A database of two-dimensional images of footwear outsole impressions.
ABSTRACT: Footwear outsole images were obtained from 150 pairs of used shoes. The motivation for constructing the database was to enable a statistical analysis of two-dimensional (2D) images of shoe outsoles, to understand within shoe (between replicate images of the same shoe) and between shoe variability, and to develop methods for the evaluation of forensic pattern evidence of shoeprints. Since we scanned the outsole of the used shoes, the images capture not only the outsole pattern design but also the marks that arise from wear and tear and that may help identify the shoe that made the impression. Each shoe in a pair was scanned five times, so that replicate images can be used to estimate within-shoe variability. In total, there are 1500 2D images in the database. The EverOS footwear scanner was used to capture the outsole of each shoe. The scanner detects the weight distribution of the person wearing the shoe when he or she steps on the scanning surface. It images the portions of the outsole that make contact with the scanning surface. The database is a useful resource for forensic scientists or for anybody else with an interest in image comparison. The database we describe, was constructed by researchers in the Center for Statistics and Applications in Forensic Evidence (CSAFE) at Iowa State University.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:An optimal range of shoe-surface traction (grip) exists to improve performance and minimise injury risk. Little information exists regarding the magnitude of traction forces at shoe-surface interface across a full season of elite football (soccer) using common football shoes. OBJECTIVE:To assess variation in shoe-surface traction of six different football shoe models throughout a full playing season in Qatar encompassing climatic and grass species variations. METHODS:Football shoes were loaded onto a portable shoe-surface traction testing machine at five individual testing time points to collect traction data (rotational and translational) on a soccer playing surface across one season. Surface mechanical properties (surface hardness, soil moisture) and climate data (temperature and humidity) were collected at each testing time point. RESULTS:Peak rotational traction was significantly different across shoe models (F = 218, df = 5, p <0.0001), shoe outsole groups (F = 316.2, df = 2, p < .0001), and grass species (F = 202.8, df = 4, p < 0.0001). No main effect for shoe model was found for translational traction (F = 2.392, p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS:The rotational (but not translational) traction varied substantially across different shoe types, outsole groups, and grass species. Highest rotational traction values were seen with soft ground outsole (screw-in metal studs) shoes tested on warm season grass. This objective data allows more informed footwear choices for football played in warm/hot climates on sand-based elite football playing surfaces. Further research is required to confirm if these findings extend across other football shoe brands.
Project description:Walking on different grades becomes challenging on energetic and muscular levels compared to level walking. While it is not possible to eliminate the cost of raising or lowering the centre of mass (COM), it could be possible to minimize the cost of distal joints with shoes that offset downhill or uphill grades. We investigated the effects of shoe outsole geometry in 10 participants walking at 1 m s-1 on downhill, level and uphill grades. Level shoes minimized metabolic rate during level walking (P second-order effect < 0.001). However, shoes that entirely offset the (overall) treadmill grade did not minimize the metabolic rate of walking on grades: shoes with a +3° (upward) inclination minimized metabolic rate during downhill walking on a -6° grade, and shoes with a -3° (downward) inclination minimized metabolic rate during uphill walking on a +6° grade (P interaction effect = 0.023). Shoe inclination influenced (distal) ankle joint parameters, including soleus muscle activity, ankle moment and work rate, whereas treadmill grade influenced (whole-body) ground reaction force and COM work rate as well as (distal) ankle joint parameters including tibialis anterior and plantarflexor muscle activity, ankle moment and work rate. Similar modular footwear could be used to minimize joint loads or assist with walking on rolling terrain.
Project description:Forensic image retrieval and processing are vital tools in the fight against crime e.g. during fingerprint capture. However, despite recent advances in machine vision technology and image processing techniques (and contrary to the claims of popular fiction) forensic image retrieval is still widely being performed using outdated practices involving inkpads and paper. Ongoing changes in government policy, increasing crime rates and the reduction of forensic service budgets increasingly require that evidence be gathered and processed more rapidly and efficiently. A consequence of this is that new, low-cost imaging technologies are required to simultaneously increase the quality and throughput of the processing of evidence. This is particularly true in the burgeoning field of forensic footwear analysis, where images of shoe prints are being used to link individuals to crime scenes. Here we describe one such approach based upon frustrated total internal reflection imaging that can be used to acquire images of regions where shoes contact rigid surfaces.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ill-fitting footwear is a common problem in older people. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of shoe fitting in older people by comparing the dimensions of allocated shoes to foot dimensions obtained with a three-dimensional (3D) scanner.<h4>Methods</h4>The shoe sizes of 56 older people were determined with the Brannock device®, and weightbearing foot scans were obtained with the FotoScan 3D scanner (Precision 3D Ltd, Weston-super-mare, UK). Participants were provided with a pair of shoes (Dr Comfort®, Vista, CA, USA), available in three width fittings (medium, wide and extra wide). The dimensions (length, ball width and ball girth) of the allocated shoes were documented according to the last measurements provided by the manufacturer. Mean differences between last dimensions and foot dimensions obtained with the 3D scanner were calculated to provide an indication of shoe fitting accuracy. Participants were also asked to report their perception of shoe fit and comfort, using 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS).<h4>Results</h4>Shoe size ranged from US size 7 to 14 for men and 5.5 to 11 for women. The allocated shoes were significantly longer than the foot (mean 23.6 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI] 22.1 to 25.2; t55?=?30.3, p?<?0.001), however there were no significant differences in relation to ball width (mean 1.4 mm, 95% CI -0.1 to 2.9 mm; t55?=?1.9, p?=?0.066) or ball girth (mean -0.7 mm, 95% CI -6.1 to 4.8 mm; t55?=?-0.2, p?=?0.810). Participants reported favourable perceptions of shoe fit (mean VAS?=?90.7 mm, 95% CI 88.4 to 93.1 mm) and comfort (mean VAS?=?88.4 mm, 95% CI 85.0 to 91.8 mm).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Shoe size selection using the Brannock device® resulted in the allocation of shoes with last dimensions that were well matched to the dimensions of the foot. Participants also considered the shoes to be well fitted and comfortable. Older people with disabling foot pain can therefore be dispensed with appropriately-fitted shoes using this technique, provided that the style and materials used are suitable and extra width fittings are available.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Falls in older people are common and can result in loss of confidence, fear of falling, restriction in activity and loss of independence. Causes of falls are multi-factorial. There is a paucity of research assessing the footwear characteristics among older people who are at high risk of falls, internationally and in the Irish setting. The aim of this study was to examine the proportion of older adults attending a geriatric day hospital in Ireland who were wearing incorrectly sized shoes. METHODS:A consecutive sample of 111 older adults aged 60?years and over attending a geriatric day hospital in a large Irish teaching hospital was recruited. Demographic data including age, mobility, medications, co-habitation status, footwear worn at home and falls history were recorded. Shoe size and foot length were measured in millimetres using an internal shoe gauge and SATRA shoe size stick, respectively. Participants' self-reported shoe size was recorded. Footwear was assessed using the Footwear Assessment Form (FAF). A Timed Up and Go (TUG) score was recorded. Functional independence was assessed using the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale. The primary outcome of interest in this study was selected as having footwear within the suggested range (10 to 15?mm) on at least one foot. Participants who met this definition were compared to those with ill-fitting footwear on both feet using Chi-square tests, T-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS:The mean difference between shoe length and foot length was 18.6?mm (SD: 9.6?mm). Overall, 72% of participants were wearing footwear that did not fit correctly on both feet, 90% had shoes with smooth, partly worn or fully worn sole treading and 67% reported wearing slippers at home. Participant age, TUG score and NEADL score were not associated with ill-fitting footwear. CONCLUSIONS:Wearing incorrectly fitting shoes and shoes with unsafe features was common among older adults attending geriatric day services in this study. A large number of participants reported wearing slippers at home.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The effect of footwear on the gait of children is poorly understood. This systematic review synthesises the evidence of the biomechanical effects of shoes on children during walking and running. METHODS: Study inclusion criteria were: barefoot and shod conditions; healthy children aged ? 16 years; sample size of n > 1. Novelty footwear was excluded. Studies were located by online database-searching, hand-searching and contact with experts. Two authors selected studies and assessed study methodology using the Quality Index. Meta-analysis of continuous variables for homogeneous studies was undertaken using the inverse variance approach. Significance level was set at P < 0.05. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. Where I2 > 25%, a random-effects model analysis was used and where I2 < 25%, a fixed-effects model was used. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. Sample size ranged from 4-898. Median Quality Index was 20/32 (range 11-27). Five studies randomised shoe order, six studies standardised footwear. Shod walking increased: velocity, step length, step time, base of support, double-support time, stance time, time to toe-off, sagittal tibia-rearfoot range of motion (ROM), sagittal tibia-foot ROM, ankle max-plantarflexion, Ankle ROM, foot lift to max-plantarflexion, 'subtalar' rotation ROM, knee sagittal ROM and tibialis anterior activity. Shod walking decreased: cadence, single-support time, ankle max-dorsiflexion, ankle at foot-lift, hallux ROM, arch length change, foot torsion, forefoot supination, forefoot width and midfoot ROM in all planes. Shod running decreased: long axis maximum tibial-acceleration, shock-wave transmission as a ratio of maximum tibial-acceleration, ankle plantarflexion at foot strike, knee angular velocity and tibial swing velocity. No variables increased during shod running. CONCLUSIONS: Shoes affect the gait of children. With shoes, children walk faster by taking longer steps with greater ankle and knee motion and increased tibialis anterior activity. Shoes reduce foot motion and increase the support phases of the gait cycle. During running, shoes reduce swing phase leg speed, attenuate some shock and encourage a rearfoot strike pattern. The long-term effect of these changes on growth and development are currently unknown. The impact of footwear on gait should be considered when assessing the paediatric patient and evaluating the effect of shoe or in-shoe interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Biomechanical factors may play a role in osteoarthritis (OA) development and progression. Previous biomechanical studies have indicated that types of footwear may modulate forces across the knee joint, and high heeled womens' shoes in particular are hypothesised to be detrimental to lower limb joint health. This analysis of data from a case control study investigated persistent users of different adult footwear for risks of knee and hip OA. Our underlying hypotheses were that high heeled, narrow heeled, and hard soled shoe types were putative risk factors for lower limb OA.<h4>Methods</h4>Data on footwear were initially obtained from participants during the Genetics of Osteoarthritis and Lifestyle (GOAL) hospital-based, case control study using standardised interview-delivered questionnaires. An additional questionnaire was later sent to GOAL study participants to verify findings and to further investigate specific shoe use per decade of life. Persistent users of footwear types (high or narrow heel; sole thickness or hardness) were identified from early adulthood. Participants were grouped into single sex knee OA, hip OA or control groups. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>Univariate analysis of persistent users of women's high heeled and narrow heeled shoes during early adulthood showed negative associations with knee OA and hip OA. After logistic regression, persistent narrow heel users were associated with less risk of OA (knee OA aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35 - 1.00 and hip aOR: 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 - 0.85), and other analyses were not statistically significant. Further analysis suggested that women with hip OA may have stopped wearing high and narrow heeled footwear to attenuate hip pain in early adulthood. Consistent associations between shoe soles and OA were not found.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In general, persistent users of high and narrow heeled shoes during early adulthood had a negative association with knee or hip OA. This does not necessarily imply a causal relationship, as changing footwear during early adulthood to modulate index joint pain may provide a possible explanation. Despite the findings of previous biomechanical studies of high heels, we did not find a positive association between women's shoes and lower limb osteoarthritis.
Project description:Background:Higher peak external knee flexion moments (KFM) during running has been observed in healthy people wearing athletic footwear compared to barefoot, which may increase risk of knee pathologies such as patellofemoral pain. Currently, no studies have examined whether stability and neutral style athletic shoes influence the peak KFM differently, or explored the underlying biomechanical mechanisms by which footwear alters peak KFM in young females. Methods:Lower limb biomechanics of sixty girls aged between 10 and 25?years old were collected while running in footwear (both stability and neutral) and barefoot. The external peak KFM, sagittal plane kinematics, sagittal plane knee ground reaction force (GRF) lever arm and sagittal plane resultant GRF magnitude were analysed by repeated measures Analysis of Variance. Linear mixed models were fit to identify predictors of a change in peak KFM, and to determine if the effects of these predictors differed between footwear conditions. Results:The peak KFM was higher wearing both shoe styles compared to barefoot (p?<?0.001), while no between-shoe differences were found (p?>?0.05). Both shoes also increased kinematic variables at the hip, knee, and ankle (p?<?0.05). When all these variables were entered into the mixed model, only a change in the knee-GRF lever arm was predictive of a change in peak KFM wearing shoes compared to barefoot (p?<?0.001). Conclusion:These findings provide evidence that stability and neutral shoes increase peak KFM compared to barefoot, which is associated with a change in the knee-GRF lever arm rather than a change in lower limb kinematics. Future studies may consider manipulating footwear characteristics to reduce the knee-GRF lever arm in an effort to reduce peak KFM and the potential risk of patellofemoral pain.
Project description:Background:Court shoe designs predominantly focus on reducing excessive vertical ground reaction force, but shear force cushioning has received little attention in the basketball population. We aimed to examine the effect of a novel shoe-cushioning design on both resultant horizontal ground reaction forces and comfort perception during two basketball-specific cutting movements. Methods:Fifteen university team basketball players performed lateral shuffling and 45-degree sidestep cutting at maximum effort in basketball shoes with and without the shear-cushioning system (SCS). Paired t-tests were used to examine the differences in kinetics and comfort perception between two shoes. Results:SCS shoe allowed for larger rotational material deformation compared with control shoes, but no significant shoe differences were found in braking phase kinetics during both cutting movements (P = 0.35). Interestingly, a greater horizontal propulsion impulse was found with the SCS during 45-degree cutting (P < 0.05), when compared with the control. In addition, players wearing SCS shoes perceived better forefoot comfort (P = 0.012). During lateral shuffling, there were no significant differences in horizontal GRF and comfort perception between shoe conditions (P > 0.05). Discussion:The application of a rotational shear-cushioning structure allowed for better forefoot comfort and enhanced propulsion performance in cutting, but did not influence the shear impact. Understanding horizontal ground reaction force information may be useful in designing footwear to prevent shear-related injuries in sport populations.
Project description:Foot problems are prevalent in older women and are thought to be associated with footwear. This study examined women's shoe wearing patterns over time and evaluated associations between footwear characteristics and foot pain and hallux valgus.Women aged 50-89 years (n = 2,627) completed a survey that included drawings of four toe-box shapes and four heel heights. For each life decade, participants indicated which footwear style they wore most of the time. Foot pain in the past 12 months and hallux valgus were documented by self-report. Logistic regression examined associations between heel height, toe-box shape, foot pain and hallux valgus.Wearing shoes with a high heel and very narrow toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 was common, but decreased to less than 10% by the age of 40. Compared with women who had worn shoes with a very wide toe box, the likelihood of hallux valgus increased in those who had worn shoes with a wide (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% CI 1.03-3.71), narrow (2.39, 1.29-4.42) and very narrow (2.70, 1.46-5.00) toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 and those who wore shoes with a very narrow toe box (1.93, 1.10-3.39) between the ages of 30 and 39.Women wear shoes with a lower heel and broader toe box as they age. Wearing constrictive footwear between the ages of 20 and 39 may be critical for developing hallux valgus in later life.