Detection of canine distemper virus in blood samples by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
ABSTRACT: Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was used to detect canine distemper virus (CDV) genomic RNA. A set of four primers, two outer and two inner, were designed from CDV genomic RNA targeting the nucleocapsid protein gene. The optimal reaction time and temperature for LAMP were determined to be 60 min at 65 degrees C. The relative sensitivity and specificity of RT-LAMP was found to be 100% and 93.3%, respectively, based on 50 canine blood samples and using RT-PCR as the gold standard. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP method was 100 times lower than with RT-PCR (10-1TCID50 ml(-1) versus 10TCID50 ml(-1)). In addition to the advantage resulting from the visual detection of the end-product, the LAMP method is fast, requiring only 1 h to complete the assay. The LAMP method is a viable alternative to RT-PCR for diagnosing CDV infection in dogs. The LAMP method might be useful as an on site diagnostic assay for detecting CDV.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Canine distemper virus (CDV) has been associated with outbreaks of canine infectious respiratory disease in shelters and boarding kennel environments. POCKITTM Nucleic Acid Analyzer is a field-deployable device capable of generating automatically interpreted insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) results from extracted nucleic acid within one hour. In this study, reverse transcription iiPCR (RT-iiPCR) was developed to facilitate point-of-need diagnosis of CDV infection. RESULTS:Analytical sensitivity (limit of detection 95%) of the established CDV RT-iiPCR was about 11 copies of in vitro transcribed RNA per reaction. CDV RT-iiPCR generated positive signals from CDV, but not Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, canine adenovirus 2, canine influenza virus (subtype H3N8), canine parainfluenza virus, and canine respiratory coronavirus. To evaluate accuracy of the established reaction in canine distemper clinical diagnosis, 110 specimens from dogs, raccoons, and foxes suspected with CDV infection were tested simultaneously by CDV RT-iiPCR and real-time RT-PCR. CDV RT-iiPCR demonstrated excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%), compared to real-time RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS:The results indicated an excellent correlation between RT-iiPCR and a reference real time RT-PCR method. Working in a lyophilized format, the established method has great potential to be used for point-of-care diagnosis of canine distemper in animals, especially in resource-limited facilities.
Project description:Canine distemper, caused by Canine distemper virus (CDV), is a highly contagious and fatal systemic disease in free-living and captive carnivores worldwide. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), as an isothermal gene amplification technique, has been explored for the molecular detection of diverse pathogens.A real-time reverse transcription RPA (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) using primers and exo probe targeting the CDV nucleocapsid protein gene was developed. A series of other viruses were tested by the RT-RPA.Thirty-two field samples were further tested by RT-RPA, and the resuts were compared with those obtained by the real-time RT-PCR.The RT-RPA assay was performed successfully at 40 °C, and the results were obtained within 3 min-12 min. The assay could detect CDV, but did not show cross-detection of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) or Newcastle disease virus (NDV), demonstrating high specificity. The analytical sensitivity of RT-RPA was 31.8 copies in vitro transcribed CDV RNA, which is 10 times lower than the real-time RT-PCR. The assay performance was validated by testing 32 field samples and compared to real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated an excellent correlation between RT-RPA and a reference real-time RT-PCR method. Both assays provided the same results, and R2 value of the positive results was 0.947.The results demonstrated that the RT-RPA assay offers an alternative tool for simple, rapid, and reliable detection of CDV both in the laboratory and point-of-care facility, especially in the resource-limited settings.
Project description:Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect canine distemper virus (CDV) nucleoprotein (NP) RNA in serum, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 38 dogs with clinically suspected distemper. Results were correlated to clinical findings, anti-CDV neutralizing antibody titers, postmortem findings, and demonstration of CDV NP antigen by immunohistochemistry. The specificity of the RT-PCR was ensured by amplification of RNA from various laboratory CDV strains, restriction enzyme digestion, and Southern blot hybridization. In 29 of 38 dogs, CDV infection was confirmed by postmortem examination and immunohistochemistry. The animals displayed the catarrhal, systemic, and nervous forms of distemper. Seventeen samples (serum, whole blood, or CSF) from dogs with distemper were tested with three sets of primers targeted to different regions of the NP gene of the CDV Onderstepoort strain. Expected amplicons were observed in 82, 53, and 41% of the 17 samples, depending upon the primer pair used. With the most sensitive primer pair (primer pair I), CDV NP RNA was detected in 25 of 29 (86%) serum samples and 14 of 16 (88%) whole blood and CSF samples from dogs with distemper but not in body fluids from immunohistochemically negative dogs. Nucleotide sequence analysis of five RT-PCR amplicons from isolates from the field revealed few silent point mutations. These isolates exhibited greater homology to the Rockborn (97 to 99%) than to the Onderstepoort (95 to 96%) CDV strain. In summary, although the sensitivity of the RT-PCR for detection of CDV is strongly influenced by the location of the selected primers, this nucleic acid detection system represents a highly specific and sensitive method for the antemortem diagnosis of distemper in dogs, regardless of the form of distemper, humoral immune response, and viral antigen distribution.
Project description:A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1 and P4) specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV), rabies virus (RV), or canine adenovirus (CAV). The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Accurate diagnosis of canine distemper (CD), a highly contagious and acute viral disease, cannot be made solely based on clinical signs and haematological findings, but serological and molecular methods compatible with clinical signs are also required. The type of sample and method of tissue sampling are also very important. Sometimes in chronic cases, the canine distemper virus (CDV) may not be detected in blood and conjunctival specimens but can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).<h4>Objectives</h4>The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the suitability of CSF samples with whole blood and conjunctival samples in the detection of CDV.<h4>Methods</h4>The CDV was detected in CSF, whole blood and mucosal specimens in 20 dogs with obvious neurological with or without systemic signs congruous with CD by RT-PCR and rapid immunochromatographic (IC) antigen test kit assays.<h4>Results</h4>Rapid kit results were positive for mucosal swabs in 10 cases (50%) and for CSF in 17 cases (85%); RT-PCR results from whole blood were positive in 11 cases (55%) and from CSF in 16 cases (80%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results revealed that dogs with neurological signs showing simultaneous or recent systemic symptoms, whole blood, CSF and mucosal swabs are suitable for the diagnosis of CDV by RT-PCR and rapid IC antigen test kits, but dogs with neurological symptoms that are systematically asymptomatic or have had systemic signs for a long time, whole blood and mucosal swabs are not good samples while CSF is a good one.
Project description:A combined reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of the canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1/P2) was used to detect both CDV wild-type strains and vaccines. Another pair (P3/P4) was used to detect only CDV wild-type strains. A 335bp fragment was amplified from the genomic RNA of the vaccine and wild-type strains. A 555bp fragment was amplified specifically from the genomic RNA of the wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for the uninfected cells, cells infected with canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, or canine adenovirus. The combined RT-PCR method detected effectively and differentiated the CDV wild-type and vaccine strains by two separate RT-PCRs. The method can be used for clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of the local wild-type CDV strains revealed that the seven local isolates all belonged to the Asia-1 lineage, and were clustered closely with one another at the same location. These results suggested that the CDV genotype Asia-1 is circulating currently in domestic dogs in China.
Project description:Canine distemper, caused by Canine distemper virus (CDV), is a highly contagious and fatal systemic disease in free-living and captive carnivores worldwide. Accurate, rapid and simple detection of CDV is critical to improve disease management and prevent outbreaks. In this study, a visible and incubation instrument-free reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay combined with lateral flow strip (LFS RT-RPA) was developed to detect CDV using primers and lateral flow (LF) probe specific for the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene. The CDV LFS RT-RPA assay was performed in a closed fist using body heat for 15?min, and the products were visible to the naked eyes on the LFS within 5?min. The assay could detect CDV, and there was no cross-reaction with the other viruses tested. Using the in vitro transcribed CDV RNA as template, the analytical sensitivity was 9.4?×?10<sup>1</sup> copies per reaction, which was the same result as that of a real-time RT-PCR. The assay performance was further evaluated by testing 32 nasal/oropharyngeal swab samples, and CDV RNA positive rate was 62.0% (20/32) by LFS RT-RPA, which was the same result as that of the real-time RT-PCR assay. The performance of the LFS RT-RPA was comparable to real-time RT-PCR, while the LFS RT-RPA assay was much faster and easier to perform. The novel CDV LFS RT-RPA assay provides an attractive and promising tool for rapid and reliable detection of CDV in the underequipped laboratory and point-of-need facility, which is of great significance in CD control in low resource settings.
Project description:We evaluated exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) in eight wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 125 unvaccinated domestic dogs living in and around Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), China. Seventy-two percent of unvaccinated domestic dogs (mixed breed) had neutralizing antibodies for CDV due to exposure to the disease. The eight wild giant pandas were naïve to CDV and carried no positive antibody titer. RT-PCR assays for hemagglutinin (H) gene confirmed the presence of CDV in 31 clinically ill dogs from several areas near FNNR. Genomic sequence analysis showed that the 21 canine CDV were highly homologous to each other and belonged to the Asian-1 genotype. They showed high homology with the GP01 strain sequenced from a fatally infected giant panda, suggesting cross-species infection. Observational and GPS tracking data revealed home range overlap in pandas and dogs around FNNR. This study shows that CDV is endemic in domestic dogs near FNNR and that cross-species CDV infection threatens the wild giant panda population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an enveloped negative-strand RNA virus that exhibits a high mutation rate and continuously expands the range of hosts. Notably, CDV has infected giant panda with spill over from viral reservoirs in canines. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially captive pandas, are known to be susceptible to natural infection with CDV. The high fatality rate of CDV poses a serious threat to the safety of the giant panda population. However, vaccines or drugs for canine distemper in giant pandas have not been developed to date. Therefore, a rapid test that can achieve accurate onsite detection of CDV is important to enable the timely implementation of control measures. In this study, we established a nucleic acid visualization assay for targeting the CDV N gene by using combines reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification with a closed vertical flow visualization strip (RT-RPA-VF).<h4>Results</h4>The RT-RPA-VF assay does not require sophisticated equipment, and it was determined to provide rapid detection at 35 °C for 30 min, while the limit of detection was 5 × 10<sup>1</sup> copies/μl RNA transcripts and 10<sup>0.5</sup> TCID<sub>50</sub> ml<sup>- 1</sup> viruses. The results showed that the assay was high specific to CDV and had no cross-reactivity with other viruses infecting the giant panda. Compared with RT-qPCR, RT-RPA-VF assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% in 29 clinical samples. The coincidence rate between RT-RPA-VF and RT-qPCR was 100% (kappa = 1), indicating that the RT-RPA-VF assay possessed good diagnostic performance on clinical samples.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The RT-RPA-VF provides a novel alternative for the simple, sensitive, and specific identification of CDV and showed great potential for point of care diagnostics for captive and wild giant panda.
Project description:Despite the immunologic protection associated with routine vaccination protocols, Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains an important pathogen of dogs. Antemortem diagnosis of systemic CDV infection may be made by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or immunohistochemical testing for CDV antigen; central nervous system infection often requires postmortem confirmation via histopathology and immunohistochemistry. An 8-month-old intact male French Bulldog previously vaccinated for CDV presented with multifocal neurologic signs. Based on clinical and postmortem findings, the dog's disease was categorized as a meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology. Broadly reactive, pan-paramyxovirus RT-PCR using consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers, combined with sequence analysis, identified CDV amplicons in the dog's brain. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of CDV antigens, and a specific CDV RT-PCR based on the phosphoprotein gene identified a wild-type versus vaccinal virus strain. This case illustrates the utility of broadly reactive PCR and sequence analysis for the identification of pathogens in diseases with unknown etiology.