TWEAK Promotes the Proliferation of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells Through Activating cIAP1 Signals.
ABSTRACT: Recent studies showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) induces the proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. However, the precise mechanism underlying such effect of TWEAK remains unclear. This study was designed to elucidate the role of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1) in TWEAK-induced proliferation of SCC cells. Human SCC cells (SCC-13, A431, and SCC-9) were cultured in vitro, receiving the stimulation of TWEAK or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). We found that TWEAK induced cytoplasmic cIAP1 importation and RIP1 ubiquitination in cells, followed by the activation of canonical nuclear factor kappa B signals. MV1, a cIAP1 inhibitor, abrogated TWEAK-induced proliferation of these cells. Moreover, the interaction between TWEAK and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), enhanced the expression of TRAIL receptor types 3 and 4 (TRAIL-R3/4). Furthermore, the transfection of TRAIL-R3/4 siRNA abrogated the promotion effect of TWEAK on SCC-13 cell proliferation and cIAP1 expression. Therefore, TWEAK/Fn14 interaction promotes the proliferation of SCC cells through activating cIAP1 signals. Targeting the downstream cIAP1 signals might attenuate the effect of TWEAK on SCC cells.
Project description:Synthetic inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists induce degradation of IAP proteins such as cellular IAP1 (cIAP1), activate nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling, and sensitize cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). The physiological relevance of these discoveries to cIAP1 function remains undetermined. We show that upon ligand binding, the TNF superfamily receptor FN14 recruits a cIAP1-Tnf receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) complex. Unlike IAP antagonists that cause rapid proteasomal degradation of cIAP1, signaling by FN14 promotes the lysosomal degradation of cIAP1-TRAF2 in a cIAP1-dependent manner. TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)/FN14 signaling nevertheless promotes the same noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling elicited by IAP antagonists and, in sensitive cells, the same autocrine TNFalpha-induced death occurs. TWEAK-induced loss of the cIAP1-TRAF2 complex sensitizes immortalized and minimally passaged tumor cells to TNFalpha-induced death, whereas primary cells remain resistant. Conversely, cIAP1-TRAF2 complex overexpression limits FN14 signaling and protects tumor cells from TWEAK-induced TNFalpha sensitization. Lysosomal degradation of cIAP1-TRAF2 by TWEAK/FN14 therefore critically alters the balance of life/death signals emanating from TNF-R1 in immortalized cells.
Project description:The interaction between tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) regulates the fate of keratinocytes, depending on the relative expression of TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 or TNFR2. However, the precise mechanism underlying this TWEAK-mediated regulation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to provide comprehensive insight into the roles of Fn14, TNFR1/2, and other relevant molecules in the fate of keratinocytes. Further, we sought to elucidate the structural basis for the interaction of TWEAK and Fn14 in regulating cellular outcomes. Normal keratinocytes (mainly expressing TNFR1) and TNFR2-overexpressing keratinocytes were stimulated with TWEAK. Through immunoprecipitation and Western blotting of keratinocyte lysates, we elucidated the associations between Fn14, TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1), and TNFR1/2 molecules. Additionally, we found that TRAF2 exhibited binding to Fn14, cIAP1, and TNFR1/2. Our data suggest that TWEAK induces apoptosis in normal keratinocytes and proliferation in TNFR2-overexpressing keratinocytes in a TNF-?-independent manner; however, inhibition of TRAF2 appears to reverse this effect. Interestingly, the interaction between TWEAK and Fn14 increased TNFR1-associated death domain protein and caspase-8 expression in normal keratinocytes and promoted cytoplasmic import of cIAP1 in TNFR2-overexpressing keratinocytes. In conclusion, we found that the Fn14-TRAF2-TNFR signaling axis mediates TWEAK's regulation of the fate of keratinocytes, possibly in a manner involving the TNF-?-independent TNFR signal transduction.
Project description:The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TNFSF12, CD255) (TWEAK) can stimulate apoptosis in certain cancer cells. Previous studies suggest that TWEAK activates cell death indirectly, by inducing TNF?-mediated autocrine signals. However, the underlying death-signaling mechanism has not been directly defined. Consistent with earlier work, TWEAK assembled a proximal signaling complex containing its cognate receptor FN14, the adaptor TRAF2, and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1). Neither the death domain adaptor Fas-associated death domain nor the apoptosis-initiating protease caspase-8 associated with this primary complex. Rather, TWEAK induced TNF? secretion and TNF receptor 1-dependent assembly of a death-signaling complex containing receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), FADD, and caspase-8. Knockdown of RIP1 by siRNA prevented TWEAK-induced association of FADD with caspase-8 but not formation of the FN14-TRAF2-cIAP1 complex and inhibited apoptosis activation. Depletion of the RIP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase cIAP1 enhanced assembly of the RIP1-FADD-caspase-8 complex and augmented cell death. Conversely, knockdown of the RIP1 deubiquitinase CYLD inhibited these functions. Depletion of FADD, caspase-8, BID, or BAX and BAK but not RIP3 attenuated TWEAK-induced cell death. Pharmacologic inhibition of the NF-?B pathway or siRNA knockdown of RelA attenuated TWEAK induction of TNF? and association of RIP1 with FADD and caspase-8. These results suggest that TWEAK triggers apoptosis by promoting assembly of a RIP1-FADD-caspse-8 complex via autocrine TNF?-TNFR1 signaling. The proapoptotic activity of TWEAK is modulated by cIAP1 and CYLD and engages both the extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a multifunctional cytokine that acts through its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14). Recent studies demonstrated that the TWEAK/Fn14 signals participate in the development of psoriasis. The purpose of this study was to further explore the effect of Fn14 inhibition on experimental psoriasis. Psoriasis-like skin disease was induced in the wild-type and Fn14-knockout BALB/c mice. We found that Fn14 deficiency ameliorates psoriasis-like lesion in this model, accompanied by less inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine production in lesional skin. The cutaneous expression of TNF receptor type 2 also decreased in the Fn14-deficient mice. Moreover, the topical application of TWEAK exacerbated psoriatic lesion in the wild-type but not in the Fn14-deficient mice. Furthermore, TWEAK promoted the expression of interleukin 8, keratin 17, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) but inhibited the expression of involucrin in psoriatic keratinocytes in vitro. Interestingly, such effect of TWEAK was abrogated by an EGFR inhibitor (erlotinib). TWEAK also enhances the proliferation and interleukin-6 production of dermal microvascular endothelial cells under psoriatic condition. In conclusion, TWEAK/Fn14 signals contribute to the development of psoriasis, and involves the modulation of resident cells and the transduction of the EGFR pathway. Fn14 inhibition might be a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with psoriasis.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK, TNFSF12) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. TWEAK activates the Fn14 receptor, and may regulate cell death, survival and proliferation in tumor cells. However, there is little information on the function and regulation of this system in prostate cancer. Fn14 expression and TWEAK actions were studied in two human prostate cancer cell lines, the androgen-independent PC-3 cell line and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Additionally, the expression of Fn14 was analyzed in human biopsies of prostate cancer. Fn14 expression is increased in histological sections of human prostate adenocarcinoma. Both prostate cancer cell lines express constitutively Fn14, but, the androgen-independent cell line PC-3 showed higher levels of Fn14 that the LNCaP cells. Fn14 expression was up-regulated in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in presence of inflammatory cytokines (TNF?/IFN?) as well as in presence of bovine fetal serum. TWEAK induced apoptotic cell death in PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. Moreover, in PC-3 cells, co-stimulation with TNF?/IFN?/TWEAK induced a higher rate of apoptosis. However, TWEAK or TWEAK/TNF?/IFN? did not induce apoptosis in presence of bovine fetal serum. TWEAK induced cell death through activation of the Fn14 receptor. Apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-3, release of mitochondrial cytochrome C and an increased Bax/BclxL ratio. TWEAK/Fn14 pathway activation promotes apoptosis in androgen-independent PC-3 cells under certain culture conditions. Further characterization of the therapeutic target potential of TWEAK/Fn14 for human prostate cancer is warranted.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important for liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH). Expression of Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), the receptor for TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), is induced rapidly after PH and remains elevated throughout the period of peak hepatocyte replication. The role of Fn14 in post-PH liver regeneration is uncertain because Fn14 is expressed by liver progenitors and TWEAK-Fn14 interactions stimulate progenitor growth, but replication of mature hepatocytes is thought to drive liver regeneration after PH.<h4>Methods</h4>To clarify the role of TWEAK-Fn14 after PH, we compared post-PH regenerative responses in wild type (WT) mice, Fn14 knockout (KO) mice, TWEAK KO mice, and WT mice treated with anti-TWEAK antibodies.<h4>Results</h4>In WT mice, rare Fn14(+) cells localized with other progenitor markers in peri-portal areas before PH. PH rapidly increased proliferation of Fn14(+) cells; hepatocytic cells that expressed Fn14 and other progenitor markers, such as Lgr5, progressively accumulated from 12-8 h post-PH and then declined to baseline by 96 h. When TWEAK/Fn14 signaling was disrupted, progenitor accumulation, induction of pro-regenerative cytokines, hepatocyte and cholangiocyte proliferation, and over-all survival were inhibited, while post-PH liver damage and bilirubin levels were increased. TWEAK stimulated proliferation and increased Lgr5 expression in cultured liver progenitors, but had no effect on either parameter in cultured primary hepatocytes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>TWEAK-FN14 signaling is necessary for the healthy adult liver to regenerate normally after acute partial hepatectomy.
Project description:Progenitor ("oval") cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors.
Project description:Hallmarks of the pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalomyelitis include perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system, multifocal demyelination in the brain and spinal cord, and focal neuronal degeneration. Optimal treatment of this complex disease will ultimately call for agents that target the spectrum of underlying pathogenic processes. In the present study, Fn14-TRAIL is introduced as a unique immunotherapeutic fusion protein that is designed to exchange and redirect intercellular signals within inflammatory cell networks, and, in so doing, to impact multiple pathogenic events and yield a net anti-inflammatory effect. In this soluble protein product, a Fn14 receptor component (capable of blocking the pro-inflammatory TWEAK ligand) is fused to a TRAIL ligand (capable of inhibiting activated, pathogenic T cells). Sustained Fn14-TRAIL expression was obtained in vivo using a transposon-based eukaryotic expression vector. Fn14-TRAIL expression effectively prevented chronic, nonremitting, paralytic disease in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-challenged C57BL/6 mice. Disease suppression in this model was reflected by decreases in the clinical score, disease incidence, nervous tissue inflammation, and Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokine responses. Significantly, the therapeutic efficacy of Fn14-TRAIL could not be recapitulated simply by administering its component parts (Fn14 and TRAIL) as soluble agents, either alone or in combination. Its functional pleiotropism was manifest in its additional ability to attenuate the enhanced permeability of the blood-brain barrier that typically accompanies autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Project description:Tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) have been associated with liver regeneration in vivo. To further investigate the role of this pathway we examined their expression in human fibrotic liver disease and the effect of pathway deficiency in a murine model of liver fibrosis. The expression of Fn14 and TWEAK in normal and diseased human and mouse liver tissue and primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were investigated by qPCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, the levels of Fn14 in HSCs following pro-fibrogenic and pro-inflammatory stimuli were assessed and the effects of exogenous TWEAK on HSCs proliferation and activation were studied in vitro. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) was used to induce acute and chronic liver injury in TWEAK KO mice. Elevated expression of both Fn14 and TWEAK were detected in acute and chronic human liver injury, and co-localized with markers of activated HSCs. Fn14 levels were low in quiescent HSCs but were significantly induced in activated HSCs, which could be further enhanced with the profibrogenic cytokine TGF? in vitro. Stimulation with recombinant TWEAK induced proliferation but not further HSCs activation. Fn14 gene expression was also significantly up-regulated in CCl4 models of hepatic injury whereas TWEAK KO mice showed reduced levels of liver fibrosis following chronic CCl4 injury. In conclusion, TWEAK/Fn14 interaction leads to the progression of fibrotic liver disease via direct modulation of HSCs proliferation, making it a potential therapeutic target for liver fibrosis.
Project description:The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family member TWEAK activates the Fn14 receptor and has pro-apoptotic, proliferative and pro-inflammatory actions that depend on the cell type and the microenvironment. We explored the proliferative actions of TWEAK on cultured tubular cells and in vivo on renal tubules. Additionally, we studied the role of TWEAK in compensatory proliferation following unilateral nephrectomy and in an inflammatory model of acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by a folic acid overdose. TWEAK increased the proliferation, cell number and cyclin D1 expression of cultured tubular cells, in vitro. Exposure to serum increased TWEAK and Fn14 expression and the proliferative response to TWEAK. TWEAK activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and p38, the phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and NF-kappaB. TWEAK-induced proliferation was prevented by inhibitors of these protein kinases and by the NF-kappaB inhibitor parthenolide. TWEAK-induced tubular cell proliferation as assessed by PCNA and cyclin D1 expression in the kidneys of adult healthy mice in vivo. By contrast, TWEAK knock-out mice displayed lower tubular cell proliferation in the remnant kidney following unilateral nephrectomy, a non-inflammatory model. This is consistent with TWEAK-induced proliferation on cultured tubular cells in the absence of inflammatory cytokines. Consistent with our previously published data, in the presence of inflammatory cytokines TWEAK promoted apoptosis, not proliferation, of cultured tubular cells. In this regard, TWEAK knock-out mice with AKI displayed less tubular apoptosis and proliferation, as well as improved renal function. In conclusion, TWEAK actions in tubular cells are context dependent. In a non-inflammatory milieu TWEAK induces proliferation of tubular epithelium. This may be relevant for compensatory renal hyperplasia following nephrectomy.