The P2X7 receptor antagonist JNJ-47965567 administered thrice weekly from disease onset does not alter progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in SOD1G93A mice.
ABSTRACT: The ATP-gated P2X7 ion channel has emerging roles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression. Pharmacological blockade of P2X7 with Brilliant Blue G can ameliorate disease in SOD1G93A mice, but recent data suggests that this antagonist displays poor penetration of the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, the current study aimed to determine whether the CNS-penetrant P2X7 antagonist, JNJ-47965567, could ameliorate ALS progression in SOD1G93A mice. A flow cytometric assay revealed that JNJ-47965567 impaired ATP-induced cation dye uptake in a concentration-dependent manner in murine J774 macrophages. Female and male SOD1G93A mice were injected intraperitoneally with JNJ-47965567 (30 mg/kg) or 2-(hydroxypropyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (vehicle control) three times a week from disease onset until end stage, when tissues were collected and studied. JNJ-47965567 did not impact weight loss, clinical score, motor (rotarod) coordination or survival compared to control mice. NanoString analysis revealed altered spinal cord gene expression in JNJ-47965567 mice compared to control mice, but such differences were not confirmed by quantitative PCR. Flow cytometric analyses revealed no differences between treatments in the frequencies or activation status of T cell or dendritic cell subsets in lymphoid tissues or in the concentrations of serum cytokines. Notably, serum IL-27, IFN? and IL-10 were present in relatively high concentrations compared to other cytokines in both groups. In conclusion, JNJ-47965567 administered thrice weekly from disease onset did not alter disease progression or molecular and cellular parameters in SOD1G93A mice.
Project description:Neuroinflammation is one of the main physiopathological mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), produced by the chronic activation of microglia in the CNS. This process is triggered by the persistent activation of the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2RX7, hereafter referred to as P2X7R). The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the chronic treatment with the P2X7R antagonist JNJ-47965567 in the development and progression of ALS in the SOD1G93A murine model. SOD1G93A mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with either 30?mg/kg of JNJ-47965567 or vehicle 4 times per week, from pre-onset age (here, postnatal day 60; P60) until study endpoint. Body weight, motor coordination, phenotypic score, disease onset and survival were measured throughout the study, and compared between vehicle- and drug-injected groups. Treatment with the P2X7R antagonist JNJ-47965567 delayed disease onset, reduced body weight loss and improved motor coordination and phenotypic score in female SOD1G93A mice, although it did not increase lifespan. Interestingly, neither beneficial nor detrimental effects were observed in males in any of the analyzed parameters. Treatment did not affect motor neuron survival or ChAT, Iba-1 and P2X7R protein expression in endpoint individuals of mixed sexes. Overall, chronic administration of JNJ-47965567 for 4 times per week to SOD1G93A mice from pre-onset stage altered disease progression in female individuals while it did not have any effect in males. Our results suggest a partial, yet important, effect of P2X7R in the development and progression of ALS.
Project description:An increasing body of evidence suggests that the purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2X7) in the CNS may play a key role in neuropsychiatry, neurodegeneration and chronic pain. In this study, we characterized JNJ-47965567, a centrally permeable, high-affinity, selective P2X7 antagonist.We have used a combination of in vitro assays (calcium flux, radioligand binding, electrophysiology, IL-1? release) in both recombinant and native systems. Target engagement of JNJ-47965567 was demonstrated by ex vivo receptor binding autoradiography and in vivo blockade of Bz-ATP induced IL-1? release in the rat brain. Finally, the efficacy of JNJ-47965567 was tested in standard models of depression, mania and neuropathic pain.JNJ-47965567 is potent high affinity (pKi 7.9 ± 0.07), selective human P2X7 antagonist, with no significant observed speciation. In native systems, the potency of the compound to attenuate IL-1? release was 6.7 ± 0.07 (human blood), 7.5 ± 0.07 (human monocytes) and 7.1 ± 0.1 (rat microglia). JNJ-47965567 exhibited target engagement in rat brain, with a brain EC50 of 78 ± 19?ng·mL(-1) (P2X7 receptor autoradiography) and functional block of Bz-ATP induced IL-1? release. JNJ-47965567 (30?mg·kg(-1) ) attenuated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and exhibited modest, yet significant efficacy in the rat model of neuropathic pain. No efficacy was observed in forced swim test.JNJ-47965567 is centrally permeable, high affinity P2X7 antagonist that can be used to probe the role of central P2X7 in rodent models of CNS pathophysiology.
Project description:The ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a non-selective cation channel which senses high extracellular ATP concentrations and has been suggested as a target for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The use of P2X7R antagonists may therefore be a viable approach for treating CNS pathologies, including epileptic disorders. Recent studies showed anticonvulsant potential of P2X7R antagonists in certain animal models. To extend this work, we tested three CNS-permeable P2X7R blocker (Brilliant Blue G, AFC-5128, JNJ-47965567) and a natural compound derivative (tanshinone IIA sulfonate) in four well-characterized animal seizure models. In the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test and the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure threshold test in mice, none of the four compounds demonstrated anticonvulsant effects when given alone. Notably, in combination with carbamazepine, both AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 increased the threshold in the maximal electroshock seizure test. In the PTZ-kindling model in rats, useful for testing antiepileptogenic activities, Brilliant Blue G and tanshinone exhibited a moderate retarding effect, whereas the potent P2X7R blocker AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 showed a significant and long-lasting delay in kindling development. In fully kindled rats, the investigated compounds revealed modest effects to reduce the mean seizure stage. Furthermore, AFC-5128- and JNJ-47965567-treated animals displayed strongly reduced Iba 1 and GFAP immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA3 region. In summary, our results show that P2X7R antagonists possess no remarkable anticonvulsant effects in the used acute screening tests, but can attenuate chemically-induced kindling. Further studies would be of interest to support the concept that P2X7R signalling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders.
Project description:P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are ligand-gated ion channels sensitive to extracellular ATP. Here we examined for the first time the role of P2X7R in an animal model of schizophrenia. Using the PCP induced schizophrenia model we show that both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of P2X7Rs alleviate schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations. In P2rx7+/+ mice, PCP induced hyperlocomotion, stereotype behavior, ataxia and social withdrawal. In P2X7 receptor deficient mice (P2rx7-/-), the social interactions were increased, whereas the PCP induced hyperlocomotion and stereotype behavior were alleviated. The selective P2X7 receptor antagonist JNJ-47965567 partly replicated the effect of gene deficiency on PCP-induced behavioral changes and counteracted PCP-induced social withdrawal. We also show that PCP treatment upregulates and increases the functional responsiveness of P2X7Rs in the prefrontal cortex of young adult animals. The amplitude of NMDA evoked currents recorded from layer V pyramidal neurons of cortical slices were slightly decreased by both genetic deletion of P2rx7 and by JNJ-47965567. PCP induced alterations in mRNA expression encoding schizophrenia-related genes, such as NR2A, NR2B, neuregulin 1, NR1 and GABA ?1 subunit were absent in the PFC of young adult P2rx7-/- animals. Our findings point to P2X7R as a potential therapeutic target in schizophrenia.
Project description:The ATP-gated P2X7 ion channel is an abundant microglial protein in the CNS that plays an important pathological role in executing ATP-driven danger signal transduction. Emerging data has generated scientific interest and excitement around targeting the P2X7 ion channel as a potential drug target for CNS disorders. Over the past years, a wealth of data has been published on CNS P2X7 biology, in particular the role of P2X7 in microglial cells, and in vivo effects of brain-penetrant P2X7 antagonists. Likewise, significant progress has been made around the medicinal chemistry of CNS P2X7 ligands, as antagonists for in vivo target validation in models of CNS diseases, to identification of two clinical compounds (JNJ-54175446 and JNJ-55308942) and finally, discovery of P2X7 PET ligands. This review is an attempt to bring together the current understanding of P2X7 in the CNS with a focus on P2X7 as a drug target in neuropsychiatric disorders.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. Improving neuronal survival in ALS remains a significant challenge. Previously, we identified Lanthionine synthetase C-like protein 1 (LanCL1) as a neuronal antioxidant defense gene, the genetic deletion of which causes apoptotic neurodegeneration in the brain. Here, we report in vivo data using the transgenic SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS indicating that CNS-specific expression of LanCL1 transgene extends lifespan, delays disease onset, decelerates symptomatic progression, and improves motor performance of SOD1G93A mice. Conversely, CNS-specific deletion of LanCL1 leads to neurodegenerative phenotypes, including motor neuron loss, neuroinflammation, and oxidative damage. Analysis reveals that LanCL1 is a positive regulator of AKT activity, and LanCL1 overexpression restores the impaired AKT activity in ALS model mice. These findings indicate that LanCL1 regulates neuronal survival through an alternative mechanism, and suggest a new therapeutic target in ALS.
Project description:Dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause degeneration of motor neurons in a subset of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The pathogenetic process mediated by misfolded and/or aggregated mutant SOD1 polypeptides is hypothesized to be suppressed by protein refolding. This genetic study is aimed to test whether mutant SOD1-mediated ALS pathology recapitulated in mice could be alleviated by overexpressing a longevity-related deacetylase SIRT1 whose substrates include a transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the master regulator of the chaperone system.We established a line of transgenic mice that chronically overexpress SIRT1 in the brain and spinal cord. While inducible HSP70 (HSP70i) was upregulated in the spinal cord of SIRT1 transgenic mice (PrP-Sirt1), no neurological and behavioral alterations were detected. To test hypothetical benefits of SIRT1 overexpression, we crossbred PrP-Sirt1 mice with two lines of ALS model mice: A high expression line that exhibits a severe phenotype (SOD1G93A-H) or a low expression line with a milder phenotype (SOD1G93A-L). The Sirt1 transgene conferred longer lifespan without altering the time of symptomatic onset in SOD1G93A-L. Biochemical analysis of the spinal cord revealed that SIRT1 induced HSP70i expression through deacetylation of HSF1 and that SOD1G93A-L/PrP-Sirt1 double transgenic mice contained less insoluble SOD1 than SOD1G93A-L mice. Parallel experiments showed that Sirt1 transgene could not rescue a more severe phenotype of SOD1G93A-H transgenic mice partly because their HSP70i level had peaked out.The genetic supplementation of SIRT1 can ameliorate a mutant SOD1-linked ALS mouse model partly through the activation of the HSF1/HSP70i chaperone system. Future studies shall include testing potential benefits of pharmacological enhancement of the deacetylation activity of SIRT1 after the onset of the symptom.
Project description:AIMS:Although the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is still not completely understood, the deregulated microglia polarization and neuroinflammation have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of this disease. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether hirsutella sinensis (HS) could reduce neuroinflammatory and pathological changes in the spinal cord of SOD1G93A model mice of ALS and consequently ameliorate disease onset and progression. METHODS:SOD1G93A mice were chronically treated with HS by gavage. Their lifespan was recorded, and motor behavior was evaluated by rotarod test. The pathological changes in skeletal muscles and motor neurons in spinal cords were assessed by immunofluorescent staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The microglia activation and neuroinflammation were determined by immunofluorescent staining and RT-PCR. RESULTS:Our data suggested that repeated HS administration prolonged the lifespan and extended disease duration of ALS mice without significant delay on disease onset. HS ameliorated the pathological changes in the motor neurons and gastrocnemius muscles. Moreover, HS promoted the transition of microglia from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype in the spinal cord of ALS mice. CONCLUSION:All these findings indicate that HS may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of ALS.
Project description:Emerging data continues to point towards a relationship between neuroinflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders. ATP-induced activation of P2X7 results in IL-1? release causing neuroinflammation and microglial activation. This study describes the in-vitro and in-vivo neuropharmacology of a novel brain-penetrant P2X7 antagonist, JNJ-55308942, currently in clinical development. JNJ-55308942 is a high-affinity, selective, brain-penetrant (brain/plasma of 1) P2X7 functional antagonist. In human blood and in mouse blood and microglia, JNJ-55308942 attenuated IL-1? release in a potent and concentration-dependent manner. After oral dosing, the compound exhibited both dose and concentration-dependent occupancy of rat brain P2X7 with an ED50 of 0.07?mg/kg. The P2X7 antagonist (3?mg/kg, oral) blocked Bz-ATP-induced brain IL-1? release in conscious rats, demonstrating functional effects of target engagement in the brain. JNJ-55308942 (30?mg/kg, oral) attenuated LPS-induced microglial activation in mice, assessed at day 2 after a single systemic LPS injection (0.8?mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting a role for P2X7 in microglial activation. In a model of BCG-induced depression, JNJ-55308942 dosed orally (30?mg/kg), reversed the BCG-induced deficits of sucrose preference and social interaction, indicating for the first time a role of P2X7 in the BCG model of depression, probably due to the neuroinflammatory component induced by BCG inoculation. Finally, in a rat model of chronic stress induced sucrose intake deficit, JNJ-55308942 reversed the deficit with concurrent high P2X7 brain occupancy as measured by autoradiography. This body of data demonstrates that JNJ-55308942 is a potent P2X7 antagonist, engages the target in brain, modulates IL-1? release and microglial activation leading to efficacy in two models of anhedonia in rodents.
Project description:Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are responsible for 20% of familial ALS. Given the gain of toxic function in this dominantly inherited disease, lowering SOD1 mRNA and protein is predicted to provide therapeutic benefit. An early generation antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting SOD1 was identified and tested in a phase I human clinical trial, based on modest protection in animal models of SOD1 ALS. Although the clinical trial provided encouraging safety data, the drug was not advanced because there was progress in designing other, more potent ASOs for CNS application. We have developed next-generation SOD1 ASOs that more potently reduce SOD1 mRNA and protein and extend survival by more than 50 days in SOD1G93A rats and by almost 40 days in SOD1G93A mice. We demonstrated that the initial loss of compound muscle action potential in SOD1G93A mice is reversed after a single dose of SOD1 ASO. Furthermore, increases in serum phospho-neurofilament heavy chain levels, a promising biomarker for ALS, are stopped by SOD1 ASO therapy. These results define a highly potent, new SOD1 ASO ready for human clinical trial and suggest that at least some components of muscle response can be reversed by therapy.