Comparative proteome analysis of tracheal tissues in response to infectious bronchitis coronavirus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian influenza virus H9 subtype virus infection.
ABSTRACT: Infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 subtype are major pathogens of chickens causing serious respiratory tract disease and heavy economic losses. To better understand the replication features of these viruses in their target organs and molecular pathogenesis of these different viruses, comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome changes of primary target organ during IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 infections, using 2D-DIGE followed MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. In total, 44, 39, 41, 48, and 38 proteins were identified in the tracheal tissues of the chickens inoculated with IBV (ck/CH/LDL/97I, H120), NDV (La Sota), and AIV H9, and between ck/CH/LDL/97I and H120, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 induced similar core host responses involved in biosynthetic, catabolic, metabolic, signal transduction, transport, cytoskeleton organization, macromolecular complex assembly, cell death, response to stress, and immune system process. Comparative analysis of host response induced by different viruses indicated differences in protein expression changes induced by IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 may be responsible for the specific pathogenesis of these different viruses. Our result reveals specific host response to IBV, NDV, and AIVH9 infections and provides insights into the distinct pathogenic mechanisms of these avian respiratory viruses.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a very dynamic and evolving virus, causing major economic losses to the global poultry industry. In early 2011, respiratory disease outbreaks were investigated in Iraq, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Five IBV isolates (JOA2, JOA4, Saudi-1, Saudi-2, and Iraqi IBV) were detected by diagnostic-nested nucleocapsid RT-PCR. Strain identification was characterised by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the amplified hypervariable region of the spike 1 (S1) gene. These five IBV isolates were found to be of the IBV strain CK/CH/LDL/97I. Nucleotide identity between these five IBV isolates ranged from 96.9% to 99.7%, and between these isolates and the CK/CH/LDL/97I strain in the range of 96.6-99.1%. The sequenced fragment of the S1 gene of the CK/CH/LDL/97I strain had less than 80% nucleotide identity to the IBV vaccine strains commonly used in the Middle East (M41 and H120). The presence of these CK/CH/LDL/97I-like strains may account for vaccination failure against IBV, since all IBV isolates were from vaccinated chickens. In this paper, we documented for the first time the presence of IBV strain CK/CH/LDL/97I in the Middle East. This strain is known to have originated in China and Taiwan.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are important avian pathogens that can cause enormous economic loss on the poultry industry. Different respiratory etiological agents may induce similar clinical signs that make differential diagnosis difficult. Importantly, AIV brings about severe threat to human public health. Therefore, a novel method that can distinguish these viruses quickly and simultaneously is urgently needed. RESULTS:In this study, an oligonucleotide microarray system was developed. AIV, including H5, H7, and H9 subtypes; NDV; and IBV were simultaneously detected and differentiated on a microarray. Three probes specific for AIV, NDV, and IBV, as well as three other probes for differentiating H5, H7, and H9 of AIV, were first designed and jet-printed to predetermined locations of initiator-integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) for the synchronous detection of the six pathogens. The marked multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were hybridized with the specific probes, and the results of hybridization were read directly with the naked eyes. No cross-reaction was observed with 10 other subtypes of AIV and infectious bursal disease virus, indicating that the oligonucleotide microarray assay was highly specific. The sensitivity of the method was at least 100 times higher than that of the conventional PCR, and the detection limit of NDV, AIV, H5, H7, and H9 can reach 0.1 EID50 (50% egg infective dose), except that of IBV, which was 1 EID50 per reaction. In the validation of 93 field samples, AIV, IBV, and NDV were detected in 53 (56.99%) samples by oligonucleotide microarray and virus isolation and in 50 (53.76%) samples by conventional PCR. CONCLUSIONS:We have successfully developed an approach to differentiate AIV, NDV, IBV, H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of AIV using oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray is an accurate, high-throughput, and relatively simple method for the rapid detection of avian respiratory viral diseases. It can be used for the epidemiological surveillance and diagnosis of AIV, IBV, and NDV.
Project description:Three different IBV genotypes/serotypes, designated ck/CH/LDL/150434-I (LDL/150434-I), ck/CH/LDL/150434-II (LDL/150434-II) and ck/CH/LDL/150434-III (LDL/150434-III), were detected in a single tracheal sample from a chicken showing signs of respiratory disease. The viruses were isolated using a cross-neutralization test and limiting dilution in embryonated specific-pathogen-free (SPF) eggs. Isolate LDL/150434-I was a re-isolation of H120 vaccine strain that was introduced into the chicken flock by vaccination, transmitted between chickens, and later accumulated several genomic mutations. Isolate LDL/150434-II was a novel variant that originated from recombination events between H120 and ck/CH/LDT3/03-like viruses. The widespread use of H120 vaccine, which offered incomplete protection against heterotypic IBVs in the fields, may play important roles in the emergence of such a novel genetic variant. Based on the analysis of S1 and complete genomic sequence, isolate LDL/150434-III was related genetically but distinct from the established strains of nrTW I type viruses of GI-7 lineage circulating in Mainland China since 2009. The three IBV isolates were avirulent when they infected SPF chickens. Furthermore, synergistic effects on pathogenicity were not observed when the different types co-infected the SPF chickens. However, the isolates persisted in the respiratory tracts longer in combined infected birds than those in individual infected birds. The results provide insights into the evolution of the viruses and co-infection of chickens with different virus serotypes.
Project description:The emergence of new infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants is often disastrous in the poultry industry. In this study, an IBV, CK/CH/2010/JT-1, was isolated from an H120- and 4/91-IBV-vaccinated flock in China. Antisera against vaccine strains H120 and 4/91 could not provide effective protection against CK/CH/2010/JT-1 in virus neutralization assays. CK/CH/2010/JT-1 could cause 43.75% mortality with respiratory and severe renal lesions in inoculated chickens. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene showed that CK/CH/2010/JT-1 and 31 other isolates could be grouped as a new genotypic cluster. Recombination analysis revealed that three recombination events could be found in the genome of CK/CH/2010/JT-1 at positions 24709-365, 17160-19811 and 21136-21770. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed that CK/CH/2010/JT-1 originated from multiple template switches among QX-like, CK/CH/LSC/99I-, tl/CH/LDT3/03- and 4/91-type IBVs. All of these data demonstrated that CK/CH/2010/JT-1 is a new recombinant genotype IBV with high virulence. Our findings suggest that the surveillance of new genotype strains of IBV is very important for developing more effective anti-IBV strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We previously attenuated the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain CK/CH/LDL/97I and found that it can convey protection against the homologous pathogenic virus. OBJECTIVE:To compare the full-length genome sequences of the Chinese IBV strain CK/CH/LDL/97I and its embryo-passaged, attenuated level to identify sequence substitutions responsible for the attenuation and define markers of attenuation. METHODS:The full-length genomes of CK/CH/LDL/97I P5 and P115 were amplified and sequenced. The sequences were assembled and compared using the MEGALIGN program (DNAStar) and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA4 software. RESULTS:The CK/CH/LDL/97I virus population contained subpopulations with a mixture of genetic mutants. Changes were observed in nsp4, nsp9, nsp11/12, nsp14, nsp15, nsp16, and ORF3a, but these did not result in amino acid substitutions or did not show functional variations. Amino acid substitutions occurred in the remaining genes between P5 and P115; most were found in the S region, and some of the nucleotide mutations resulted in amino acid substitutions. Among the 9 nsps in the ORF1 region, nsp3 contained the most nucleotide substitutions. CONCLUSIONS:Sequence variations in different genes, especially the S gene and nsp3, in the genomes of CK/CH/LDL/97I viruses might contribute to differences in viral replication, pathogenicity, antigenicity, immunogenicity, and tissue tropism.
Project description:An infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), ck/CH/LZJ/111113, was isolated from a H120-vaccinated chicken which showed disease suspected of IBV infection. Neutralization testing showed that ck/CH/LZJ/111113 was distinct from either the Chinese predominant IBV LX4-type or Mass-type vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that ck/CH/LZJ/111113 is of the 4/91 type; however, further extensive analyses of full-length genomes identified occurrence of recombination events. Therefore, ck/CH/LZJ/111113 originated from the recombination events between ck/CH/LDL/091022- and 4/91-like strains at three switch sites located upstream of the spike (S) glycoprotein gene, and the 3' ends of S1 and nuceocapsid (N) genes, respectively. The difference of serotypes and tissue tropisms in kidneys between ck/CH/LZJ/111113 and ck/CH/LDL/091022 may have been contributed by the uptake of the S1 gene by a ck/CH/LDL/091022-like virus from a 4/91-like strain. This recombination event took place at the 3' end of the N gene and the 3' untranslated region may account for differences in replication efficiency in tissues of chickens inoculated by the two viruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Viral diseases are a matter of great concern for poultry farmers in Pakistan. Multiple common viral respiratory diseases (CVRDs) cause huge economic losses in the poultry industry. The prevalence of CVRDs in many countries, including Pakistan, is not clearly understood. RESULTS:Incidences of 5 chicken respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV/AAVV-1), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were assessed on commercial Pakistani farms with respiratory problems from 2014 through to 2016. While AIV and AAVV-1 were frequently detected (16 to 17% of farms), IBV and aMPV were rarely detected (in 3 to 5% of farms) and ILTV was not detected. We characterized H9 AIV of the G1 lineage, genotype VII AAVV-1, GI-13 IBV, and type B aMPV strains with very little genetic variability in the 2-year study period. Co-infections with AIV and AAVV-1 were common and wild type AAVV-1 was detected despite the use of vaccines. Control measures to limit the virus burden in chicken flocks are discussed. CONCLUSIONS:Our data shows that AIV (H9), AAVV-1, IBV and aMPV are prevalent in commercial poultry in Pakistan. Further studies are necessary to assess circulating strains, economic losses caused by infections and coinfections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. Furthermore, veterinarians and farmers should be informed of the pathogens circulating in the field and hence advised on the use of vaccines.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection continues to cause economically important diseases in poultry while different geno- and serotypes continue to circulate globally. Two infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) were isolated from chickens with respiratory disease in Sudan. Sequence analysis of the hypervariable regions of the S1 gene revealed a close relation to the QX-like genotype which has not been detected in Sudan before. Whole genome analysis of IBV/Ck/Sudan/AR251-15/2014 isolate by next generation sequencing revealed a genome size of 27,646 nucleotides harbouring 13 open reading frames: 5'-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3'. Highest nucleotide sequence identity of 93% for the whole genome was found with the Chinese IBV strain Ck/CH/LHLJ/140906, the Italian IBV isolate ITA/90254/2005 and the 4/91 vaccine strain. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene revealed that the IBV/Ck/Sudan/AR251-15/2014 isolate clustered together with viruses of the GI-19 lineage. Recombination analysis gave evidence for distinct patterns of origin of RNA in the Sudanese isolate in multiple genes. Several sites of recombination were scattered throughout the genome suggesting that the Sudan-QX-like strain emerged as a unique recombinant from multiple recombination events of parental viruses from 4/91, H120 and ITA/90254/2005 genotypes. The Sudanese QX-like isolate is plausibly genetically different from IBV strains previously reported in Africa and elsewhere.
Project description:Recombination among infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs), coupled with point mutations, insertions, and deletions that occur in the genome, is thought to contribute to the emergence of new IBV variants. In this study an IBV, ck/CH/LJL/111054, was isolated from a H120-vaccinated chicken, which presented with a suspected IBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 subunit sequence confirmed that strain ck/CH/LJL/111054 is of the Connecticut-type; however, further extensive full-length genomic analysis identified the occurrence of recombination events. Therefore, strain ck/CH/LJL/111054 may have originated from recombination events between Conn- and Mass-like strains at three recombination breakpoints: two located within the nsp3 gene sequence and one in the nsp12 gene sequence. Further, the uptake of the 5' untranslated regions, nsp2, parts of nsp3, nsp4-11, and parts of nsp 12 from Mass-like virus by ck/CH/LJL/111054 might have resulted in changes in viral replication efficiency rather than antigenic changes, via cross-neutralization analysis with the H120 strain. Recombination events coupled with the accumulation of mutations in the ck/CH/LJL/111054 genome may account for its increased virulence in specific-pathogen free chickens.
Project description:In order to produce an efficient poultry H9 avian influenza vaccine that provides cross-protection against multiple H9 lineages, two Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain recombinant viruses were generated using reverse genetics. The recombinant NDV-H9Con virus expresses a consensus-H9 hemagglutinin (HA) that is designed based on available H9N2 sequences from Chinese and Middle Eastern isolates. The recombinant NDV-H9Chi virus expresses a chimeric-H9 HA in which the H9 ectodomain of A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 was fused with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domain of the fusion protein (F) of NDV. Both recombinant viruses expressed the inserted HA stably and grew to high titers. An efficacy study in chickens showed that both recombinant viruses were able to provide protection against challenge with a heterologous H9N2 virus. In contrast to the NDV-H9Chi virus, the NDV-H9Con virus induced a higher hemagglutination inhibition titer against both NDV and H9 viruses in immunized birds, and efficiently inhibited virus shedding through the respiratory route. Moreover, sera collected from birds immunized with either NDV-H9Con or NDV-H9Chi were able to cross-neutralize two different lineages of H9N2 viruses, indicating that NDV-H9Con and NDV-H9Chi are promising vaccine candidates that could provide cross-protection among different H9N2 lineage viruses.