Surface modified cellulose scaffolds for tissue engineering.
ABSTRACT: We report the ability of cellulose to support cells without the use of matrix ligands on the surface of the material, thus creating a two-component system for tissue engineering of cells and materials. Sheets of bacterial cellulose, grown from a culture medium containing Acetobacter organism were chemically modified with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride or by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite in the presence of sodium bromide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpipiridine 1-oxyl radical to introduce a positive, or negative, charge, respectively. This modification process did not degrade the mechanical properties of the bulk material, but grafting of a positively charged moiety to the cellulose surface (cationic cellulose) increased cell attachment by 70% compared to unmodified cellulose, while negatively charged, oxidised cellulose films (anionic cellulose), showed low levels of cell attachment comparable to those seen for unmodified cellulose. Only a minimal level of cationic surface derivitisation (ca 3% degree of substitution) was required for increased cell attachment and no mediating proteins were required. Cell adhesion studies exhibited the same trends as the attachment studies, while the mean cell area and aspect ratio was highest on the cationic surfaces. Overall, we demonstrated the utility of positively charged bacterial cellulose in tissue engineering in the absence of proteins for cell attachment.
Project description:Combining surface chemical modification of cellulose to introduce positively charged trimethylammonium groups by reaction with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) allowed for direct attachment of mammalian MG-63 cells, without addition of protein modifiers, or ligands. Very small increases in the surface charge resulted in significant increases in cell attachment: at a degree of substitution (DS) of only 1.4%, MG-63 cell attachment was > 90% compared to tissue culture plastic, whereas minimal attachment occurred on unmodified cellulose. Cell attachment plateaued above DS of ca. 1.85% reflecting a similar trend in surface charge, as determined from ?-potential measurements and capacitance coupling (electric force microscopy). Cellulose film stiffness was modulated by cross linking with glyoxal (0.3-2.6% degree of crosslinking) to produce a range of materials with surface shear moduli from 76 to 448 kPa (measured using atomic force microscopy). Cell morphology on these materials could be regulated by tuning the stiffness of the scaffolds. Thus, we report tailored functionalised biomaterials based on cationic cellulose that can be tuned through surface reaction and glyoxal crosslinkin+g, to influence the attachment and morphology of cells. These scaffolds are the first steps towards materials designed to support cells and to regulate cell morphology on implanted biomaterials using only scaffold and cells, i.e. without added adhesion promoters.
Project description:Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have emerged as promising candidates for a number of bio-applications. Surface modification of CNCs continues to gain significant research interest as it imparts new properties to the surface of the nanocrystals for the design of multifunctional CNCs-based materials. A small chemical surface modification can potentially lead to drastic behavioral changes of cell-material interactions thereby affecting the intended bio-application. In this work, unmodified CNCs were covalently decorated with four different organic moieties such as a diaminobutane fragment, a cyclic oligosaccharide (?-cyclodextrin), a thermoresponsive polymer (poly[N-isopropylacrylamide]), and a cationic aminomethacrylamide-based polymer using different synthetic covalent methods. The effect of surface coatings of CNCs and the respective dose-response of the above organic moieties on the cell viability were evaluated on mammalian cell cultures (J774A.1 and MFC-7), using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphe-nyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Overall, the results indicated that cells exposed to surface-coated CNCs for 24 h did not display major changes in cell viability, membrane permeability as well as cell morphology. However, with longer exposure, all these parameters were somewhat affected, which appears not to be correlated with either anionic or cationic surface coatings of CNCs used in this study.
Project description:In this study, we exploit the excellent fouling resistance of polymer zwitterions and present electrospun nanofiber mats surface functionalized with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (polyMPC). This zwitterionic polymer coating maximizes the accessibility of the zwitterion to effectively limit biofouling on nanofiber membranes. Two facile, scalable methods yielded a coating on cellulose nanofibers: (i) a two-step sequential deposition featuring dopamine polymerization followed by the physioadsorption of polyMPC, and (ii) a one-step codeposition of polydopamine (PDA) with polyMPC. While the sequential and codeposited nanofiber mat assemblies have an equivalent average fiber diameter, hydrophilic contact angle, surface chemistry, and stability, the topography of nanofibers prepared by codeposition were smoother. Protein and microbial antifouling performance of the zwitterion modified nanofiber mats along with two controls, cellulose (unmodified) and PDA coated nanofiber mats were evaluated by dynamic protein fouling and prolonged bacterial exposure. Following 21 days of exposure to bovine serum albumin, the sequential nanofiber mats significantly resisted protein fouling, as indicated by their 95% flux recovery ratio in a water flux experiment, a 300% improvement over the cellulose nanofiber mats. When challenged with two model microbes Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus for 24 h, both zwitterion modifications demonstrated superior fouling resistance by statistically reducing microbial attachment over the two controls. This study demonstrates that, by decorating the surfaces of chemically and mechanically robust cellulose nanofiber mats with polyMPC, we can generate high performance, free-standing nanofiber mats that hold potential in applications where antifouling materials are imperative, such as tissue engineering scaffolds and water purification technologies.
Project description:In wastewater treatment, flocculation is a widely used solid/liquid separation technique, which typically employs a charged polymer, a polyelectrolyte (PEL). Polyelectrolytes features, such as charge type, charge density and molecular weight, are essential parameters affecting the mechanism of flocculation and subsequent floc sedimentation. The effectiveness of the process is also influenced by the characteristics of the system (e.g., type, size, and available surface area of suspended particles, pH of the medium, charge of suspended particles). Thus, a good understanding of the flocculation kinetics, involved mechanisms and flocs structure is essential in identifying the most adequate treatment conditions, having also into consideration possible subsequent treatments. In this study, Eucalyptus bleached pulp and a cellulosic pulp with high lignin content (~4.5 wt%) obtained from Eucalyptus wood waste were used for bio-PELs production. Firstly, a pre-treatment with sodium periodate increased the pulps reactivity. To produce cationic cellulose the oxidation step was followed by the introduction of cationic groups in the cellulose chains, through reaction with Girard's reagent T. Applying different molar ratios (0.975 and 3.9) of Girard's reagent T to aldehyde groups led to cationic PELs with diverse charge density. On the other hand, to obtain anionic cellulose a sulfonation reaction with sodium metabisulfite was applied to the intermediate dialdehyde cellulose-based products, during 24 or 72 h, and anionic-PELs with diverse features were obtained. The developed water soluble, anionic and cationic bio-PELs were characterized and tested as flocculation agents for a textile industry effluent treatment. Initially, jar-tests were used to tune the most effective flocculation procedure (pH, flocculant dosage, etc.). Flocculation using these conditions was then monitored continuously, over time, using laser diffraction spectroscopy (LDS). Due to the small size of the dyes molecules, a dual system with an inorganic complexation agent (bentonite) was essential for effective decolouration of the effluent. Performance in the treatment was monitored first by turbidity removal evaluation (75-88% with cationic-PELs, 75-81% with anionic-PELs) and COD reduction evaluation (79-81% with cationic-PELs, 63-77% with anionic-PELs) in the jar tests. Additionally, the evolution of flocs characteristics (structure and size) during their growth and the flocculation kinetics, were studied using the LDS technique, applying the different PELs produced and for a range of PEL concentration. The results obtained through this monitoring procedure allowed to discuss the possible flocculation mechanisms involved in the process. The results obtained with the bio-PELs were compared with those obtained using synthetic PELs, commonly applied in effluents treatment, polyacrylamides. The developed bio-PELs can be competitive, eco-friendly flocculation agents for effluents treatment from several industries, when compared to traditional synthetic flocculants with a significant environmental footprint. Moreover, LDS proved to be a feasible technique to monitor flocculation processes, even when a real industrial effluent is being tested.
Project description:The surface activity, aggregates morphology, size and charge characteristics of binary catanionic mixtures containing a cationic amino acid-derived surfactant N(?), N(?)-bis(methyl)-L-Histidine tetradecyl amide (DMHNHC<sub>14</sub>) and an anionic surfactant (the lysine-based surfactant N<sup>?</sup>-lauroyl-N<sup>?</sup>acetyl lysine (C<sub>12</sub>C<sub>3</sub>L) or sodium myristate) were investigated for the first time. The cationic surfactant has an acid proton which shows a strong pK<sub>a</sub> shift irrespective of aggregation. The resulting catanionic mixtures exhibited high surface activity and low critical aggregation concentration as compared with the pure constituents. Catanionic vesicles based on DMHNHC<sub>14</sub>/sodium myristate showed a monodisperse population of medium-size aggregates and good storage stability. According to Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), the characteristics of the bilayers did not depend strongly on the system composition for the positively charged vesicles. Negatively charged vesicles (cationic surfactant:myristate ratio below 1:2) had similar bilayer composition but tended to aggregate. The DMHNHC<sub>14</sub>-rich vesicles exhibited good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and their bactericidal effectivity declined with the decrease of the cationic surfactant content in the mixtures. The hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity of these catanionic formulations against non-tumoral (3T3, HaCaT) and tumoral (HeLa, A431) cell lines also improved by increasing the ratio of cationic surfactant in the mixture. These results indicate that the biological activity of these systems is mainly governed by the cationic charge density, which can be modulated by changing the cationic/anionic surfactant ratio in the mixtures. Remarkably, the incorporation of cholesterol in those catanionic vesicles reduces their cytotoxicity and increases the safety of future biomedical applications of these systems.
Project description:To better understand the complex system of wet foams in the presence of cellulosic fibers, we investigate bubble-surface interactions by following the effects of surface hydrophobicity and surface tension on the contact angle of captive bubbles. Bubbles are brought into contact with model silica and cellulose surfaces immersed in solutions of a foaming surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) of different concentrations. It is observed that bubble attachment is controlled by surface wetting, but a significant scatter in the behavior occurs near the transition from partial to complete wetting. For chemically homogeneous silica surfaces, this transition during bubble attachment is described by the balance between the energy changes of the immersed surface and the frictional surface tension of the moving three-phase contact line. The situation is more complex with chemically heterogeneous, hydrophobic trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC). TMSC regeneration, which yields hydrophilic cellulose, causes a dramatic drop in the bubble contact angle. Moreover, a high interfacial tension is required to overcome the friction caused by microscopic (hydrophilic) pinning sites of the three-phase contact line during bubble attachment. A simple theoretical framework is introduced to explain our experimental observations.
Project description:Polymers have been used extensively taking forms as scaffolds, patterned surface and nanoparticle for regenerative medicine applications. Angiogenesis is an essential process for successful tissue regeneration, and endothelial cell-cell interaction plays a pivotal role in regulating their tight junction formation, a hallmark of angiogenesis. Though continuous progress has been made, strategies to promote angiogenesis still rely on small molecule delivery or nuanced scaffold fabrication. As such, the recent paradigm shift from top-down to bottom-up approaches in tissue engineering necessitates development of polymer-based modular engineering tools to control angiogenesis. Here, we developed cationic nanocylinders (NCs) as inducers of cell-cell interaction and investigated their effect on angiogenic activities of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Electrospun poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibers were aminolyzed to generate positively charged NCs. The aninolyzation time was changed to produce two different aspect ratios of NCs. When HUVECs were treated with NCs, the electrostatic interaction of cationic NCs with negatively charged plasma membranes promoted migration, permeability and tubulogenesis of HUVECs compared to no treatment. This effect was more profound when the higher aspect ratio NC was used. The results indicate these NCs can be used as a new tool for the bottom-up approach to promote angiogenesis.
Project description:Crystalline cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have emerged as novel materials for a wide variety of important applications such as nanofillers, nanocomposites, surface coatings, regenerative medicine and potential drug delivery. CNCs have a needle-like structure with sizes in the range of 100-200 nm long and 5-20 nm wide and a mean aspect ratio 10-100. Despite the great potential applicability of CNCs, very little is known about their potential immunogenicity. Needle-like materials have been known to evoke an immune response in particular to activate the (NOD-like receptor, pyrin domain-containing 3)-inflammasome/IL-1? (Interleukin 1?) pathway. In this study we evaluated the capacity of unmodified CNC and its cationic derivatives CNC-AEM (aminoethylmethacrylate)1, CNC-AEM2, CNC-AEMA(aminoethylmethacrylamide)1 and CNC-AEMA2 to stimulate NLRP3-inflammasome/IL-1? pathway and enhance the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mouse macrophage cell line (J774A.1) was stimulated for 24 h with 50 µg/mL with unmodified CNC and its cationic derivatives. Alternatively, J774A1 or PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) were stimulated with CNC-AEMA2 in presence or absence of LPS (lipopolysaccharide). IL-1? secretion was analyzed by ELISA, mitochondrial function by JC-1 staining and ATP content. Intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by DCF-DA (2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and MitoSOX, respectively. Mitochondrial ROS and extracellular ATP were significantly increased in cells treated with CNC-AEMA2, which correlates with the strongest effects on IL-1? secretion in non-primed cells. CNC-AEMA2 also induced IL-1?secretion in LPS-primed and non-primed PBMCs. Our data suggest that the increases in mitochondrial ROS and ATP release induced by CNC-AEMA2 may be associated with its capability to evoke immune response. We demonstrate the first evidence that newly synthesized cationic cellulose nanocrystal derivative, CNC-AEMA2, has immunogenic properties, which may lead to the development of a potential non-toxic and safe nanomaterial to be used as a novel adjuvant for vaccines.
Project description:The rumen bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens produces a highly organized multienzyme cellulosome complex that plays a key role in the degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides, notably cellulose. The R. flavefaciens cellulosomal system is anchored to the bacterial cell wall through a relatively small ScaE scaffoldin subunit, which bears a single type IIIe cohesin responsible for the attachment of two major dockerin-containing scaffoldin proteins, ScaB and the cellulose-binding protein CttA. Although ScaB recruits the catalytic machinery onto the complex, CttA mediates attachment of the bacterial substrate via its two putative carbohydrate-binding modules. In an effort to understand the structural basis for assembly and cell surface attachment of the cellulosome in R. flavefaciens, we determined the crystal structure of the high affinity complex (Kd = 20.83 nM) between the cohesin module of ScaE (CohE) and its cognate X-dockerin (XDoc) modular dyad from CttA at 1.97-Å resolution. The structure reveals an atypical calcium-binding loop containing a 13-residue insert. The results further pinpoint two charged specificity-related residues on the surface of the cohesin module that are responsible for specific versus promiscuous cross-strain binding of the dockerin module. In addition, a combined functional role for the three enigmatic dockerin inserts was established whereby these extraneous segments serve as structural buttresses that reinforce the stalklike conformation of the X-module, thus segregating its tethered complement of cellulosomal components from the cell surface. The novel structure of the RfCohE-XDoc complex sheds light on divergent dockerin structure and function and provides insight into the specificity features of the type IIIe cohesin-dockerin interaction.
Project description:Developing nanomaterials that are effective, safe, and selective for gene transfer applications is challenging. Bacteriophages (phage), viruses that infect bacteria only, have shown promise for targeted gene transfer applications. Unfortunately, limited progress has been achieved in improving their potential to overcome mammalian cellular barriers. We hypothesized that chemical modification of the bacteriophage capsid could be applied to improve targeted gene delivery by phage vectors into mammalian cells. Here, we introduce a novel hybrid system consisting of two classes of nanomaterial systems, cationic polymers and M13 bacteriophage virus particles genetically engineered to display a tumor-targeting ligand and carry a transgene cassette. We demonstrate that the phage complex with cationic polymers generates positively charged phage and large aggregates that show enhanced cell surface attachment, buffering capacity, and improved transgene expression while retaining cell type specificity. Moreover, phage/polymer complexes carrying a therapeutic gene achieve greater cancer cell killing than phage alone. This new class of hybrid nanomaterial platform can advance targeted gene delivery applications by bacteriophage.