ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Massive gastrointestinal bleeding in children is uncommon. Dieulafoy lesion is an uncommon disease which may lead to massive and repeated upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We report two cases of gastric Dieulafoy lesion successfully treated with either band ligation or endoscopic hemoclipping. CASE PRESENTATION:First case report: A previously healthy 18-month-old female infant with E. coli sepsis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with bilateral pneumothorax requiring chest drainage. Over a few days, the patient presented hematemesis and melena with progressively worsening anemia. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed an arterial vessel with eroded apex located between the body and the fundus of the stomach. Two elastic bands were applied which resulted in resolution of hematemesis and melena and improvement of the anemia. Second case report: A 8-year-old male was admitted to our department with sudden massive hematemesis and melena. Clinical examination revealed anemia (hemoglobin, 6.8?g/dl). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a mucosal erosion with visible vessel located along the small curvature, close to the antrum. Three hemostatic clips were placed on the Dieulafoy lesion and hemostasis was obtained. CONCLUSIONS:we showed that, similar to gastric DL in adult patients,, gastric DL in pediatric patients can be successfully treated with endoscopic therapy, and both hemoclipping and band ligation are suitable techniques.
Project description:To evaluate long-term endoscopic resolution and recurrence rate of gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) after argon plasma coagulation (APC) treatment.This was an IRB-approved retrospective single center study that included patients endoscopically treated for GAVE between 1/1/2008 to 12/31/2014. The primary and secondary end points of the study were rate of endoscopic resolution of GAVE after APC treatment and recurrence rate of GAVE after endoscopic resolution, respectively. Endoscopic resolution of GAVE was defined as no endoscopic evidence of GAVE after treatment with APC. Recurrence of GAVE was defined as endoscopic reappearance of GAVE after prior resolution.Twenty patients met the study criteria. Median age (range) of the patients was 59.5 years (42-74 years). GAVE was associated with underlying cirrhosis in 16 (80%) patients. Indications for initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) included hematemesis and/or melena (9/20, 45%), iron deficiency anemia (6/20, 30%), screening or surveillance of varices (4/20, 20%), and occult gastrointestinal bleeding (1/20, 5%). The patients were treated with a total of 55 APC sessions (range 1-7 sessions). Successful endoscopic resolution of GAVE was achieved in 8 out of 20 patients (40%). There was no correlation between number of treatment sessions and GAVE treatment success (P = NS). Recurrence of GAVE was noted on a subsequent EGD in 2 out of 8 patients (25%) with prior endoscopic resolution of GAVE. Median follow-up period for the study population was 627 d (range 63-1953 d).Endoscopic resolution rate of GAVE was low (40%) with a 25% recurrence rate after treatment with APC. These rates suggest that APC treatment of GAVE may not be optimal in many circumstances.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Temsirolimus has important clinical activity in both untreated and previously treated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Targeted therapy-related stomatitis and mucositis have occurred during targeted therapies, but there is no consensus on which strategy is the most effective. We herein report a case in which several sessions of endoscopic hemostasis with argon plasma coagulation (APC) effectively resolved life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that had occurred during targeted therapy. This is the first case report of such an adverse drug reaction in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old female patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma was treated with temsirolimus. Eight weeks after starting targeted therapy, the patient was admitted to our hospital for worsened fatigue, pallor, and hematemesis. A complete blood count showed a marked drop in her hemoglobin level from 10.1 g/dl 4 days earlier to 2.9 g/dl. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed diffuse mucosal bleeding of the antrum. Endoscopy revealed diffuse reddish spots that resembled gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) extending from the pylorus into the antrum. One month after endoscopic hemostasis with APC and stopping temsirolimus, significant improvement was shown in the gastric erythema and GAVE like lesions. CONCLUSION: Minor hemorrhagic events are relatively common in patients treated with targeted agents. Life-threatening hemorrhagic events are rarer than minor hemorrhagic complications. In the present case, endoscopic hemostasis with APC effectively prevented severe anemia and blood loss due to gastrointestinal bleeding.
Project description:Polycythemia vera (PV) is classified as a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD). Such patients are prone to both thrombotic and hemorrhagic events. Although gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is not a prominent manifestation of PV, it would be life threatening and necessitating hospital admission and blood transfusion if it occurs. GI hemorrhage in these patients may be due to Aspirin usage, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), acquired Von Willbrand disease, Dieulafoy lesion (DL), Mallory Weiss tear, and esophageal and gastric varices. DL is an enlarged, thick-walled artery in the muscularis mucosa with a small submucosal defect. In this case report, we describe a 65-year-old man with history of PV presented with a massive upper GI bleeding. After a therapeutic endoscopic hemostasis failure and reoccurrence of bleeding during hospital admission, an abdominal computed tomography (CT) was ordered, which revealed an aberrant artery originated from aorta directly into the stomach. An angiographic embolization was considered for the patient, which was successfully performed. Our patient was complicated by splenic infarction due to splenic collateral arteries embolization and the overwhelming thrombotic tendency of the patient himself due to the history of PV. Fortunately, our patient's signs and symptoms responded to supportive therapies and eventually he discharged well.
Project description:Gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents accounts for up to 20 % of referrals to gastroenterologists. Detailed management guidelines exist for gastrointestinal bleeding in adults, but they do not encompass children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess gastrointestinal bleeding in pediatric patients and to determine an investigative management algorithm accounting for the specifics of children and adolescents.Pediatric patients with gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to our endoscopy unit from 2001 to 2009 (n = 154) were identified. Retrospective statistical and neural network analysis was used to assess outcome and to determine an investigative management algorithm.The source of bleeding could be identified in 81 % (n = 124/154). Gastrointestinal bleeding was predominantly lower gastrointestinal bleeding (66 %, n = 101); upper gastrointestinal bleeding was much less common (14 %, n = 21). Hematochezia was observed in 94 % of the patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 95 of 101). Hematemesis (67 %, n = 14 of 21) and melena (48 %, n = 10 of 21) were associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The sensitivity and specificity of a neural network to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 98 % and 63.6 %, respectively and to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 75 % and 96 % respectively. The sensitivity and specifity of hematochezia alone to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 94.2 % and 85.7 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for hematemesis and melena to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 82.6 % and 94 %, respectively. We then developed an investigative management algorithm based on the presence of hematochezia and hematemesis or melena.Hematochezia should prompt colonoscopy and hematemesis or melena should prompt esophagogastroduodenoscopy. If no source of bleeding is found, additional procedures are often non-diagnostic.
Project description:Dieulafoy lesions are aberrantly large submucosal arteries most frequently associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. They are rarely identified in the bronchial submucosa and can cause massive hemoptysis.We present three episodes of massive hemoptysis in two patients, the first with comorbid Alagille syndrome including multiple cardiac and pulmonary vascular abnormalities and the second with thyroid cancer metastatic to the mediastinum.All episodes were due to Dieulafoy lesions of the bronchus based on bronchoscopic appearance.Bronchoscopic ablation using Nd:YAP laser was attempted both patients.Nd:YAP laser successfully ablated the Dieulafoy lesion in the first case with long-term relief from recurrent hemoptysis. The first episode in the second patient responded to bronchial artery embolization; laser ablation of a different Dieulafoy lesion responsible for the second episode was unsuccessful but additional bronchial artery embolization has provided relief from further episodes.Bronchoscopic ablation of Dieulafoy lesions of the bronchus can provide durable relief from recurrent symptoms. Clinical and anatomical features should be considered carefully before intervention, which should only be attempted by experienced operators with appropriate ancillary support available.
Project description:This study aimed to test the safety and efficacy of Hemospray® for emergency control of acute variceal bleeding (AVB) due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients.This single-arm, prospective trial, conducted at two hospitals in Belgium and Egypt, included patients admitted to the emergency room with hematemesis and/or melena and known or suspected liver cirrhosis. All patients received urgent hemodynamic stabilization, octreotide (50 mcg bolus then 25?mcg/hour for 24 hours) and intravenous ceftriaxone (1?g/hour). Endoscopy to confirm AVB and Hemospray® application (if indicated) was performed within six hours of admission. Patients were kept under observation for 24 hours and underwent second endoscopy and definitive therapy (band ligation and/or cyanoacrylate injection in cases of gastric varices) the next day.Thirty-eight patients were admitted for suspected AVB, and 30 of these had confirmed AVB (70% male; mean age 59.5 years (range, 32.0-73 years)). Child-Pugh class C liver disease was present in 53.4%. Esophageal varices were observed in 83.4% of patients, gastric varices in 10%, and duodenal varices in 6.6%. Spurting bleeding at the time of endoscopy was observed in 43.4%. One patient developed hematemesis six hours after Hemospray® application and underwent emergency endoscopic band ligation. No major adverse events or mortalities were observed during 15-day follow-up.Hemospray® application was safe and effective at short-term follow-up for emergency treatment of AVB in cirrhotic patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: The novel over-the-scope clip (OTSC) allows for excellent apposition of tissue, potentially permitting hemostasis to be achieved in various types of gastrointestinal lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and safety of OTSCs for endoscopic hemostasis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in whom traditional endoscopic methods had failed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case series of all patients who underwent placement of an OTSC for severe recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 14-month period was studied. Outcome data for the procedure included achievement of primary hemostasis, episodes of recurrent bleeding, and complications. RESULTS: Twelve consecutive patients (67 % men; mean age 59, range 29 - 86) with ongoing upper gastrointestinal bleeding despite previous endoscopic management were included. They had a mean ASA score of 3 (range 2 - 4), a mean hemoglobin of 7.2 g/dL (range 5.2 - 9.1), and shock was present in 75 % of patients. They had all received packed red blood cells (mean 5.1 units, range 2 - 12). The etiology of bleeding was: duodenal ulcer (n = 6), gastric ulcer (n = 2) Dieulafoy lesion (n = 2), anastomotic ulceration (n = 1), Mallory - Weiss tear (n = 1). Hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Rebleeding occurred in two patients 1 day and 7 days after OTSC placement. There were no complications associated with OTSC application. CONCLUSIONS: OTSC use represents an effective, easily performed, and safe endoscopic therapy for various causes of severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding when conventional endoscopic techniques have failed. This therapy should be added to the armamentarium of therapeutic endoscopists.
Project description:Primary gastric mucormycosis is a rare but potentially lethal fungal infection due to the invasion of Mucorales into the gastric mucosa. It may result in high mortality due to increased risk of complications in immunocompromised patients. Common predisposing risk factors to develop gastric mucormycosis are prolonged uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with or without diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), solid organ or stem cell transplantation, underlying hematologic malignancy, and major trauma. Abdominal pain, hematemesis, and melena are common presenting symptoms. The diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis can be overlooked due to the rarity of the disease. A high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and management of the disease, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Radiological imaging findings are nonspecific to establish the diagnosis, and gastric biopsy is essential for histological confirmation of mucormycosis. Prompt treatment with antifungal therapy is the mainstay of treatment with surgical resection reserved in cases of extensive disease burden or clinical deterioration. We presented a case of acute gastric mucormycosis involving the body of stomach in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes and chronic renal disease, admitted with acute onset of abdominal pain. Complete resolution of lesion was noted with 16 weeks of medical treatment with intravenous amphotericin B and posaconazole.
Project description:A 49-year-old woman underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy as part of a health check at our hospital. Endoscopic observation revealed a flat elevated lesion 6 mm in diameter in the gastric antrum (Paris Classification type IIa). Magnifying endoscopy using narrow-band imaging showed a slightly irregular micro-surface pattern with round and oval pits, as well as a regular micro-vascular pattern without a demarcation line. Atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were not recognized in the background gastric mucosa. Furthermore, Helicobacter pylori infection was not detected by histologic, serologic, and urea breath test results. Endoscopic resection was performed for histologic evaluation, and a pathologic diagnosis of intestinal-type gastric adenoma occurring in pyloric mucosa without atrophy or metaplasia was established. Immunohistochemistry findings of the lesion showed the intestinal epithelium phenotype with positive staining for MUC2, CD10, and CDX2. Furthermore, irregular distribution with a higher positive proportion of Ki-67 was found in the lesion, indicating its malignant potential. We report here a rare case of gastric adenoma without surrounding intestinal metaplasia occurring in a Helicobacter pylori-negative patient.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There are limited series concerning Dieulafoy disease of the bronchus. We describe the clinical presentation of a series of 7 patients diagnosed with Dieulafoy disease of the bronchus and provide information about the pathological diagnosis approach.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>A retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for massive and unexplained recurrent hemoptysis in a referral center during a 11-year period.<h4>Results</h4>Seven heavy smoker (49 pack years) patients (5 males) mean aged 54 years experienced a massive hemoptysis (350-1000 ml) unrelated to a known lung disease and frequently recurrent. Bronchial contrast extravasation was observed in 3 patients, combining both CT scan and bronchial arteriography. Efficacy of bronchial artery embolization was achieved in 40% of cases before surgery. Pathological examination demonstrated a minute defect in 3 cases and a large and dysplasic superficial bronchial artery in the submucosa in all cases.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Dieulafoy disease should be suspected in patients with massive and unexplained episodes of recurrent hemoptysis, in order to avoid hazardous endoscopic biopsies and to alert the pathologist if surgery is performed.