaction of Cyclooxygenase-2 with Helicobacter pylori Induces Gastric Chronic Nonresolving Inflammation and the Formation of Syndrome of Internal Block of Static Blood in Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastric Diseases.
ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme stimulated by various inflammatory factors (IFs). Chronic gastritis is a classic model of "inflammation-cancer transformation" and Helicobacter pylori-related gastric diseases (HPGD) are specific ones of this model. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndromes could play a predictive role in gastric histopathological evolution. To search for early warning evidence about "inflammation-cancer transformation," this study is about to explore interaction of COX-2 with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in HPGD with different TCM syndromes. All included subjects underwent endoscopy and biopsy. Hp infection was detected by rapid urease test and methylene blue staining. Histopathological characteristics and COX-2 expression in gastric mucosa (GM) were, respectively, observed by hematoxylin-eosin and Elivision™ plus. SPSS 18.0 and Stata 11.0 statistical software packages were used for statistical analysis. Results of immunohistochemical staining in this study showed COX-2 expression in Hp-positive patients was stronger than that in Hp-negative ones. Spearman' analysis indicated that degrees of both Hp infection and COX-2 expression were positively correlated with those of gastric inflammation and inflammatory activity. Compared with the relative normal group, both severe dysplasia group and gastric carcinoma group had more severe Hp infection and COX-2 expression. Compared with the nonsyndrome, syndrome of internal block of static blood (IBSB) had higher scores in semiquantitative analysis of COX-2 protein expression among TCM groups. Moreover, multivariate logistics regression analysis suggested that patients with Hp infection could increase the risk of IBSB. These results indicated that COX-2 interacting with Hp could play an important role in transforming gastric chronic nonresolving inflammation into carcinoma in subjects with HPGD, as well as inducing the formation of IBSB. HPGD together with IBSB could be an early warning evidence for GM with histopathological evolution from benign to malignant.
Project description:H. pylori-related gastric diseases (HPGD) are a series of gastric mucosal benign and malignant lesions associated with H. pylori infection. Exploring the pathogenesis of HPGD will be of great significance to prevent and treat gastric malignancy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome is the essence of TCM, reflecting the state of whole body. Potential similarities of TCM syndrome may provide a new perspective in understanding development and treatment of diseases. To seek an early warning signal for gastric malignant pathology and similarities of TCM syndrome from the viewpoint of molecular biology, we examined the relationships among H. pylori, gastric pathology, and TCM syndrome and effects of Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) gene polymorphisms and expression on gastric pathology and TCM syndrome in HPGD. The results indicated that detection of H. pylori with differentiation of TCM syndrome may have a predictive function to gastric pathology. H. pylori may lead to gastric atrophy via enhancing IL-1? mRNA expression, and IL-1? mRNA overexpression in gastric mucosa may be one of the generality characteristics for H. pylori-negative subjects with syndrome of dampness-heat in the spleen and stomach.
Project description:Persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) elicits chronic inflammation and aberrant epithelial cell proliferation, which increases the risk of gastric cancer. Here we examine the ability of microRNAs to modulate gastric cell proliferation in response to persistent Hp infection and find that epigenetic silencing of miR-210 plays a key role in gastric disease progression. Importantly, DNA methylation of the miR-210 gene is increased in Hp-positive human gastric biopsies as compared with Hp-negative controls. Moreover, silencing of miR-210 in gastric epithelial cells promotes proliferation. We identify STMN1 and DIMT1 as miR-210 target genes and demonstrate that inhibition of miR-210 expression augments cell proliferation by activating STMN1 and DIMT1. Together, our results highlight inflammation-induced epigenetic silencing of miR-210 as a mechanism of induction of chronic gastric diseases, including cancer, during Hp infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ongoing Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection triggers a chronic active gastritis. Eradicating HP reduces gastric inflammation, but does not eliminate it. We sought to characterize this persistent gastritis, and demonstrate the persistence of HP-specific Th17 responses in individuals previously infected with HP but who no longer had evidence of ongoing infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study subjects were divided into 3 groups 55 individuals had active HP infection (group A), 41 were diagnosed with previous HP infection (group P), and 59 were naïve to HP (group N). Blood and gastric tissue were obtained with written informed consent from all subjects, and immune responses were evaluated using flow cytometry, semi-quantitative real time PCR, immunofluorescent staining, ELISA, and multiplex cytometric bead array for cytokine quantification. Elevated IL-17A responses were observed in patients from group A compared to group N. Interestingly, IL-17A responses remained persistently elevated in the blood and gastric mucosa of individuals from group P, despite the absence of ongoing HP infection. Using purified CD4(+) T cells as effectors and antibodies that blocked antigen presentation by MHC Class II, we showed that these persistent IL-17A responses were mediated primarily by HP-specific Th17 cells, rather than other immune cells that have also been described to secrete IL-17A. Gastric mucosal IL-1? levels were also persistently elevated in group P, and neutralisation of IL-1? reduced the HP-specific IL-17A response of purified CD4(+) T cells to autologous HP-pulsed antigen presenting cells in vitro, suggesting a functional association between IL-1? and the persistent Th17 response in group P patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite lack of ongoing HP infection, HP-specific Th17 cells persist in the blood and gastric mucosa of individuals with past HP infection. We speculate that this persistent inflammation might contribute to gastric mucosal pathology, for example, persistent increased gastric cancer risk despite eradication of HP.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic tissue damage induced by Helicobacter pylori (HP)-driven inflammation is considered the main risk of gastric carcinoma (GC). Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection has also been associated with GC. In this study, we aim to address the role of EBV in inflammatory GC precursor lesions and its added risk to HP infection.<h4>Methods</h4>Antibodies against EBV, HP and the bacterial virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 525 Mexican and Paraguayan patients with gastric disease. Gastric samples were characterised according to the updated Sydney classification and associations were estimated between antibody responses and severity of both tissue damage and inflammation.<h4>Results</h4>We found significant associations (odd ratios and trends) between EBV and HP copositivity and premalignant lesions and intestinal-type GC. The EBV and HP coinfection was also significantly associated with increased infiltration of immune cells. No association was found between EBV and the less inflammation-driven diffuse-type GC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study suggests that EBV co-participates with HP to induce severe inflammation, increasing the risk of progression to intestinal-type GC.
Project description:Persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) elicits chronic inflammation and aberrant epithelial cell proliferation, which increases the risk of gastric cancer. We examined the ability of microRNAs to modulate gastric cell proliferation in response to persistent Hp infection and found that epigenetic silencing of miR-210 plays a key role in gastric disease progression. Importantly, DNA methylation of the miR-210 gene was increased in Hp-positive human gastric biopsies as compared to Hp-negative controls. Moreover silencing of miR-210 in gastric epithelial cells promoted proliferation. We identified STMN1 and DIMT1 as miR-210 target genes and demonstrated that inhibition of miR-210 expression augmented cell proliferation by activating STMN1 and DIMT1. Together, our results highlight inflammation-induced epigenetic silencing of miR-210 as a mechanism of induction of chronic gastric diseases, including cancer, during Hp infection. To identify miR-210 targets in gastric cells, whole transcriptome analysis of AGS and MKN45 cells transfected with pre-miR-210 was conducted using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array.
Project description:Atrophic autoimmune gastritis (AAG) is a condition of chronic inflammation and atrophy of stomach mucosa, for which development can be partially triggered by the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori (HP). HP can cause a variety of gastric diseases, such as duodenal ulcer (DU) or gastric cancer (GC). In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was used by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to identify differentially expressed proteins of HP strains isolated from patients with AAG, to identify markers of HP strain associated with AAG. Proteome profiles of HP isolated from GC or DU were used as a reference to compare proteomic levels. Proteomics analyses revealed 27 differentially expressed spots in AAG-associated HP in comparison with GC, whereas only 9 differential spots were found in AAG-associated HP profiles compared with DU. Proteins were identified after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-TOF and peptide mass fingerprinting. Some AAG-HP differential proteins were common between DU- and GC-HP (peroxiredoxin, heat shock protein 70 [HSP70], adenosine 5'-triphosphate [ATP] synthase subunit ?, flagellin A). Our results presented here may suggest that comparative proteomes of HP isolated from AAG and DU share more common protein expression than GC and provide subsets of putative AAG-specific upregulated or downregulated proteins that could be proposed as putative markers of AAG-associated HP. Other comparative studies by two-dimensional maps integrated with functional genomics of candidate proteins will undoubtedly contribute to better decipher the biology of AAG-associated HP strains.
Project description:The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the leading risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Hp virulence factor, cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) interacted with cholesterol-enriched microdomains and leads to induction of inflammation in gastric epithelial cells (AGS). In this study, we identified a triterpenoid methylantcinate B (MAB) from the medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata which inhibited the translocation and phosphorylation of CagA and caused a reduction in hummingbird phenotype in HP-infected AGS cells. Additionally, MAB suppressed the Hp-induced inflammatory response by attenuation of NF-?B activation, translocation of p65 NF-?B, and phosphorylation of I?B-?, indicating that MAB modulates CagA-mediated signaling pathway. Additionally, MAB also suppressed the IL-8 luciferase activity and its secretion in HP-infected AGS cells. On the other hand, molecular structure simulations revealed that MAB interacts with CagA similarly to that of cholesterol. Moreover, binding of cholesterol to the immobilized CagA was inhibited by increased levels of MAB. Our results demonstrate that MAB is the first natural triterpenoid which competes with cholesterol bound to CagA leading to attenuation of Hp-induced pathogenesis of epithelial cells. Thus, this study indicates that MAB may have a scope to develop as a therapeutic candidate against Hp CagA-induced inflammation.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori cause chronic inflammation favouring gastric carcinogenesis, and its eradication may prevent malignant transformation. We evaluated whether H. pylori infection and its eradication modify the expression of inflammatory mediators in patients with chronic gastritis. Furthermore, we assessed whether microRNAs modulate inflammatory pathways induced by H. pylori and identified miRNA-gene interaction networks. mRNA and protein expression of TNFA, IL6, IL1B, IL12A, IL2 and TGFBRII and miRNAs miR-103a-3p, miR-181c-5p, miR-370-3p, miR-375 and miR-223-3p were evaluated in tissue samples from 20 patients with chronic gastritis H. pylori negative (Hp-) and 31 H. pylori positive (Hp+), before and three months after bacterium eradication therapy, in comparison with a pool of Hp- normal gastric mucosa. Our results showed that H. pylori infection leads to up-regulation of TNFA, IL6, IL12A and IL2 and down-regulation of miRNAs. Bacterium eradication reduces the expression of TNFA and IL6 and up-regulates TGFBRII and all investigated miRNAs, except miR-223-3p. Moreover, transcriptional profiles of inflammatory mediators and miRNAs after eradication are different from the non-infected group. Deregulated miRNA-mRNA interaction networks were observed in the Hp+ group before and after eradication. Therefore, miRNAs modulated cytokine expression in the presence of H. pylori and after its eradication, suggesting that miRNAs participate in the pathological process triggered by H. pylori in the gastric mucosa.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common and malignant pathologies, and a significant portion of GC incidences develops from Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-induced chronic gastritis. Although the exact mechanisms of GC are complex and poorly understood, gastric carcinogenesis is a good model to investigate how inflammation and infection collaboratively promote tumorigenesis. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is the key effector of the Hippo pathway, which is silenced in most human cancers. Herein, we verified the tumor-promoting effect of YAP1 in vitro, in vivo, and in human specimens. We revealed that YAP1 displays nuclear translocation and works with TEAD to activate transcription of the crucial inflammatory cytokine IL-1? in gastric cells infected with Hp. As IL-1ß accounts for inflammation-associated tumorigenesis, this process can lead to gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, in addition to activating proliferation genes, YAP1 also plays a major role in inflammation amplification by activating inflammatory cytokine genes. Excitingly, our research demonstrates that transfection of mutant plasmid YAP-5SA/S94A or addition of the drug verteporfin, both of which are thought to disrupt the YAP1-TEAD interaction, can arrest the carcinogenesis process. These findings can provide new approaches to GC treatment.
Project description:Chronic gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa and has multiple etiologies. Here we discuss the pathological alterations induced by Helicobacter pylori (HP) leading to chronic gastritis and the epigenetic bases underlying these changes. We review the histology of the normal gastric mucosa and overview the role of HP in the multistep cascade of GC. We attempt to define the role of the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) staging system in assessing the risk of GC. The epigenetic bases of chronic gastritis, mainly DNA methylation, are presented through examples such as (i) the methylation of the promoter region of E-cadherin in HP-induced chronic gastritis and its reversion after HP eradication and (ii) the association of methylation of the promoter region of Reprimo, a p53-mediated cell cycle arrest gene, with aggressive HP strains in high risk areas for GC. In addition, we discuss the finding of RPRM as a circulating cell-free DNA, offering the opportunity for noninvasive risk assessment of GC. Finally, the integration of OLGA and tissue biomarkers, by systems pathology approach, suggests that severe atrophy has a greater risk for GC development if, in addition, overexpressed p73. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01774266.