The Impact of Mutant p53 in the Non-Coding RNA World.
ABSTRACT: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) are new groups of RNAs with regulation activities that have low or no protein-coding ability. Emerging evidence suggests that deregulated expression of these non-coding RNAs is associated with the induction and progression of diverse tumors throughout epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional modifications. A consistent number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has been shown to be regulated by p53, the most important tumor suppressor of the cells frequently mutated in human cancer. It has been shown that some mutant p53 proteins are associated with the loss of tumor suppressor activity and the acquisition of new oncogenic functions named gain-of-function activities. In this review, we highlight recent lines of evidence suggesting that mutant p53 is involved in the expression of specific ncRNAs to gain oncogenic functions through the creation of a complex network of pathways that influence each other.
Project description:p53 protein is a well-known tumor suppressor factor that regulates cellular homeostasis. As it has several and key functions exerted, p53 is known as "the guardian of the genome" and either loss of function or gain of function mutations in the TP53 coding protein sequence are involved in cancer onset and progression. The Hippo pathway is a key regulator of developmental and regenerative physiological processes but if deregulated can induce cell transformation and cancer progression. The p53 and Hippo pathways exert a plethora of fine-tuned functions that can apparently be in contrast with each other. In this review, we propose that the p53 status can affect the Hippo pathway function by switching its outputs from tumor suppressor to oncogenic activities. In detail, we discuss: (a) the oncogenic role of the protein complex mutant p53/YAP; (b) TAZ oncogenic activation mediated by mutant p53;
Project description:Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis and progression. However, the functions of the majority of ncRNAs remain unclear. Through integrating published large-scale somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) data from various human cancer types, we have developed oncoNcRNA, a user-friendly web portal to explore ncRNAs with oncogenic potential in human cancers. The portal characterizes the SCNAs of over 58,000 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), 34,000 piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), 2700 microRNAs (miRNAs), 600 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 400 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in 64 human cancer types. It enables researchers to rapidly and intuitively analyze the oncogenic potential of ncRNAs of interest. Indeed, we have discovered a large number of ncRNAs which are frequently amplified or deleted within and across tumor types. Moreover, we built a web-based tool, Correlations, to explore the relationships between gene expression and copy number from ~10,000 tumor samples in 36 cancer types identified by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). oncoNcRNA is a valuable tool for investigating the function and clinical relevance of ncRNAs in human cancers. oncoNcRNA is freely available at http://rna.sysu.edu.cn/onconcrna/.
Project description:The majority of studies on human cancers published to date focus on coding genes. More recently, however, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are gaining growing recognition as important regulatory components. Here we characterise the ncRNA landscape in 442 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCs) from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). HNSCs represent an intriguing case to study the potential role of ncRNA as a function of viral presence, especially as HPV is potentially oncogenic. Thus, we identify HPV16-positive (HPV16+) and HPV-negative (HPV-) tumours and study the expression of ncRNAs on both groups. Overall, the ncRNAs comprise 36% of all differentially expressed genes, with antisense RNAs being the most represented ncRNA type (12.6%). Protein-coding genes appear to be more frequently downregulated in tumours compared with controls, whereas ncRNAs show significant upregulation in tumours, especially in HPV16+ tumours. Overall, expression of pseudogenes, antisense and short RNAs is elevated in HPV16+ tumours, while the remaining long non-coding RNA types are more active in all HNSC tumours independent of HPV status. In addition, we identify putative regulatory targets of differentially expressed ncRNAs. Among these 'targets' we find several well-established oncogenes, tumour suppressors, cytokines, growth factors and cell differentiation genes, which indicates the potential involvement of ncRNA in the control of these key regulators as a direct consequence of HPV oncogenic activity. In conclusion, our findings establish the ncRNAs as crucial transcriptional components in HNSCs. Our results display the great potential for the study of ncRNAs and the role they have in human cancers.
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, yet there remains a lack of specific and sensitive tools for early diagnosis and targeted therapies. High-throughput sequencing techniques revealed that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), e.g., microRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), represent more than 80% of the transcribed human genome. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs and lncRNAs regulate target genes and play an important role in biological processes and signaling pathways in malignancies, including lung cancer. In lung cancer, several tumor suppressor/oncogenic microRNAs and lncRNAs function as biomarkers for metastasis and prognosis, and thus may serve as therapeutic tools. In this review, recent work on microRNAs and lncRNAs is introduced and briefly summarized with a focus on potential biological and therapeutic applications.
Project description:The critical tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in over half of all human cancers. The majority of p53 cancer mutations are missense mutations, which can be classified into contact mutations that directly disrupt the DNA-binding of p53 but have modest impact on p53 conformation and structural mutations that greatly disrupt p53 conformation. Many p53 cancer mutants, including the hot spot mutations (R175H, R248W and R273H), not only lose p53-dependent tumor-suppressor activities, but also acquire new oncogenic activities to promote cancer. Therefore, it is critical to elucidate the gain of oncogenic function of p53 cancer mutants. Using humanized p53-mutant knock-in mouse models, we have identified a gain of oncogenic function shared by the most common p53 contact mutants (R273H and R248W) and structural mutant (R175H). This gain of function inactivates Mre11/ATM-dependent DNA damage responses, leading to chromosomal translocation and defective G(2)/M checkpoint. Considering the critical roles of ATM in maintaining genetic stability and therapeutic responses to many cancer treatments, the identification of this common gain of function of p53 cancer mutants will have important implication on the drug resistance of a significant portion of human cancers that express either the contact or structural p53 cancer mutants.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers in the world and a significant threat to the health of patients, especially those from China and Japan. The prognosis for patients with late stage GC receiving the standard of care treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, remains poor. Developing novel treatment strategies, identifying new molecules for targeted therapy, and devising screening techniques to detect this cancer in its early stages are needed for GC patients. The discovery of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), primarily microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), helped to elucidate the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, diagnosis and treatment of GC. Recently, significant research has been conducted on non-coding RNAs and how the regulatory dysfunction of these RNAs impacts the tumorigenesis of GC. In this study, we review papers published in the last five years concerning the dysregulation of non-coding RNAs, especially miRNAs and lncRNAs, in GC. We summarize instances of aberrant expression of the ncRNAs in GC and their effect on survival-related events, including cell cycle regulation, AKT signaling, apoptosis and drug resistance. Additionally, we evaluate how ncRNA dysregulation affects the metastatic process, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stem cells, transcription factor activity, and oncogene and tumor suppressor expression. Lastly, we determine how ncRNAs affect angiogenesis in the microenvironment of GC. We further discuss the use of ncRNAs as potential biomarkers for use in clinical screening, early diagnosis and prognosis of GC. At present, no ideal ncRNAs have been identified as targets for the treatment of GC.
Project description:Recent discoveries in the non-coding genome have challenged the original central dogma of molecular biology, as non-coding RNAs and related processes have been found to be important in regulating gene expression. MicroRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are among those that have gained attention recently in human diseases, including cancer, with the involvement of many more non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) waiting to be discovered. ncRNAs are a group of ribonucleic acids transcribed from regions of the human genome, which do not become translated into proteins, despite having essential roles in cellular physiology. Deregulation of ncRNA expression and function has been observed in cancer pathogenesis. Recently, the roles of a group of ncRNA known as lncRNA have gained attention in cancer, with increasing reports of their oncogenic involvement. Female reproductive cancers remain a leading cause of death in the female population, accounting for almost a third of all female cancer deaths in 2016. The Wnt signalling pathway is one of the most important oncogenic signalling pathways which is hyperactivated in cancers, including female reproductive cancers. The extension of ncRNA research into their mechanistic roles in human cancers has also led to novel reported roles of ncRNAs in the Wnt pathway and Wnt-mediated oncogenesis. This review aims to provide a critical summary of the respective roles and cellular functions of Wnt-associated lncRNAs in female reproductive cancers and explores the potential of circulating cell-free lncRNAs as diagnostic markers and lncRNAs as therapeutic targets. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on WNT Signalling: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.24/issuetoc.
Project description:Fully elucidating the molecular mechanisms of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including micro RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), underlying hepatocarcinogenesis is challenging. We characterized the expression profiles of ncRNAs and constructed a regulatory mRNA-lncRNA-miRNA (MLMI) network based on transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n?=?9) patients. Of the identified miRNAs (n?=?203) and lncRNAs (n?=?1,090), we found 16 significantly differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and three DE lncRNAs. The DE RNAs were highly enriched in 21 functional pathways implicated in HCC (p?<?0.05), including p53, MAPK, and NAFLD signaling. Potential pairwise interactions between DE ncRNAs and mRNAs were fully characterized using in silico prediction and experimentally-validated evidence. We for the first time constructed a MLMI network of reciprocal interactions for 16 miRNAs, three lncRNAs, and 253 mRNAs in HCC. The predominant role of MEG3 in the MLMI network was validated by its overexpression in vitro that the expression levels of a proportion of MEG3-targeted miRNAs and mRNAs was changed significantly. Our results suggested that the comprehensive MLMI network synergistically modulated carcinogenesis, and the crosstalk of the network provides a new avenue to accurately describe the molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis.
Project description:Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed, producing both coding and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). ncRNAs are diverse and a critical family of biological molecules, yet much remains unknown regarding their functions and mechanisms of regulation. ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling complexes, in modifying chromatin structure, play an important role in transcriptional regulation. Recent findings show that ncRNAs regulate nucleosome remodeler activities at many levels and that ncRNAs are regulatory targets of nucleosome remodelers. Further, a series of recent screens indicate this network of regulatory interactions is more expansive than previously appreciated. Here, we discuss currently described regulatory interactions between ncRNAs and nucleosome remodelers and contextualize their biological functions.
Project description:Novel classes of small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are increasingly becoming apparent, being engaged in diverse structural, functional and regulatory activities. They take part in target gene silencing, play roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic processes, such as chromatin remodeling, nuclear reorganization with the formation of silent compartments and fine-tuning of gene recruitment into them. Among their functions, non-coding RNAs are thought to act either as guide or scaffold for epigenetic modifiers that write, erase, and read the epigenetic signature over the genome. Studies on human disorders caused by defects in epigenetic modifiers and involving neurological phenotypes highlight the disruption of diverse classes of non-coding RNAs. Noteworthy, these molecules mediate a wide spectrum of neuronal functions, including brain development, and synaptic plasticity. These findings imply a significant contribution of ncRNAs in pathophysiology of the aforesaid diseases and provide new concepts for potential therapeutic applications.