Characterization of [2Fe-2S]-Cluster-Bridged Protein Complexes and Reaction Intermediates by use of Native Mass Spectrometric Methods.
ABSTRACT: Many iron-sulfur proteins involved in cluster trafficking form [2Fe-2S]-cluster-bridged complexes that are often challenging to characterize because of the inherent instability of the cluster at the interface. Herein, we illustrate the use of fast, online buffer exchange coupled to a native mass spectrometry (OBE nMS) method to characterize [2Fe-2S]-cluster-bridged proteins and their transient cluster-transfer intermediates. The use of this mechanistic and protein-characterization tool is demonstrated with holo glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) homodimer and holo GLRX5:BolA-like protein 3 (BOLA3) heterodimer. Using the OBE nMS method, cluster-transfer reactions between the holo-dimers and apo-ferredoxin (FDX2) are monitored, and intermediate [2Fe-2S] species, such as (FDX2:GLRX5:[2Fe-2S]:GSH) and (FDX2:BOLA3:GLRX5:[2Fe-2S]:GSH) are detected. The OBE nMS method is a robust technique for characterizing iron-sulfur-cluster-bridged protein complexes and transient iron-sulfur-cluster transfer intermediates.
Project description:The [2Fe-2S] cluster-bridged complex of BOLA3 with GLRX5 has been implicated in cluster trafficking, but cluster exchange involving this heterocomplex has not been reported. Herein we describe an investigation of the cluster exchange reactivity of holo BOLA3-GLRX complexes using two different monothiol glutaredoxins, H.s. GLRX5 and S.c. Grx3, which share significant identity. We observe that a 1?:?1 mixture of apo BOLA3 and glutaredoxin protein is able to accept a cluster from donors such as ISCU and a [2Fe-2S](GS)4 complex, with preferential formation of the cluster-bridged heterodimer over the plausible holo homodimeric glutaredoxin. Holo BOLA3-GLRX5 transfers clusters to apo acceptors at rates comparable to other Fe-S cluster trafficking proteins. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments with apo proteins demonstrated a strong binding of BOLA3 with both GLRX5 and Grx3, while binding with an alternative mitochondrial partner, NFU1, was weak. Cluster exchange and calorimetry experiments resulted in a very similar behavior for yeast Grx3 (cytosolic) and human GLRX5 (mitochondrial), indicating conservation across the monothiol glutaredoxin family for interactions with BOLA3 and supporting a functional role for the BOLA3-GLRX5 heterocomplex relative to the previously proposed BOLA3-NFU1 interaction. The results also demonstrate rapid formation of the heterocomplexed holo cluster via delivery from a glutathione-complexed cluster, again indicative of the physiological relevance of the [2Fe-2S](GS)4 complex in the cellular labile iron pool.
Project description:The essential process of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster assembly (ISC) in mitochondria occurs in three major phases. First, [2Fe-2S] clusters are synthesized on the scaffold protein ISCU2; second, these clusters are transferred to the monothiol glutaredoxin GLRX5 by an Hsp70 system followed by insertion into [2Fe-2S] apoproteins; third, [4Fe-4S] clusters are formed involving the ISC proteins ISCA1-ISCA2-IBA57 followed by target-specific apoprotein insertion. The third phase is poorly characterized biochemically, because previous in vitro assembly reactions involved artificial reductants and lacked at least one of the in vivo-identified ISC components. Here, we reconstituted the maturation of mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] aconitase without artificial reductants and verified the [2Fe-2S]-containing GLRX5 as cluster donor. The process required all components known from in vivo studies (i.e., ISCA1-ISCA2-IBA57), yet surprisingly also depended on mitochondrial ferredoxin FDX2 and its NADPH-coupled reductase FDXR. Electrons from FDX2 catalyze the reductive [2Fe-2S] cluster fusion on ISCA1-ISCA2 in an IBA57-dependent fashion. This previously unidentified electron transfer was occluded during previous in vivo studies due to the earlier FDX2 requirement for [2Fe-2S] cluster synthesis on ISCU2. The FDX2 function is specific, because neither FDX1, a mitochondrial ferredoxin involved in steroid production, nor other cellular reducing systems, supported maturation. In contrast to ISC factor-assisted [4Fe-4S] protein assembly, [2Fe-2S] cluster transfer from GLRX5 to [2Fe-2S] apoproteins occurred spontaneously within seconds, clearly distinguishing the mechanisms of [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] protein maturation. Our study defines the physiologically relevant mechanistic action of late-acting ISC factors in mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] cluster synthesis, trafficking, and apoprotein insertion.
Project description:Glutaredoxins (Grxs) constitute a superfamily of proteins that perform diverse biological functions. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutaredoxin Grx6 not only serves as a glutathione (GSH)-dependent oxidoreductase and as a GSH transferase, but also as an essential [2Fe-2S]-binding protein. Here, the dimeric structure of the C-terminal domain of Grx6 (holo Grx6C), bridged by one [2Fe-2S] cluster coordinated by the active-site Cys136 and two external GSH molecules, is reported. Structural comparison combined with multiple-sequence alignment demonstrated that holo Grx6C is similar to the [2Fe-2S] cluster-incorporated dithiol Grxs, which share a highly conserved [2Fe-2S] cluster-binding pattern and dimeric conformation that is distinct from the previously identified [2Fe-2S] cluster-ligated monothiol Grxs.
Project description:Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome (MMDS) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations in genes with a vital role in the biogenesis of mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] proteins. Mutations in one of these genes encoding for BOLA3 protein lead to MMDS type 2 (MMDS2). Recently, a novel phenotype for MMDS2 with complete clinical recovery was observed in a patient containing a novel variant (c.176G > A, p.Cys59Tyr) in compound heterozygosity. In this work, we aimed to rationalize this unique phenotype observed in MMDS2. To do so, we first investigated the structural impact of the Cys59Tyr mutation on BOLA3 by NMR, and then we analyzed how the mutation affects both the formation of a hetero-complex between BOLA3 and its protein partner GLRX5 and the iron-sulfur cluster-binding properties of the hetero-complex by various spectroscopic techniques and by experimentally driven molecular docking. We show that (1) the mutation structurally perturbed the iron-sulfur cluster-binding region of BOLA3, but without abolishing [2Fe-2S]<sup>2+</sup> cluster-binding on the hetero-complex; (2) tyrosine 59 did not replace cysteine 59 as iron-sulfur cluster ligand; and (3) the mutation promoted the formation of an aberrant apo C59Y BOLA3-GLRX5 complex. All these aspects allowed us to rationalize the unique phenotype observed in MMDS2 caused by Cys59Tyr mutation.
Project description:The importance of mitochondria in mammalian cells is widely known. Several biochemical reactions and pathways take place within mitochondria: among them, there are those involving the biogenesis of the iron–sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. The latter are evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous inorganic cofactors, performing a variety of functions, such as electron transport, enzymatic catalysis, DNA maintenance, and gene expression regulation. The synthesis and distribution of Fe-S clusters are strictly controlled cellular processes that involve several mitochondrial proteins that specifically interact each other to form a complex machinery (Iron Sulfur Cluster assembly machinery, ISC machinery hereafter). This machinery ensures the correct assembly of both [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters and their insertion in the mitochondrial target proteins. The present review provides a structural and molecular overview of the rare diseases associated with the genes encoding for the accessory proteins of the ISC machinery (i.e., GLRX5, ISCA1, ISCA2, IBA57, FDX2, BOLA3, IND1 and NFU1) involved in the assembly and insertion of [4Fe-4S] clusters in mitochondrial proteins. The disease-related missense mutations were mapped on the 3D structures of these accessory proteins or of their protein complexes, and the possible impact that these mutations have on their specific activity/function in the frame of the mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] protein biogenesis is described.
Project description:A new class of mitochondrial disease has been identified and characterized as Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome (MMDS). Four different forms of the disease have each been attributed to point mutations in proteins involved in iron-sulfur (Fe-S) biosynthesis; in particular, MMDS2 has been associated with the protein BOLA3. To date, this protein has been characterized in vitro concerning its ability to form heterodimeric complexes with two putative Fe-S cluster-binding partners: GLRX5 and NFU. However, BOLA3 has yet to be characterized in its own discrete holo form. Herein we describe procedures to isolate and characterize the human holo BOLA3 protein in terms of Fe-S cluster binding and trafficking and demonstrate that human BOLA3 can form a functional homodimer capable of engaging in Fe-S cluster transfer.
Project description:Ferredoxins are protein mediators of biological electron-transfer reactions and typically contain either [2Fe-2S] or [4Fe-4S] clusters. Two ferredoxin homologues have been identified in the human genome, Fdx1 and Fdx2, that share 43% identity and 69% similarity in protein sequence and both bind [2Fe-2S] clusters. Despite the high similarity, the two ferredoxins play very specific roles in distinct physiological pathways and cannot replace each other in function. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ferredoxins and homologues have been reported to receive their Fe-S cluster from scaffold/delivery proteins such as IscU, Isa, glutaredoxins, and Nfu. However, the preferred and physiologically relevant pathway for receiving the [2Fe-2S] cluster by ferredoxins is subject to speculation and is not clearly identified. In this work, we report on in vitro UV-visible (UV-vis) circular dichroism studies of [2Fe-2S] cluster transfer to the ferredoxins from a variety of partners. The results reveal rapid and quantitative transfer to both ferredoxins from several donor proteins (IscU, Isa1, Grx2, and Grx3). Transfer from Isa1 to Fdx2 was also observed to be faster than that of IscU to Fdx2, suggesting that Fdx2 could receive its cluster from Isa1 instead of IscU. Several other transfer combinations were also investigated and the results suggest a complex, but kinetically detailed map for cellular cluster trafficking. This is the first step toward building a network map for all of the possible iron-sulfur cluster transfer pathways in the mitochondria and cytosol, providing insights on the most likely cellular pathways and possible redundancies in these pathways.
Project description:Iron?sulfur clusters are essential cofactors found across all domains of life. Their assembly and transfer are accomplished by highly conserved protein complexes and partners. In eukaryotes a [2Fe-2S] cluster is first assembled in the mitochondria on the iron?sulfur cluster scaffold protein ISCU in tandem with iron, sulfide, and electron donors. Current models suggest that a chaperone pair interacts with a cluster-bound ISCU to facilitate cluster transfer to a monothiol glutaredoxin. In humans this protein is glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) and the cluster can then be exchanged with a variety of target apo proteins. By use of circular dichroism spectroscopy, the kinetics of cluster exchange reactivity has been evaluated for human GLRX5 with a variety of cluster donor and acceptor partners, and the role of chaperones determined for several of these. In contrast to the prokaryotic model, where heat-shock type chaperone proteins HscA and HscB are required for successful and efficient transfer of a [2Fe-2S] cluster from the ISCU scaffold to a monothiol glutaredoxin. However, in the human system the chaperone homologs, HSPA9 and HSC20, are not necessary for human ISCU to promote cluster transfer to GLRX5, and appear to promote the reverse transfer. Cluster exchange with the human iron?sulfur cluster carrier protein NFU1 and ferredoxins (FDX's), and the role of chaperones, has also been evaluated, demonstrating in certain cases control over the directionality of cluster transfer. In contrast to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, NFU1 is identified as a more likely physiological donor of [2Fe-2S] cluster to human GLRX5 than ISCU.
Project description:Monothiol glutaredoxins play a crucial role in iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein biogenesis. Essentially all of them can coordinate a [2Fe-2S] cluster and have been proposed to mediate the transfer of [2Fe-2S] clusters from scaffold proteins to target apo proteins, possibly by acting as cluster transfer proteins. The molecular basis of [2Fe-2S] cluster transfer from monothiol glutaredoxins to target proteins is a fundamental, but still unresolved, aspect to be defined in Fe/S protein biogenesis. In mitochondria monothiol glutaredoxin 5 (GRX5) is involved in the maturation of all cellular Fe/S proteins and participates in cellular iron regulation. Here we show that the structural plasticity of the dimeric state of the [2Fe-2S] bound form of human GRX5 (holo hGRX5) is the crucial factor that allows an efficient cluster transfer to the partner proteins human ISCA1 and ISCA2 by a specific protein-protein recognition mechanism. Holo hGRX5 works as a metallochaperone preventing the [2Fe-2S] cluster to be released in solution in the presence of physiological concentrations of glutathione and forming a transient, cluster-mediated protein-protein intermediate with two physiological protein partners receiving the [2Fe-2S] cluster. The cluster transfer mechanism defined here may extend to other mitochondrial [2Fe-2S] target proteins.
Project description:Human Nfu is an iron-sulfur cluster protein that has recently been implicated in multiple mitochondrial dysfunctional syndrome (MMDS1). The Nfu family of proteins shares a highly homologous domain that contains a conserved active site consisting of a CXXC motif. There is less functional conservation between bacterial and human Nfu proteins, particularly concerning their Iron-sulfur cluster binding and transfer roles. Herein, we characterize the cluster exchange chemistry of human Nfu and its capacity to bind and transfer a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The mechanism of cluster uptake from a physiologically relevant [2Fe-2S](GS)4 cluster complex, and extraction of the Nfu-bound iron-sulfur cluster by glutathione are described. Human holo Nfu shows a dimer-tetramer equilibrium with a protein to cluster ratio of 2:1, reflecting the Nfu-bridging [2Fe-2S] cluster. This cluster can be transferred to apo human ferredoxins at relatively fast rates, demonstrating a direct role for human Nfu in the process of [2Fe-2S] cluster trafficking and delivery.