Birth incidence, deaths and hospitalisations of children and young people with Down syndrome, 1990-2015: birth cohort study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To investigate current Down syndrome live birth and death rates, and childhood hospitalisations, compared with peers. SETTING:General community. PARTICIPANTS:All live births with Down syndrome, 1990-2015, identified via Scottish regional cytogenetic laboratories, each age-sex-neighbourhood deprivation matched with five non-Down syndrome controls. Record linkage to Scotland's hospital admissions and death data. PRIMARY OUTCOME:HRs comparing risk of first hospitalisation (any and emergency), readmission for children with Down syndrome and matched controls were calculated using stratified Cox proportional hazards (PH) model, and length of hospital stay was calculated using a conditional log-linear regression model. RESULTS:689/1479 (46.6%) female and 769/1479 (51.9%) male children/young people with Down syndrome were identified (1.0/1000 births, with no reduction over time); 1235 were matched. 92/1235 (7.4%) died during the period, 18.5 times more than controls. More of the Down syndrome group had at least one admission (incidence rate ratio(IRR) 72.89 (68.72-77.32) vs 40.51 (39.15-41.92); adjusted HR=1.84 (1.68, 2.01)) and readmissions (IRR 54.85 (51.46-58.46) vs 15.06 (14.36-15.80); adjusted HR=2.56 (2.08, 3.14)). More of their admissions were emergencies (IRR 56.78 (53.13-60.72) vs 28.88 (27.73-30.07); first emergency admission adjusted HR=2.87 (2.61, 3.15)). Children with Down syndrome had 28% longer first admission after birth. Admission rate increased from 1990-2003 to 2004-2014 for the Down syndrome group (from 90.7% to 92.2%) and decreased for controls (from 63.3% to 44.8%). CONCLUSIONS:We provide contemporaneous statistics on the live birth rate of babies with Down syndrome, and their childhood death rate. They require more hospital admissions, readmissions emergency admissions and longer lengths of stays than their peers, which has received scant research attention in the past. This demonstrates the importance of statutory planning as well as informal support to families to avoid added problems in child development and family bonding over and above that brought by the intellectual disabilities associated with Down syndrome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In England emergency hospital admissions among children are increasing and the under 25s are the most frequent attenders of A&E departments. Children of lower socio-economic status (SES) have poorer health outcomes and higher hospital admission rates. NHS Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) are increasingly being used for research but lack detailed data on individual characteristics such as SES. We report the results of an Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study that linked the data of 3,189 consenting participants to HES. We describe rates of hospital admission, emergency readmissions, and A&E attendances and examine socio-demographic correlates of these. METHODS:Subjects were singletons and twins enrolled in ALSPAC who had provided consent for linkage to their health records by the study cut-off date (31.02.12). Linkage was carried out by the Health and Social Care Information Centre (now NHS Digital). We examined rates of admissions between birth and age 20 and A&E attendances between 14 and 20 years. Socio-demographic information collected in ALSPAC questionnaires during pregnancy were used to examine factors associated with admissions, emergency readmissions (an emergency admission within 30 days of discharge) and A&E attendances. RESULTS:Excluding birth records, we found at least one admission for 1,792/3,189 (56.2%) participants and 4,305 admissions in total. Admission rates were highest in the first year of life. Among males, admissions declined until about age 5 and then remained relatively stable; conversely, among females, they increased sharply from the age of 15. ICD 10 chapters for diseases of the digestive system and injury and poisoning accounted for the largest proportions of admissions (15.8 and 14.5%, respectively). Tooth decay was the highest single cause of admission for those aged 5-9 years. Overall, 1,518/3,189 (47.6%) of participants attended A&E at least once, with a total of 3,613 attendances between age 14 and 20 years. Individuals from more deprived backgrounds had higher rates of admissions, readmissions and A&E attendances. CONCLUSIONS:Linkage between cohort studies such as ALSPAC and HES data provides unique opportunities for detailed insights into socio-demographic and other determinants of hospital activity, which can inform secondary care demand management in the NHS.
Project description:There are increasing numbers of emergency medical paediatric admissions. Our hypothesis was that characteristics of children and details of their emergency admissions are also changing over time. Details of emergency admissions in Scotland 2000-2013 were analysed. There were 574,403 emergency admissions, median age 2.3 years. The age distribution, proportion of boys and socioeconomic status of children admitted were essentially unchanged. Emergency admissions rose by 49% from 36/1000 children per annum to 54/1000 between 2000 and 2013. Emergency admissions that were discharged on the same day rose by 186% from 8.6/1000 to 24.6/1000. The mean duration of emergency admission fell from 1.7 to 1.0 days. The odds for an emergency admission with upper respiratory infection, "viral infection", tonsillitis, bronchiolitis and lower respiratory tract infection all rose. In contrast the odds for an emergency admission with asthma and gastroenteritis fell.The demographics of children with emergency admissions have not changed substantially but characteristics of admissions have changed considerably, in particular admissions which are short stay and due to respiratory infection are much more common. The fall in the absolute number of children with some acute medical diagnoses suggests that the rise in admissions is not necessarily inexorable. What is Known: • Emergency admission prevalence is rising in many countries across Europe. What is New: • Our paper is the first to comprehensively analyse emergency medical paediatric admissions by exploring how characteristics of admissions and the children admitted have changed over time for a whole population. • The "take home message" is that whilst characteristics of emergency admissions have changed (e.g. number, duration of stay, readmissions, diagnoses), the characteristics of the children have not changed.
Project description:AIMS:Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) has been proposed as a distinct HF phenotype, but whether patients on this category fare worse, similarly, or better than those with HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) or preserved EF (HFpEF) in terms of rehospitalization risks over time remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS:We prospectively included 2961 consecutive patients admitted for acute HF (AHF) in our institution. Of them, 158 patients died during the index admission, leaving the sample size to be 2803 patients. Patients were categorized according to their EF: HFrEF if EF ? 40% (n = 908, 32.4%); HFmrEF if EF = 41-49% (n = 449, 16.0%); and HFpEF if EF ? 50% (n = 1446, 51.6%). Covariate-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were used to evaluate the association between EF status and recurrent all-cause and HF-related admissions. At a median follow-up of 2.6 years (inter-quartile range: 1.0-5.3), 1663 (59.3%) patients died, and 6035 all-cause readmissions were registered in 2026 patients (72.3%), 2163 of them HF related. Rates of all-cause readmission per 100 patients-years of follow-up were 150.1, 176.9, and 163.6 in HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF, respectively (P = 0.097). After multivariable adjustment, when compared with that of patients with HFrEF and HFpEF, HFmrEF status was not significantly associated with a different risk of all-cause readmissions (IRR = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.27; P = 0.926; and IRR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.74-1.18; P = 0.621, respectively) or HF-related readmissions (IRR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.77-1.46; P = 0.725; and IRR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.82-1.50; P = 0.511, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Following an admission for AHF, patients with HFmrEF had a similar rehospitalization burden and a similar risk of recurrent all-cause and HF-related admissions than had patients with HFrEF or HFpEF. Regarding morbidity risk, HFmrEF seems not to be a distinct HF phenotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have observed that infectious intestinal disease (IID) related hospital admissions are higher in more deprived neighbourhoods. These studies have mainly focused on paediatric populations and are cross-sectional in nature. This study examines recent trends in emergency IID admission rates, and uses longitudinal methods to investigate the effects of unemployment (as a time varying measure of neighbourhood deprivation) and other socio-demographic characteristics on IID admissions for adults and children in England. METHODS:A longitudinal ecological analysis was performed using Hospital Episode Statistics on emergency hospitalisations for IID, collected over the time period 2012-17 across England. Analysis was conducted at the neighbourhood (Lower-layer Super Output Area) level for three age groups (0-14; 15-64; 65+ years). Mixed-effect Poisson regression models were used to assess the relationship between trends in neighbourhood unemployment and emergency IID admission rates, whilst controlling for measures of primary and secondary care access, underlying morbidity and the ethnic composition of each neighbourhood. RESULTS:From 2012-17, declining trends in emergency IID admission rates were observed for children and older adults overall, while rates increased for some sub-groups in the population. Each 1 percentage point increase in unemployment was associated with a 6.3, 2.4 and 4% increase in the rate of IID admissions per year for children [IRR=1.06, 95%CI 1.06-1.07], adults [IRR=1.02, 95%CI 1.02-1.03] and older adults [IRR=1.04, 95%CI 1.036-1.043], respectively. Increases in poor primary care access, the percentage of people from a Pakistani ethnic background, and the prevalence of long-term health problems, in a neighbourhood, were also associated with increases in IID admission rates. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing trends in neighbourhood deprivation, as measured by unemployment, were associated with increases in emergency IID admission rates for children and adults in England, despite controlling for measures of healthcare access, underlying morbidity and ethnicity. Research is needed to improve understanding of the mechanisms that explain these inequalities, so that effective policies can be developed to reduce the higher emergency IID admission rates experienced by more disadvantaged communities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The UK IBD Audit Programme reported improved inpatient care processes for ulcerative colitis (UC) between 2005 and 2013. There are no independent data describing national or institutional trends in patient outcomes over this period. AIM:To assess the association between the outcome of emergency admission for UC and year of treatment. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of hospital administrative data, focused on all emergency admissions to English public hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of UC. We extracted case mix factors (age, sex, co-morbidity, emergency bed days in last year, deprivation status), outcomes of index admission (death and first surgery), 30-day emergency readmissions (all-cause, and selected causes) and outcome of readmission. RESULTS:There were 765 deaths and 3837 unplanned first operations in 44 882 emergency admissions, with 5311 emergency readmissions (with a further 171 deaths and 517 first operations). Case mix adjusted odds of death for any given year were 9% lower (OR 0.91, 95% CI: 0.89-0.94), and that for emergency surgery 3% lower (OR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) than the preceding year. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis (admissions lasting ≥4 days). There was no reduction in odds for all-cause readmission, but rates for venous thromboembolism declined significantly. Analysis of institutional-level metrics across 136 providers showed a stepwise reduction in outliers for mortality and unplanned surgery. CONCLUSIONS:Risk of death and unplanned surgery for UC patients admitted as emergencies declined consistently, as did unexplained variation between hospitals. Risk of readmission was unchanged (over 1 in 10). Multiple factors are likely to explain these nationwide trends.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Our objective is to identify seasonal and weather trends associated with pediatric trauma admissions. METHODS:We reviewed all trauma activations leading to admission in patients ?18 years admitted to a regional pediatric trauma center from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2015. We reviewed climatologic measures of the mean temperature, mean visibility, and precipitation for each admission in the 6 h prior to each presentation in addition to time of arrival, weekday/weekend presentation, and season. We used a negative binomial regression model with multivariable analysis to estimate associations between weather and rate of trauma admissions. Results were presented as incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:In total, 3856 encounters [2539 males (65.8%), mean age 10.2 years?±?SD 5.1 years] were included. Results from multivariable analysis (IRR, 95% CI) suggested an association of admissions with rain (0.82, 0.75-0.90) and overnight hours (23:51-05:50; 0.69, 0.58-0.82) as compared to morning (05:51-11:50). The IRR of trauma increased during the afternoon (11:51-17:50; 4.05, 3.57-4.61), night periods (17:51-23:50; 5.59, 4.94-6.33), and weekends (1.24, 1.15-1.32), and with every 1 °C increase in temperature (1.04, 1.03-1.04). After accounting for other variables, season was not found to be independently predictive of trauma admission. CONCLUSION:Trauma admissions had a higher rate during afternoon, evening hours, and weekends. The presence of rain lowered the rate of pediatric trauma admission. Each degree increase in temperature increased the rate of trauma admissions by 4%. The findings provide information from the perspective of emergency preparedness, resource utilization, and staffing to pediatric trauma centers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Various factors can contribute to high mortality rates in intensive care units (ICUs). Here, we intended to define a population of patients readmitted to general ICUs in Poland and to identify independent predictors of ICU readmission. METHODS:Data derived from adult ICU admissions from the Silesian region of Poland were analyzed. First-time ICU readmissions (?30 days from ICU discharge after index admissions) were compared with first-time ICU admissions. Pre-admission and admission variables that independently influenced the need for ICU readmission were identified. RESULTS:Among the 21,495 ICU admissions, 839 were first-time readmissions (3.9%). Patients readmitted to the ICU had lower mean APACHE II (21.2 ± 8.0 vs. 23.2 ± 8.8, p < 0.001) and TISS-28 scores (33.7 ± 7.4 vs. 35.2 ± 7.8, p < 0.001) in the initial 24 h following ICU admission, compared to first-time admissions. ICU readmissions were associated with lower mortality vs. first-time admissions (39.2% vs. 44.3%, p = 0.004). Independent predictors for ICU readmission included the admission from a surgical ward (among admission sources), chronic respiratory failure, cachexia, previous stroke, chronic neurological diseases (among co-morbidities), and multiple trauma or infection (among primary reasons for ICU admission). CONCLUSIONS:High mortality associated with first-time ICU admissions is associated with a lower mortality rate during ICU readmissions.
Project description:AIMS:To quantify the frequency, characteristics, geographical variation and costs of emergency hospital care for suspected seizures. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study using routinely collected data (Hospital Episode Statistics). SETTING:The National Health Service in England 2007-2013. PARTICIPANTS:Adults who attended an emergency department (ED) or were admitted to hospital. RESULTS:In England (population 2011: 53.11?million, 41.77?million adults), suspected seizures gave rise to 50?111 unscheduled admissions per year among adults (?18 years). This is 47.1% of unscheduled admissions for neurological conditions and 0.71% of all unscheduled admissions. Only a small proportion of admissions for suspected seizures were coded as status epilepticus (3.5%) and there were a very small number of dissociative (non-epileptic) seizures. The median length of stay for each admission was 1?day, the median cost for each admission was £1651 ($2175) and the total cost of all admissions for suspected seizures in England was £88.2?million ($116.2?million) per year. 16.8% of patients had more than one admission per year. There was significant geographical variability in the rate of admissions corrected for population age and gender differences and some areas had rates of admission which were consistently higher than the average. CONCLUSIONS:Our data show that suspected seizures are the most common neurological cause of admissions to hospital in England, that readmissions are common and that there is significant geographical variability in admission rates. This variability has not previously been reported in the published literature. The cause of the geographical variation is unknown; important factors are likely to include prevalence, deprivation and clinical practice and these require further investigation. Dissociative seizures are not adequately diagnosed during ED attendances and hospital admissions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the effects of a consultant-led, community-based chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) service, based in a highly deprived area on emergency hospital admissions. DESIGN:A longitudinal matched controlled study using difference-in-differences analysis to compare the change in outcomes in the intervention population to a matched comparison population, 5 years before and after implementation. SETTING:A deprived district in the North West of England between 2005 and 2016. INTERVENTION:A community-based, consultant-led COPD service providing diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation from 2011 to 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Emergency hospital admissions, length of stay per emergency admission and emergency readmissions for COPD. RESULTS:The intervention was associated with 24 fewer emergency COPD admissions per 100 000 population per year (95% CI -10.6 to 58.8, p=0.17) in the postintervention period, relative to the control group. There were significantly fewer emergency admissions in populations with medium levels of deprivation (64 per 100 000 per year; 95% CI 1.8 to 126.9) and among men (60 per 100 000 per year; 95% CI 12.3 to 107.3). CONCLUSION:We found limited evidence that the service reduced emergency hospital admissions, after an initial decline the effect was not sustained. The service, however, may have been more effective in some subgroups.
Project description:Although there is evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) impacts adversely on liver-related mortality, its influence on hospital readmissions and development of complications in patients with cirrhosis, particularly in alcohol-related cirrhosis (the most common etiological factor among Australian hospital admissions for cirrhosis) has not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate the association between T2D and liver cirrhosis in a population-based cohort of patients admitted for cirrhosis in the state of Queensland, Australia. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using data from the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, which contains information on all hospital episodes of care for patients with liver cirrhosis, and the Death Registry during 2008-2017. We used demographic, clinical data, and socioeconomic characteristics. A total of 8,631 patients were analyzed. A higher proportion of patients with T2D had cryptogenic cirrhosis (42.4% vs. 27.3%, respectively; P < 0.001) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (13.8% vs. 3.4%, respectively; P < 0.001) and an admission for hepatocellular carcinoma (18.0% vs. 12.2%, respectively; P < 0.001) compared to patients without T2D. Patients with liver cirrhosis with T2D compared to those without T2D had a significantly increased median length of hospital stay (6 [range, 1-11] vs. 5 [range, 1-11] days, respectively; P < 0.001), double the rate of noncirrhosis-related admissions (incidence rate ratios [IRR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98-2.07), a 1.35-fold increased rate of cirrhosis-related admissions (IRR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.30-1.41), and significantly lower survival (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Among hospitalized patients with cirrhosis, the cohort with T2D is at higher risk and may benefit from attention to comorbidities and additional support to reduce readmissions.