Fungicide Sensitivity Shifting of Zymoseptoria tritici in the Finnish-Baltic Region and a Novel Insertion in the MFS1 Promoter.
ABSTRACT: Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is caused by the ascomycete Zymoseptoria tritici and one of the predominating diseases in wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Europe. The control of STB is highly reliant on frequent fungicide applications. The primary objective of this study was to assess sensitivity levels of Z. tritici to different fungicide groups. The fungicides included in this study were epoxiconazole, prothioconazole-desthio, tebuconazole, and fluxapyroxad. A panel of 63 isolates from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and 10 isolates from Finland were tested. Fungicide sensitivity testing was carried out as a bioassay analyzing single pycnidium isolates on different fungicide concentrations. The average EC50 value in Baltic countries and Finland to epoxiconazole was high ranging from 1.04 to 2.19 ppm. For prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole, EC50 varied from 0.01 to 0.24 ppm, and 1.25 to 18.23 ppm, respectively. The average EC50 value for fluxapyroxad varied from 0.07 to 0.33 ppm. To explain the range of sensitivity, the samples were analyzed for CYP51 and Sdh mutations, as well as cytb G143A, CYP51 overexpression, and multidrug resistance (MDR). Frequencies of ZtCYP51 mutations D134G, V136A/C, A379G, I381V, and S524T in the Finnish-Baltic region were lower than in other European countries, but have increased compared to previous years. The frequency of cytb G143A conferring strobilurin resistance also augmented to 50-70% in the Z. tritici populations from Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania. No Sdh mutations were found in this study, and neither strains of MDR phenotypes. However, we found a strain harboring a previously unknown transposon insertion in the promoter of the MFS1 gene, involved in drug efflux and multi-drug resistance. This new insert, however, does not confer an MDR phenotype to the strain.
Project description:Ramularia leaf spot caused by the fungus <i>Ramularia collo-cygni</i>, has recently become widespread in Estonian barley fields. Currently, disease control in barley fields relies on SDHI and DMI fungicides, which might be threatened by <i>R. collo-cygni</i> isolates that are well-adapted to fungicide pressure. In a two-year study, 353 <i>R. collo-cygni</i> isolates were collected from spring barley fields in Estonia. A total of 153 <i>R. collo-cygni</i> isolates were examined for sensitivity to azoles (DMIs; prothioconazole-desthio, epoxiconazole, mefentrifluconazole) and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs; boscalid, fluxapyroxad). Epoxiconazole was the least effective and a new fungicide mefentrifluconazole was the most effective DMI. Among SDHIs, fluxapyroxad was more effective than boscalid. Also, single <i>R. collo-cygni</i> isolates with high resistance to tested fungicides occurred, which could affect fungicide control of the pathogen. The entire collection of <i>R. collo-cygni</i> was analysed for mutations in fungicide target proteins. Six mutations were identified in <i>CYP51</i> gene, the most dominant being I381T, I384T, and S459C. Also, numerous point mutations in the <i>SdhC</i> gene were present. The mutation G143A in strobilurin target protein CytB dominates in over 80% of the <i>R. collo-cygni</i> population, confirming the low efficacy of strobilurin fungicides in barley disease control.
Project description:Prothioconazole is a new triazolinthione fungicide used in agriculture. We have used Candida albicans CYP51 (CaCYP51) to investigate the in vitro activity of prothioconazole and to consider the use of such compounds in the medical arena. Treatment of C. albicans cells with prothioconazole, prothioconazole-desthio, and voriconazole resulted in CYP51 inhibition, as evidenced by the accumulation of 14?-methylated sterol substrates (lanosterol and eburicol) and the depletion of ergosterol. We then compared the inhibitor binding properties of prothioconazole, prothioconazole-desthio, and voriconazole with CaCYP51. We observed that prothioconazole-desthio and voriconazole bind noncompetitively to CaCYP51 in the expected manner of azole antifungals (with type II inhibitors binding to heme as the sixth ligand), while prothioconazole binds competitively and does not exhibit classic inhibitor binding spectra. Inhibition of CaCYP51 activity in a cell-free assay demonstrated that prothioconazole-desthio is active, whereas prothioconazole does not inhibit CYP51 activity. Extracts from C. albicans grown in the presence of prothioconazole were found to contain prothioconazole-desthio. We conclude that the antifungal action of prothioconazole can be attributed to prothioconazole-desthio.
Project description:Net blotch of barley caused by Pyrenophora teres (Died.) Drechsler, is one of the most destructive diseases on barley in Algeria. It occurs in two forms: P. teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata. A total of 212 isolates, obtained from 58 fields sampled in several barley growing areas, were assessed for fungicide sensitivity by target gene analysis. F129L and G137R mitochondrial cytochrome b substitution associated with quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs) resistance, and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) related mutations (B-H277, C-N75S, C-G79R, C-H134R, and C-S135R), were analyzed by pyrosequencing. In vitro sensitivity of 45 isolates, towards six fungicides belonging to three chemical groups (QoI, demethylase inhibitor, and SDHI) was tested by microtiter technique. Additionally, sensitivity towards three fungicides (azoxystrobin, fluxapyroxad, and epoxiconazole) was assessed in planta under glasshouse conditions. All tested isolates were QoI-sensitive and SDHI-sensitive, no mutation that confers resistance was identified. EC50 values showed that pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin are the most efficient fungicides in vitro, whereas fluxapyroxad displayed the best disease inhibition in planta (81% inhibition at 1/9 of the full dose). The EC50 values recorded for each form of net blotch showed no significant difference in efficiency of QoI treatments and propiconazole on each form. However, in the case of fluxapyroxad, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole treatments, analysis showed significant differences in their efficiency. To our knowledge, this study is the first investigation related to mutations associated to QoI and SDHI fungicide resistance in Algerian P. teres population, as well as it is the first evaluation of the sensitivity of P. teres population towards these six fungicides.
Project description:Mycosphaerella graminicola (Zymoseptoria tritici) is an ascomycete filamentous fungus that causes Septoria leaf blotch in wheat crops. In Europe the most widely used fungicides for this major disease are demethylation inhibitors (DMIs). Their target is the essential sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51), which requires cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) as its redox partner for functional activity. The M. graminicola CPR (MgCPR) is able to catalyze the sterol 14?-demethylation of eburicol and lanosterol when partnered with Candida albicans CYP51 (CaCYP51) and that of eburicol only with M. graminicola CYP51 (MgCYP51). The availability of the functional in vivo redox partner enabled the in vitro catalytic activity of MgCYP51 to be demonstrated for the first time. MgCYP51 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) studies with epoxiconazole, tebuconazole, triadimenol, and prothioconazole-desthio confirmed that MgCYP51 bound these azole inhibitors tightly. The characterization of the MgCPR/MgCYP51 redox pairing has produced a functional method to evaluate the effects of agricultural azole fungicides, has demonstrated eburicol specificity in the activity observed, and supports the conclusion that prothioconazole is a profungicide.
Project description:Azole resistance is an emerging problem in patients with aspergillosis. The role of fungicides for resistance development and occurrence is not fully elucidated. EUCAST reference MICs of 17 fungicides (11 azoles and 6 others), five azole fungicide metabolites and four medical triazoles were examined against two reference and 28 clinical isolates of <i>A. fumigatus</i>, <i>A. flavus</i> and <i>A. terreus</i> with (<i>n</i> = 12) and without (<i>n</i> = 16) resistance mutations. Eight/11 azole fungicides were active against wild-type <i>A. fumigatus</i>, <i>A. flavus</i> and <i>A. terreus</i>, including four (metconazole, prothioconazole-desthio, prochloraz and imazalil) with low MIC<sub>50</sub> (≤2 mg/L) against all three species and epoxiconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole and difenoconazole also against wild-type <i>A. terreus</i>. Mefentrifluconazole, azole metabolites and non-azole fungicides MICs were >16 mg/L against <i>A. fumigatus</i> although partial growth inhibition was found with mefentrifluconazole. Moreover, mefentrifluconazole and axozystrobin were active against wild-type <i>A. terreus</i>. Increased MICs (≥3 dilutions) were found for TR<sub>34</sub>/L98H, TR<sub>34</sub><sup>(3)</sup>/L98H, TR<sub>46</sub>/Y121F/T289A and G432S compared to wild-type <i>A. fumigatus</i> for epoxiconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, prochloraz, imazalil and metconazole (except G432S), and for prothioconazole-desthio against TR<sub>46</sub>/Y121F/T289A, specifically. Increased MICs were found in <i>A. fumigatus</i> harbouring G54R, M220K and M220R alterations for five, one and one azole fungicides, respectively, compared to MICs against wild-type <i>A. fumigatus</i>. Similarly, increased MICs wer found for <i>A. terreus</i> with G51A, M217I and Y491H alterations for five, six and two azole fungicides, respectively. Azole fungicides showed activity against wild-type <i>A. fumigatus</i>, <i>A. terreus</i> and <i>A. flavus</i>, but not against all mutant isolates, suggesting the environmental route of azole resistance may have a role for all three species.
Project description:Fungicide resistance is a constant threat to agricultural production worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of fungicide resistance have been studied extensively in the wheat pathogen <i>Zymoseptoria tritici</i>. However, less is known about the evolutionary processes driving resistance development. In vitro evolutionary studies give the opportunity to investigate this. Here, we examine the adaptation of <i>Z. tritici</i> to fluxapyroxad, a succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) inhibitor. Replicate populations of <i>Z. tritici</i> derived from the sensitive isolate IPO323 were exposed to increasing concentrations of fluxapyroxad with or without UV mutagenesis. After ten increases in fungicide concentration, sensitivity had decreased dramatically, with replicate populations showing similar phenotypic trajectories. Sequencing the Sdh subunit B, C, and D encoding genes identified seven mutations associated with resistance to fluxapyroxad. Mutation frequency over time was measured with a pyrosequencing assay, revealing sequential lineage replacement in the UV-mutagenized populations but not in the untreated populations. Repeating selection from set time-points with different fungicide concentrations revealed that haplotype replacement of Sdh variants was driven by dose-dependent selection as fungicide concentration changed, and was not mutation-limited. These findings suggest that fungicide field applications may select for highly insensitive Sdh variants with higher resistance factors if the fungicide concentration is increased to achieve a better disease control. However, in the absence or presence of lower fungicide concentrations, the spread of these strains might be restricted if the underlying <i>Sdh</i> mutations carry fitness penalties.
Project description:Prothioconazole is one of the most important commercially available demethylase inhibitors (DMIs) used to treat Mycosphaerella graminicola infection of wheat, but specific information regarding its mode of action is not available in the scientific literature. Treatment of wild-type M. graminicola (strain IPO323) with 5 ?g of epoxiconazole, tebuconazole, triadimenol, or prothioconazole ml(-1) resulted in inhibition of M. graminicola CYP51 (MgCYP51), as evidenced by the accumulation of 14?-methylated sterol substrates (lanosterol and eburicol) and the depletion of ergosterol in azole-treated cells. Successful expression of MgCYP51 in Escherichia coli enabled us to conduct spectrophotometric assays using purified 62-kDa MgCYP51 protein. Antifungal-binding studies revealed that epoxiconazole, tebuconazole, and triadimenol all bound tightly to MgCYP51, producing strong type II difference spectra (peak at 423 to 429 nm and trough at 406 to 409 nm) indicative of the formation of classical low-spin sixth-ligand complexes. Interaction of prothioconazole with MgCYP51 exhibited a novel spectrum with a peak and trough observed at 410 nm and 428 nm, respectively, indicating a different mechanism of inhibition. Prothioconazole bound to MgCYP51 with 840-fold less affinity than epoxiconazole and, unlike epoxiconazole, tebuconazole, and triadimenol, which are noncompetitive inhibitors, prothioconazole was found to be a competitive inhibitor of substrate binding. This represents the first study to validate the effect of prothioconazole on the sterol composition of M. graminicola and the first on the successful heterologous expression of active MgCYP51 protein. The binding affinity studies documented here provide novel insights into the interaction of MgCYP51 with DMIs, especially for the new triazolinethione derivative prothioconazole.
Project description:Azole resistance is a major concern for treatment of infections with Aspergillus fumigatus. Environmental resistance selection is a main route for Aspergillus spp. to acquire azole resistance. We investigated the presence of environmental hotspots for resistance selection in the Netherlands on the basis of the ability of A. fumigatus to grow and reproduce in the presence of azole fungicide residues. We identified 3 hotspots: flower bulb waste, green waste material, and wood chippings. We recovered azole-resistant A. fumigatus from these sites; all fungi contained cyp51A tandem repeat-mediated resistance mechanisms identical to those found in clinical isolates. Tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prothioconazole were the most frequently found fungicide residues. Stockpiles of plant waste contained the highest levels of azole-resistant A. fumigatus, and active aerobic composting reduced Aspergillus colony counts. Preventing plant waste stockpiling or creating unfavorable conditions for A. fumigatus to grow in stockpiles might reduce environmental resistance burden.