Current epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19; a global perspective from China.
ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and represents a potentially fatal disease of great global public health importance. As of March 26, 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in 462,801 confirmed cases and 20,839 deaths globally, which is more than those caused by SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2003 and 2013, respectively. The epidemic has posed considerable challenges worldwide. Under a strict mechanism of massive prevention and control, China has seen a rapid decrease in new cases of coronavirus; however, the global situation remains serious. Additionally, the origin of COVID-19 has not been determined and no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine is currently available. Based on the published data, this review systematically discusses the etiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and current intervention measures related to COVID-19 in the hope that it may provide a reference for future studies and aid in the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic.
Project description:Two outbreaks of severe respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) caused global pandemics and highlighted the importance of preparedness for respiratory CoVs. Recently, a third highly pathogenic CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China and posed a public health crisis worldwide. Here, we focus on the recent advances of the novel CoV, and discuss its genomic similarity with other CoVs, transmission, animal model and clinical treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induced by SARS-CoV-2, which help epidemic prevention and control, and guide treatment strategies.
Project description:Abstract An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by a novel pneumonia virus, has affected over 200 countries and regions worldwide. With the increasing number of patients and deaths, WHO have declared it as a global pandemic currently, indicating a third large-scale epidemic coronavirus has appeared since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) and Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in the twenty-first century. Considering the great harm it has caused, researchers throughout the world have been chasing to exploit the pathophysiology, characteristics, and potential remedies for COVID-19 to better battle the outbreak. Therefore, the current study revisits advances of the virology, epidemiology, clinical features, therapeutic options, and prevention of COVID-19. The features of asymptomatic carriers are also been explored.
Project description:Viral respiratory diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) always pose a severe threat to people. First identified in late December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2) has affected many provinces in China and multiple countries worldwide. The viral outbreak has aroused panic and a public-health emergency around the world, and the number of infections continues to rise. However, the causes and consequences of the pneumonia remain unknown. To effectively implement epidemic prevention, early identification and diagnosis are critical to disease control. Here we scrutinise a series of available studies by global scientists on the clinical manifestations, detection methods and treatment options for the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and also propose potential strategies for preventing the infection.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to sweep the world, causing infection of millions and death of hundreds of thousands. The respiratory disease that it caused, COVID-19 (stands for coronavirus disease in 2019), has similar clinical symptoms with other two CoV diseases, severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome (SARS and MERS), of which causative viruses are SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively. These three CoVs resulting diseases also share many clinical symptoms with other respiratory diseases caused by influenza A viruses (IAVs). Since both CoVs and IAVs are general pathogens responsible for seasonal cold, in the next few months, during the changing of seasons, clinicians and public heath may have to distinguish COVID-19 pneumonia from other kinds of viral pneumonia. This is a discussion and comparison of the virus structures, transmission characteristics, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, pathological changes, treatment and prevention of the two kinds of viruses, CoVs and IAVs. It hopes to provide information for practitioners in the medical field during the epidemic season.
Project description:At the beginning of the 21st century, a new deadly infectious disease known as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was recognized as a global public health threat. Subsequently, ten years after the initial SARS cases occurred in 2002, new cases of another atypical respiratory disease caused worldwide concern. This disease became known as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and was even more lethal than SARS. Currently, history has repeated itself with the emergence of a new Chinese epidemic at the end of 2019. For this respiratory disease, called COVID-19, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the etiologic agent. In sum, SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are caused by recently discovered coronaviruses that cause flu-like illnesses, but with a clinical outcome that tends to be more severe. As a result of the current importance of coronaviruses in global public health, we conducted a review to summarize and update, above all, the epidemiological historical aspects of the three major diseases in humans caused by coronaviral infection.
Project description:As a severe and highly contagious infectious disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several case reports have demonstrated that the respiratory system is the main target in patients with COVID-19, but the disease is not limited to the respiratory system. Case analysis indicated that the nervous system can be invaded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and that 36.4% of COVID-19 patients had neurological symptoms. Importantly, the involvement of the CNS may be associated with poor prognosis and disease worsening. Here, we discussed the symptoms and evidence of nervous system involvement (directly and indirectly) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and possible mechanisms. CNS symptoms could be a potential indicator of poor prognosis; therefore, the prevention and treatment of CNS symptoms are also crucial for the recovery of COVID-19 patients.
Project description:The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) produced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is sweeping the world in a very short time. Although much has been learned about the clinical course, prognostic inflammatory markers, and disease complications of COVID-19, the potential interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the thyroid is poorly understood. In contrast to SARS-CoV-1, limited available evidence indicates there is no pathological evidence of thyroid injury caused by SARS-CoV-2. However, subacute thyroiditis caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been reported for the first time. Thyroid dysfunction is common in patients with COVID-19 infection. By contrast, certain thyroid diseases may have a negative impact on the prevention and control of COVID-19. In addition, some anti-COVID-19 agents may cause thyroid injury or affect its metabolism. COVID-19 and thyroid disease may mutually aggravate the disease burden. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection should not ignore the effect on thyroid function, especially when there are obvious related symptoms. In addition, patients with thyroid diseases should follow specific management principles during the epidemic period.
Project description:The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global epidemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 has a similar structure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-1(SARS-CoV-1). The S protein on the surface of the virus is cleaved by host proprotein convertases (PCs) to expose the active N-terminal S1 extracellular domain. Its receptors are angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the C-terminal S2 membrane anchoring protein is responsible for translocating the virus into the cell. Among patients with COVID-19, there is a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and more than 7% of patients have suffered myocardial damage due to the infection, but the internal mechanism is still poorly understood. There is currently no specific and effective targeted treatment. Reduction of the patient's morbidity and mortality is an urgent problem that needs to be solved clinically. By exploring the theoretical analysis of PCs and ACE2 in COVID-19 cardiovascular susceptibility, some insights on how to prevent and alleviate adverse cardiovascular prognosis have been provided in this study.
Project description:An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to ?-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.
Project description:The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains a global challenge. Despite intense research efforts worldwide, an effective vaccine and viable treatment options have eluded investigators. Therefore, infection prevention, early viral detection and identification of successful treatment protocols provide the best approach in controlling disease spread. In this review, current therapeutic options, preventive methods and transmission routes of COVID-19 are discussed.