Isolation and identification of flavonoid-producing endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Conyza blinii H.Lev that exhibit higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
ABSTRACT: Background:Conyza blinii H. Lév is a medicinal plant that has a variety of pharmacological activities, but its study is at a standstill due to the shortage of resources. Method:This study utilized the surface sterilization method to isolate endophytic fungi, and they were preliminarily identified by morphology. Flavonoid-producing strains were screened by NaNO2-Al(NO)3 colorimetry and further identified by the ITS sequence. Additionally, we used five antioxidant assays (DPPH, Hydroxyl radical, ABTS, FRAP and T-AOC assays) to systematically evaluate the antioxidant capacity of total flavonoids , and we also determined their antibacterial activity. Results:In this study, 21 endophytic fungi were isolated from wild Conyza blinii H. Lév for the first time. There were six flavonoid-producing strains, especially CBL11, whose total flavonoid content reached 50.78 ± 2.4 mg/L. CBL12, CBL12-2 and CBL1-1 all exhibited excellent antioxidant activity. The effect of CBL12 was similar to that of ascorbic acid at low concentrations, and its radical scavenging rates for DPPH and ABTS were 94.56 ± 0.29 % and 99.88 ± 0.27%, respectively, while its IC50 values were only 0.11 ± 0.01 mg/mL and 0.2 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Through LC-MS, we found that CBL12 could produce many high-value flavonoids, such as 3-methoxyflavone, nobiletin, formononetin, scopoletin, and daidzein. Additionally, CBL9 had good antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Notably, we obtained the high-yield strains CBL12 and CBL9, which not only had high yields (10.64 ± 1.01 mg/L and 10.17 ± 0.11 mg/L, respectively) but also had excellent biological activity. Hence, the results of this study provide new ideas for endophytic fungi that can be exploited as a source of flavonoids and other medicinal components from Conyza blinii H. Lév. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference for the development of rare medicinal materials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba is a traditional Chinese herbal drug with special pharmacological effect on thromboangiitis obliterans. However, the nature source of S.miltiorrhiza Bge.f.alba is now in short supply because of the over-collection of the wild plant. To better utilize this resource, the diversity and antioxidant activity of endophytic fungi isolated from S. miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba were investigated. RESULTS:A total of 14 endophytic fungi were isolated from different parts of S. miltiorrhiza Bge.f.alba. Based on morphological and molecular identification, the endophytic fungi isolated were classified into four genera (Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Schizophyllum sp. and Trametes sp.). These fungal extracts were prepared using ethanol and evaluated for their phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity. Alternaria alternata SaF-2 and Fusarium proliferatum SaR-2 are of particular interest because they yielded all of nine phytochemicals including saponins, phenol, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, tannins, alkaloids, anthroquinone and terpenoids. F. proliferatum SaR-2 and A. alternata SaF-2 also exhibited stronger antioxidant activities by FRAP and DPPH method, having the higher levels of phenol and flavonoid than those of plant root. The total amount of phenol and flavonoid quantified were of 21.75, 20.53 gallic acid equivalent per gram and 8.27 and 7.36 ?g/mg of quercetin equivalent respectively. These two endophytic fungi (SaR-2 and SaF-2) were found to have comparable scavenging abilities on both FRAP (1682.21 and 1659.05 ?mol/mg, respectively) and DPPH-free radicals (90.14% and 83.25%, respectively, at 0.1 mg/mL). This is the first report about isolation of endophytic fungi from S. miltiorrhiza Bge.f.alba and their antioxidant activities. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that the endophytic fungi associated with S. miltiorrhiza Bge.f. alba can be a potential source of novel natural antioxidants.
Project description:Datura (family- Solanaceae), has a long history of being used as herbal medicine. These medicinal effects have been attributed to the phytochemicals present in the plant leaves and seeds, in particular alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the methanolic leaf and seed extracts of Datura innoxia (DLP-I & DSP-I) and Datura metel (DLP-M & DSP-M) for their total phenolic, flavonoids and in-vitro antioxidant properties.Determination of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in terms of total antioxidant assay, ABTS assay, DPPH assay and in-vitro lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity were determined along with the FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis of the extracts.The highest total phenolic and total flavonoid content were registered by the D. innoxia leaf extract (70.26 ±1.12 mg GAE/g and 34.24 ± 1.28 mg RE/g respectively). Maximum DPPH radical scavenging activity was exerted by the leaf extract of D. innoxia (IC50 = 146.69 ± 8.46 μg/mL) among the four different methanolic extracts. The highest activity of the ABTS assay was found in Datura innoxia leaf extract (IC50 value = 149.42 ± 13.43 μg/mL) and the highest total antioxidant capacity was found to be present in D. innoxia leaf extract (221.25 ± 1.06 mg AAE/g) whereas D. metel seed extract registered the maximum lipid peroxidation inhibition activity (IC50 = 112 ± 1.30 μg/mL). The FT-IR data also supported the maximum activity in D. innoxia (leaf and seed) extracts.The results thus obtained suggested that the plant Datura innoxia possess considerable antioxidant activity over Datura metel and therefore can be established as a potential source of natural antioxidant.
Project description:Flavonoid profile and antioxidant activity of citrus peels, pulps, and juices from 27 local citrus cultivars in China were investigated. Flavonoid composition and content were determined using UPLC-PDA. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were measured using a Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and Al(NO3)-NaNO2 complexometry, respectively. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP method, respectively. Citrus peel not only exhibited better antioxidant potential, but also presented more composition diversity and contained higher concentrations of flavonoids than pulp and juice. Different citrus species were characterized by their individual predominant flavonoids, contributing largely to the antioxidant activity, such as mandarin was characterized by hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeretin, while pummelo and papeda were characterized by naringin. The peel of Guihuadinanfeng (Citrus reticulata) had the highest TPC of 23.46 mg equivalent gallic acid/g DW (dry weight) and TFC of 21.37 mg equivalent rutin/g DW. Shiyueju (C. reticulata) peel showed the highest antioxidant capacity based on the antioxidant potency composite (APC) analysis. Overall, mandarin (C. reticulata) fruits peel contained more TPC and TFC, exhibiting higher antioxidant capacities than other species, and were good natural sources of flavonoids and antioxidants.
Project description:Brassica napus L. is rich in phenolic components and it has natural antioxidant characteristics which are important to human health. In the present study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of developing seeds of yellow- and black-seeded B. napus were compared. Both phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher at 5 weeks after flowering (WAF) in black seeds (6.44 ± 0.97 mg EE/g phenolics and 3.78 ± 0.05 mg EE/g flavonoids) than yellow seeds (2.80 ± 0.13 mg/g phenolics and 0.83 ± 0.01 mg/g flavonoids). HPLC?DAD?ESI/MS analysis revealed different content of 56 phenolic components between yellow and black-seeded B. napus, including kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, procyanidin B2 ([DP 2]), which were significantly reduced in yellow seeds compared with black seeds. Applying the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical assay, we found maximum clearance of DPPH and ABTS in the late developmental stages of yellow and black seeds. Additionally, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value maximized at 5 WAF in black seeds (432.52 ± 69.98 ?mol Fe (II)/g DW) and 6 WAF in yellow seeds (274.08 ± 2.40 ?mol Fe (II)/g DW). Generally, antioxidant ability was significantly reduced in yellow-seeded B. napus compared to black rapeseed, and positive correlations between antioxidation and flavonoid content were found in both yellow- and black-seeded B. napus.
Project description:Background:Caralluma europaea (C. europaea) is a medicinal plant used in Moroccan popular medicine. Objective of the Study. The present work was aimed at identifying the chemical composition and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of hydroethanolic and bioactive compound classes of C. europaea) is a medicinal plant used in Moroccan popular medicine. Materials and Methods. The chemical composition was analyzed using HPLC. The antioxidant power was determined using both DPPH and FRAP assays. The antiproliferative activity was effectuated against cancerous cells using WST-1. Results:The chemical analysis showed the presence of bioactive constituents such as quercetin, myricetin, and hesperetin. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents were estimated at 51.42?mg GA/g and 20.06?mg EQ/g, respectively. The EC50 values of FRAP assay of hydroethanolic, flavonoid, saponin, and mucilage extracts were 5.196?mg/ml, 4.537?mg/ml, 3.05?mg/ml, and 6.02?mg/ml, respectively. The obtained IC50 values with the DPPH test were 1.628?mg/ml, 1.05?mg/ml, 1.94?mg/ml, and 9.674?mg/ml, respectively. Regarding MDA-MB-231, saponins were highly effective even with the lowest concentration (15.62??g/ml). The flavonoids decreased the cell viability with IC50 values of 43.62?±?0.06??g/ml). The flavonoids decreased the cell viability with IC50 values of 43.62?±?0.06??g/ml). The flavonoids decreased the cell viability with IC50 values of 43.62?±?0.06?. Conclusion:The present results suggest that C. europaea) is a medicinal plant used in Moroccan popular medicine.
Project description:Weinmannia trichosperma Cav. (Cunoniaceae) (local name, tineo; Mapuche names, madén, mëdehue) is an endemic species of Chile and Argentina used in Mapuche traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic diarrhea, inflammation, and wound healing. This study focused on the isolation, analysis, and characterization of the biological activity of compounds and bark extracts from this plant for the first time. The infusion and tincture of the bark were characterized regarding antioxidant and important enzyme inhibitory activities, phenolics, and flavonoids content and UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS metabolite profiling. Twenty-five metabolites were detected in the medicinal infusion of W. trichosperma, three flavonols were isolated: isoastilbin, neoisoastilbin, and neoastilbin ((2R,3S)-, (2S,3R)-, and (2S,3S)-dihydroquercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnoside) by countercurrent chromatography, and the isomers were quantified in the bark using a validated analytical HPLC methodology. The antioxidant properties were measured by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, ORAC, and TEAC methods. The infusion displayed a strong DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity (IC50 = 20.58 and 3.070 µg ml-1, respectively) while a moderated effect was observed in the FRAP, ORAC, and ABTS assays. The infusion showed a content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds of 442.1 mg GAE g-1 and 15.54 mg QE g-1, respectively. Furthermore, the infusion showed a good and promissory inhibitory activity (33.80%, 33.12%, and 82.86% for AChE, BuChE, and 5-hLOX, respectively) and isoastilbin (51.70%, 50.10%, and 34.29-80.71% for AChE, BuChE, and 5-hLOX, respectively). The biomolecules identified in this study support the traditional uses of this bark and the potential industrial interest from this Valdivian plant species.
Project description:Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are commonly employed as environmentally-friendly solvents in numerous chemical applications owing to their unique physicochemical properties. In this study, a novel and environmentally-friendly extraction method based on ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent extraction (UAE-DES) was investigated for the extraction of flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C. paliurus) leaves, and the antioxidant activities of these flavonoids were evaluated. Nine different DES systems based on either two or three components were tested, and the choline chloride/1,4?butanediol system (1:5 molar ratio) was selected as the optimal system for maximizing the flavonoid extraction yields. Other extraction conditions required to achieve the maximum flavonoid extraction yields from the leaves of C. paliurus were as follows: DES water content (v/v), 30%; extraction time, 30 min; temperature, 60 °C; and solid-liquid ratio, 20 mg/mL. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the detection of five flavonoids in the extract, namely kaempferol-7-O-?-l-rhamnoside, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-?-d-glucuronide. In vitro antioxidant tests revealed that the flavonoid-containing extract exhibited strong DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging abilities. Results indicate that UAE-DES is a suitable approach for the selective extraction of flavonoids from C. paliurus leaves, and DESs can be employed as sustainable extraction media for other bioactive compounds.
Project description:Background: Endophytic fungi are largely underexplored in the discovery of natural bioactive products though being rich sources of novel compounds with promising pharmaceutical potential. In this study, Taxus wallichiana, which has huge medicinal value, was investigated for its endophytic diversity and capability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites by analyzing antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. Methods: The endophytes were identified by ITS-PCR using genomic DNA samples. The secondary metabolites were extracted by solvent extraction method using ethyl acetate. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography, Total Phenol Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and DPPH assay, and the antimicrobial activity was analyzed by agar-well diffusion method. Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to analyze the cytotoxicity of the fungal extracts. Results: Out of 16 different Taxus trees sampled from different locations of Dhorpatan, 13 distinctive endophytic fungi were isolated and grouped into 9 different genera: Bjerkandera, Trichoderma, Preussia, Botrytis, Arthrinium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Sporormiella and Daldinia. The ethyl acetate extracts isolated from three endophytic fungi: Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria brassicae showed significant TPC values of 204±6.144, 312.3±2.147 and 152.7±4.958µg GAE/mg of dry extract, respectively, and TFC values of 177.9±2.911, 644.1±4.202 and 96.38±3.851µg RE/mg of dry extract, respectively. Furthermore, these three extracts showed a dose dependent radical scavenging activity with IC 50 concentration of 22.85, 22.15 and 23.001 µg/ml, respectively. The extracts of C. cladosporioides and A. brassicae also showed promising antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 250?g/ml for all bacteria. Both the samples showed cytotoxic property against shrimp nauplii with LC 50 of 104.2 and 125.9µg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: The crude fungal extracts obtained from endophytes: A. alternata, C. cladosporioides and A. brassicae upon purification and further identification of the bioactive compounds can be a fascinating source for novel pharmaceutical agents.
Project description:Extracts from 11 vegetables of Indonesian origin were screened for flavonoid content, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity. The flavonols myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol and flavones luteolin and apigenin were quantified by HPLC. Flavonoid content in mg/100 g fresh weight (fw) was apparently initially reported for Cosmos caudatus H.B.K. (52.19), Polyscias pinnata (52.19), Pluchea indica Less. (6.39), Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm.f.) Merr (5.43), Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd. (3.93), Pilea melastomoides (Poir.) Bl. (2.27), and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm (1.18). The flavonoid content of the vegetables studied were mainly quercetin and kaempferol and ranged from 0.3 to 143 mg/100 g fw, with the highest level found in Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr. C. caudatus H.B.K. had the greatest total phenols among the vegetables analysed, with 1.52 mg GAE/100 g fw. P. indica Less. and C. caudatus H.B.K. had the highest antioxidant activity as measured by ferric cyanide reducing power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging, and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. Therefore, S. androgynus (L) Merr, C. caudatus H.B.K., and P. pinnata were identified as potentially rich sources of dietary flavonoids and antioxidants.
Project description:Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 ?g of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 ?g of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 ?g/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 ?g/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.