Determinants of health-related quality of life among human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV-positive) patients at Ahmadu Bello University teaching hospital, Zaria, Nigeria- 2015.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The advent of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is associated with improved clinical and laboratory outcomes resulting in prolonged life and well-being of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV). However, the needs for life-long therapy, medications' side effects and stigma have raised concerns about their quality of life (QOL). This study assessed the determinants of Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among HIV-positive patients at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of 353 HIV-positive adults on HAART attending the HIV clinic of ABUTH, Zaria. The participants were recruited into the study using a systematic sampling technique. Data on socio-demographics, medical parameters, QOL and family functionality were collected using structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. The World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life HIV short form instrument (WHOQOL-HIV BREF) item and Family APGAR tool were respectively used in assessing the QOL and family functionality of the participants. We performed univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Mean age was 39.1(±10.9) years, 239 (67.7%) were females, 208 (58.9%) were Hausa-Fulani, 240 (68.2%) married and up to 210 (59.4%) had at least a secondary education. The overall mean scores on the scale of 4-20 for HRQOL were similar in three domains: environment domain 14.5(±2.8); social relationship 14.4(±3.1) and level of independence 14.4(±2.5). Lower scores were recorded in spirituality/religion/personal beliefs 12.3(±4.3). Identified determinants of HRQOL were spousal HIV- positive status (AOR?=?3.37; CI; 1.46-7.74) and high family function (AOR?=?2.57; CI: 1.51-4.39). CONCLUSION:Having highly functional family and having HIV-positive partner were the major determinants of HRQOL. Routine family counselling and strengthening the HIV social-support network should be incorporated into the routine patients' care in HIV treatment centers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is a standard of HIV management to suppress viral load and delay progression to AIDS. However, questions have been raised about the use of antiretroviral therapy and how it affects quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study hence aimed to assess the QoL of PLWHA who were taking HAART at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital (MTUTH) and identify factors associated with QoL. METHODS:A cross sectional study was conducted among PLWHA receiving HAART at MTUTH from March 04-April 1, 2018. Patients were recruited consecutively and interviewed with structured questionnaire. A data abstraction tool was used to extract data from patient medical records. Quality of life was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life HIV- BREF (WHOQOL-HIV-BREF) standard tool. Data was entered to Epi-Info version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 22 for windows. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify factors associated with QoL. A statistical significance was established at a p value <0.05. RESULTS:A total of 240 participants with the mean age of 35.11 (SD = 9.08) years were included in the study. This study found that 57.1% of the patients had high global score of QoL. Patients with normal current health (AOR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.56-7.31)) and having family support (AOR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.51-6.46) were positively associated with high global score of QoL, while patients with low HAART adherence (AOR = 0.40, 95%, CI = 0.19-0.86) were negatively associated with high global score of QoL. CONCLUSION:The study revealed that more than half of the participants had high global score of QoL. Normal current health and family support were associated with better global score of QoL, while low HAART adherence was found to be associated with the lower global score of QoL.
Project description:BACKGROUND: As infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has evolved to a chronic disease, perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is becoming a prominent and important patient-reported outcome measure in HIV care. Literature discusses different factors influencing HRQoL in this population, however, currently no consensus exists about the main determinants. In this review a clear, up-to-date overview of the determinants influencing HRQOL among people living with HIV is provided. METHODS: All studies published before July 2013 that identified determinants of HRQoL among people living with HIV in high-income countries, were considered in this narrative review. PubMed, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library were consulted using the keywords 'determinants', 'quality of life', 'HIV' and 'AIDS'. To be included, studies should have reported overall health and/or physical/mental health scores on a validated instrument and performed multivariable regression analyses to identify determinants that independently influence perceived HRQoL. RESULTS: In total, 49 studies were included for further analysis and they used a variety of HRQoL instruments: Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 or variants, Medical Outcomes Study-HIV, HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study measure, Multidimensional Quality of Life Questionnaire, HIV targeted quality of life instrument, Functional Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, HIV Overview of Problems Evaluation System, EuroQol, Fanning Quality of Life scale, Health Index and PROQOL-HIV. In this review, the discussed determinants were thematically divided into socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and behavioural factors. Employment, immunological status, presence of symptoms, depression, social support and adherence to antiretroviral therapy were most frequently and consistently reported to be associated with HRQoL among people living with HIV. CONCLUSIONS: HRQoL among people living with HIV is influenced by several determinants. These determinants independently, but simultaneously impact perceived HRQoL. Most HRQoL instruments do not capture all key determinants. We recommend that the choice for an instrument should depend on the purpose of the HRQoL assessment.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>HIV/AIDS remains a public health concern affecting millions of people across the world. Although the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients living with HIV has significantly improved after treatment, its chronicity makes the HRQoL uncertain. This study assessed factors associated with the health-related quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS on HAART in North-East Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018, and systematic random sampling was used to select 235 participants who were on HAART. HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey. Descriptive and multiple linear regression analysis were computed using the statistical package for social sciences version 20.<h4>Results</h4>The study revealed one-factor structure and had good overall internal consistency (78.5). Over one-third (42.6%; 95% CI; 36.2%, 48.9%) of participants had good HRQoL. The least HRQoL mean score was found for cognitive functioning 32.21(±19.78), followed by social functioning 40.58(±29.8). Factors associated with the overall HRQoL were 25-45 years of age (? = - 3.55, 95% CI;-6.54, -0.55), working in private sector (? = -5.66, 95% CI;-9.43, -1.88), government (? = -4.29, 95% CI;-7.83, -0.75) and self-employment (? = -8.86, 95% CI;-13.50, -4.21), 100-200 (? = - 4.84, 95% CI;-9.04, -0.63) and 201-350 CD4 at the time of diagnosis (? = - 7.45, 95% CI;-11.73, -3.16), 351-500 current CD4 level (? = 8.34, 95% CI;5.55, 11.41), 6-10 years of disease duration (? = -8.28, 95% CI;-12.51, -4.04), WHO stage II (? = -4.78, 95% CI;-8.52, -1.04) and III (? = 3.42, 95% CI;0.06, 6.79) during treatment initiation and not taking of Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (? = -5.79, 95% CI;-8.34, -3.25).<h4>Conclusions</h4>High proportion of participants had a poor HRQoL. Routine assessment and appropriate interventions at each visit is recommended to improve HRQoL.
Project description:Seafarers have reported impaired health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Social support might increase HRQOL, but little is known about this association among Chinese seafarers. The aim of this study was to describe social support and explore its association with HRQOL among Chinese seafarers.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the ports of Nantong and Rugao, China, from April to December 2013. A total of 917 Chinese seafarers were interviewed on social support, mental distress, perceived occupational stress, and HRQOL using the following self-administered questionnaires: The Social Support Rating Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, Occupational Stress Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to analyze the association between seafarers' subjective level of social support and their HRQOL.Of the 917 male Chinese seafarers included in the study, 40.7% perceived high levels of social support, and 39.1% were highly satisfied with their overall quality of life (QOL). Hierarchical regression analysis showed significant associations between level of social support and all health dimensions in the WHOQOL-BREF, even after adjusting for depressive symptoms, occupational stress, occupational activities, sleep duration, and other relevant covariates. Compared with the medium or low level social support group, seafarers with a high level of social support had better QOL scores in the general facet health and QOL (? = 2.43, p<0.05), and the physical health (? = 3.23, p<0.001), psychological health (? = 5.56, p<0.001), social relation (? = 6.07, p<0.001), and environment domains (? = 4.27, p<0.001). In addition, depression, occupational stress, occupational activities, and sleep duration were found to be determinants of seafarers' HRQOL.Chinese seafarers have poorer HRQOL than the general population, but social support has a significant positive effect on their HRQOL. Efforts to improve social support should be undertaken.
Project description:Tobacco smoking has a negative impact on human health. Thus, it seems plausible for it to affect perceived quality of life as well. Information in this regard is lacking in Nepalese context. Thus, a comparative study was designed to assess association of cigarette smoking with Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). This study was conducted among 125 current and never cigarette smokers who attended a teaching hospital in peri-urban area of Capital city of Nepal from December 2015 to June 2016. The data regarding their socio-demographic characteristic, tobacco history and HRQoL was collected using a self administered questionnaire. QoL assessment was made with the help of valid, translated version of WHO QOL-BREF. Results showed current smokers on an average used 4 sticks of cigarettes per day. Significant proportions of current smokers also consumed alcohol compared to never smokers (p <0.05). Mean difference of both overall QoL score and domain scores among both study groups were relatively small and thus, failed to reach statistical significance. On the other hand, the socio-demographic characteristics like male gender, currently earning and attaining more than higher secondary education were predictors of better HRQoL scores. According to study results, relationship between smoking status and self reported QoL is unclear. Thus, the policy makers should also focus on wider determinants of ill health and well being and not just smoking status. Further research is still needed to understand the effect of tobacco on self perceived health related quality of life.
Project description:AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile of a large UK HIV cohort and how highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) affects this. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study within a large inner city hospital and neighbouring district hospital. A total of 1021 HIV positive outpatients representative of the complete cohort and 990 who had no previous CVD were included in CVD risk analysis. We recorded demographics, HAART history and CVD risk factors. CVD and coronary heart disease (CHD) risks were calculated using the Framingham (1991) algorithm adjusted for family history. RESULTS: The non-CVD cohort (n = 990) was 74% men, 51% Caucasian and 73.1% were on HAART. Mean age was 41 +/- 9 years, systolic blood pressure 120 +/- 14 mmHg, total cholesterol 4.70 +/- 1.05 mmol/l, high-density lipoprotein-C 1.32 +/- 0.48 mmol/l and 37% smoked. Median CVD risk was 4 (0-56) % in men and 1.4 (0-37) % in women; CHD risks were 3.5 (0-36) % and 0.6 (0-16) %. CVD risk was > 20% in 6% of men and 1% of women and > 10% in 12% of men and 4% of women. CVD risk was higher in Caucasians than other ethnicities; the risk factor contributing most was raised cholesterol. For patients on their first HAART, increased CHD risk (26.2% vs. 6.5%; odds ratio 4.03, p < 0.001) was strongly related to the duration of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Modifiable risk factors, especially cholesterol, and also duration of HAART, were key determinants of CVD risk. DISCUSSION: Regular CHD and/or CVD risk assessment should be performed on patients with HIV, especially during HAART therapy. The effect of different HAART regimens on CHD risk should be considered when selecting therapy.
Project description:Maintaining quality of life (QOL) and physical and mental health status are important outcomes throughout the aging process. Although cross-sectional studies suggest a relationship between global QOL and physical activity, it is unclear whether such a relationship exists as a function of exercise training.We examined the effects of two exercise intervention arms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and global QOL. Low-active, older adults (n = 179) were randomly assigned to either a 12-month aerobic walking group or a strengthening and flexibility group. HRQOL and QOL were measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months.There was a significant group by time effect on QOL [F(2,176) = 3.11, p = 0.047, ? (2) = 0.03]. There was also a significant overall group by time effect for HRQOL [F(4,174) = 2.46, p = 0.047, ? (2) = 0.05], which was explained by the significant group by time interaction for mental health status (p = 0.041, ? (2) = 0.02) favoring the walking condition. Further analyses using latent class analysis revealed three classes of individuals with differential patterns of change in QOL and HRQOL across time. These classes reflected no change, declines, and improvements in these constructs across time.Walking appears to enhance the mental aspect of HRQOL and global QOL when compared to a non-aerobic intervention. Additionally, the patterns of change in QOL and HRQOL were not linear over time. Our findings are in contrast to previous reports that these outcomes change a little or not at all in randomized trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Identification of patient-related factors associated with Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and Quality of Life (QoL) at the start of treatment may identify patients who are prone to a decrease in HRQoL and/or QoL resulting from chemotherapy. Identification of these factors may offer opportunities to enhance patient care during treatment by adapting communication strategies and directing medical and psychological interventions. The aim was to examine the association of sociodemographic factors, personality traits, and depressive symptoms with HRQoL and QoL in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer at the start of chemotherapy. METHODS:Patients (n?=?151) completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait anxiety subscale), the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Simple linear regression analyses were performed to select HRQoL and QoL associated factors (a P???0.10 was used to prevent non-identification of important factors) followed by multiple linear regression analyses (P???0.05). RESULTS:In the multiple regression analyses, CES-D score (??=?-?0.63 to -?0.53; P-values <?0.001) was most often associated with the WHOQOL-BREF domains and general facet, whereas CES-D score (??=?-?0.67 to -?0.40; P-values <?0.001) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (??=?-?0.30 to -?0.30; P-values <?0.001) were most often associated with the scales of the EORTC QLQ-C30. Personality traits were not related with HRQoL or QoL except for trait anxiety (Role functioning: ??=?0.30; P?=?0.02, Environment: ??=?-?0.39; P?=?0.007) and conscientiousness (Physical health: ??=?0.20; P-value <?0.04). CONCLUSIONS:Higher scores on depressive symptoms and ECOG performance status were related to lower HRQoL and QoL in patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Supportive care interventions aimed at improvement of depressive symptoms and performance score may facilitate an increase of HRQoL and/or QoL during treatment.
Project description:Prior studies indicated opioid substitution treatment (OST) reduces mortality risk and improves the odds of accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the relative effects of these treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) are unclear. We determine the independent and joint effects of OST and HAART on mortality, by cause, within a population of HIV-positive PWID initiating HAART.Using a linked population-level database for British Columbia, Canada, we used time-to-event analytic methods, including competing risks models, proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates, and marginal structural models, to identify the independent and joint effects of OST and HAART on all-cause as well as drug- and HIV-related mortality, controlling for covariates.Among 1727 HIV-positive PWID, 493 (28.5%) died during a median 5.1 years (interquartile range, 2.1-9.1) of follow-up: 18.7% due to drug-related causes, 55.8% due to HIV-related causes, and 25.6% due to other causes. Standardized mortality ratios were 12.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8, 15.0) during OST and 30.0 (27.1, 33.1) during periods out of OST. Both OST (adjusted hazard, 0.34; 95% CI, .23, .49) and HAART (0.39 [0.31, 0.48]) decreased the hazard of all-cause mortality; however, individuals were at lowest risk of death when these medications were used jointly (0.16 [0.10, 0.26]). Both OST and HAART independently protected against HIV-related death, drug-related death and death due to other causes.While both OST and HAART are life-saving treatments, joint administration is urgently needed to protect against both drug- and HIV-related mortality.
Project description:This study examined whether the type of anemia in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) changed from the beginning of highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and had implications for treatment outcomes and quality of life (QOL). If present, the anemia-type was defined as microcytic, macrocytic or anemia of chronic disease (ACD) at study months 0, 6, 12, and 18. Multinomial logistic regression quantified sociodemographic and HIV-treatment factors associated with incident microcytic anemia or ACD over 18 months. Repeated measures linear regression models estimated the anemia-type associated change in the CD4 cell-count, QOL, body mass index (BMI) and frailty over 18 months. Cox proportional hazard models estimated associations between anemia-type and time to (a) gain at least 100 CD4 cells/L and (b) hospitalization/death. Analyses were implemented in Statistical Analysis Software (v.9.4) from which odds ratios (ORs) mean differences (?) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. At enrollment, ACD, macrocytic and microcytic anemia was present in 36.8% (n = 147), 11.3% (n = 45) and 9.5% (n = 38), respectively with 42% (n = 170) anemia-free. By the study end, only 23% (n = 115) were without anemia. Among the 251 with anemia at the study end, 53.3% (n = 195) had macrocytic anemia, 12.8% (n = 47) had ACD and 2.5% (n = 9) had microcytic anemia. Incident macrocytic anemia was positively associated with baseline hyperferritinemia (OR = 1.85, 95%CI: 1.03?3.32), inversely associated with wealth (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.67?1.03) and inversely associated with efavirenz-containing HAART (OR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.21?0.85). ACD incidence decreased by 53% (95%CI: 0.27?0.79) per 100 cells/L increase in baseline CD4-cell count and decreased by 90% (95%CI: 0.01,0.87) among adults treated with nevirapine-containing HAART. ACD was associated with a lower BMI at months 6 (? = -0.33, 95% CI: -0.64, -0.01) and 12 (? = -0.41, 95%CI: -0.73, -0.09), with lower QOL (? = -3.2, 95%CI: -5.94, -0.53) at month 12 and with elevated frailty (? = 1.2; 95%CI: 0.46, 1.86) at month 12. Macrocytic anemia did not predict a post-enrollment change in CD4, BMI or QOL during follow-up. However, the time to gain 100 CD4 cells/L was 43% slower (p < 0.05) and the frailty was higher at month 12 for PLWHA with the baseline or sustained macrocytic vs. no anemia. A substantial decline in ACD and microcytic anemia occurred in tandem with large increase in the macrocytic anemia over 18 months on HAART. Interventions to mitigate all anemia-particularly ACD, is expected to improve the immune recovery rate, lower frailty, and enhanced QOL.