Adipose-derived stem cells improve grafted burn wound healing by promoting wound bed blood flow.
ABSTRACT: Background:Researchers have explored the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as a cell-based therapy to cover wounds in burn patients; however, underlying mechanistic aspects are not completely understood. We hypothesized that ASCs would improve post-burn wound healing after eschar excision and grafting by increasing wound blood flow via induction of angiogenesis-related pathways. Methods:To test the hypothesis, we used an ovine burn model. A 5 cm2 full thickness burn wound was induced on each side of the dorsum. After 24 hours, the burned skin was excised and a 2 cm2 patch of autologous donor skin was grafted. The wound sites were randomly allocated to either topical application of 7 million allogeneic ASCs or placebo treatment (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]). Effects of ASCs culture media was also compared to those of PBS. Wound healing was assessed at one and two weeks following the application of ASCs. Allogeneic ASCs were isolated, cultured and characterized from non-injured healthy sheep. The identity of the ASCs was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis, differentiation into multiple lineages and gene expression via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Wound blood flow, epithelialization, graft size and take and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. Results:Treatment with ASCs accelerated the patch graft growth compared to the control (p
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) therapy is emerging as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes and diabetic wound healing. Multiple studies indicate that ASCs could promote wound healing and reverse diabetes. However, whether ASCs from diabetic donors retain their therapeutic functions and the mechanisms of how ASCs contribute to wound healing remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the cutaneous wound healing ability of ASCs collected from C57BL/6 mice that had been rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ). METHODS:ASCs were harvested from adipose tissues of type 1 diabetic (T1D) or normal C57BL/6 mice. Cell phenotypes were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis, and cell differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes was compared. Secretions of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by ASCs were assessed by ELISA. Migration and proliferation of fibroblasts co-cultured with T1D ASCs or control ASCs were also compared. The therapeutic effects of T1D and control ASCs in promoting wound closure were measured in vivo in a T1D wound mouse model. Granulation tissues were collected and stained with H&E at 14th day. CD34 and collagen I were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expressions of IL-6, ?-SMA, CD31, collagen I, and collagen III were quantified by real-time PCR. GFP-expressing ASCs were used to trace in vivo cell differentiation. RESULTS:T1D ASCs and control ASCs showed similar expression of cell surface markers (CD29, CD34, CD105) and proliferation pattern. They can both differentiate into different cell types. T1D ASCs secreted similar amounts of VEGF and bFGF, but less TGF-? compared with control ASCs. Like control ASCs, T1D ASCs promoted the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblast cells. When injected in cutaneous wound of T1D mice, T1D ASCs increased wound closure and hair follicle regeneration at a comparable extent as ASCs. Mice receiving T1D ASCs or ASCs exhibited significantly higher expressions of collagen I, collagen III, and CD31 and reduced expression of IL-6 in wound tissues. Immunohistochemistry staining showed increased angiogenesis in mice receiving ASCs as was evident by increased CD34+ cells and collagen I staining. GFP+ ASCs injection showed that ASCs differentiated into fibroblasts and endothelial cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that T1D ASCs could accelerate cutaneous wound healing. Mechanisms may include increasing fibroblast growth and migration, skin angiogenesis, and differentiation into fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This study provides evidence that diabetic ASCs may be used as a therapeutic option in cutaneous wound healing in diabetic recipients.
Project description:Angiogenesis is essential to wound repair, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent factor to stimulate angiogenesis. Here, we examine the potential of VEGF-overexpressing adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) for accelerating wound healing using nonviral, biodegradable polymeric vectors. Mouse ASCs were transfected with DNA plasmid encoding VEGF or green fluorescent protein (GFP) using biodegradable poly (?-amino) esters (PBAE). Cells transfected using Lipofectamine 2000, a commercially available transfection reagent, were included as controls. ASCs transfected using PBAEs showed enhanced transfection efficiency and 12-15-fold higher VEGF production compared with cells transfected using Lipofectamine 2000 (*P < 0.05). When transplanted into a mouse wild-type excisional wound model, VEGF-overexpressing ASCs led to significantly accelerated wound healing, with full wound closure observed at 8 days compared to 10-12 days in groups treated with ASCs alone or saline control (*P < 0.05). Histology and polarized microscopy showed increased collagen deposition and more mature collagen fibers in the dermis of wound beds treated using PBAE/VEGF-modified ASCs than ASCs alone. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of using nonviral-engineered ASCs to accelerate wound healing, which may provide an alternative therapy for treating many diseases in which wound healing is impaired.
Project description:Neovascularization is a critical determinant of wound-healing outcomes for deep burn injuries. We hypothesize that dextran-based hydrogels can serve as instructive scaffolds to promote neovascularization and skin regeneration in third-degree burn wounds. Dextran hydrogels are soft and pliable, offering opportunities to improve the management of burn wound treatment. We first developed a procedure to treat burn wounds on mice with dextran hydrogels. In this procedure, we followed clinical practice of wound excision to remove full-thickness burned skin, and then covered the wound with the dextran hydrogel and a dressing layer. Our procedure allows the hydrogel to remain intact and securely in place during the entire healing period, thus offering opportunities to simplify the management of burn wound treatment. A 3-week comparative study indicated that dextran hydrogel promoted dermal regeneration with complete skin appendages. The hydrogel scaffold facilitated early inflammatory cell infiltration that led to its rapid degradation, promoting the infiltration of angiogenic cells into the healing wounds. Endothelial cells homed into the hydrogel scaffolds to enable neovascularization by day 7, resulting in an increased blood flow significantly greater than treated and untreated controls. By day 21, burn wounds treated with hydrogel developed a mature epithelial structure with hair follicles and sebaceous glands. After 5 weeks of treatment, the hydrogel scaffolds promoted new hair growth and epidermal morphology and thickness similar to normal mouse skin. Collectively, our evidence shows that customized dextran-based hydrogel alone, with no additional growth factors, cytokines, or cells, promoted remarkable neovascularization and skin regeneration and may lead to novel treatments for dermal wounds.
Project description:The incidence of accidental and intentional acid skin burns is rising. Current treatment strategies are mostly inadequate, leaving victims disfigured and without treatment options. Here, we have shown that transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) accelerates the process of acid burn wound-healing. Pre-conditioning of ASCs using ascorbic acid (AA) or hypoxic conditions provided additional benefit. While the wounds were ultimately healed in all mice, histological analysis revealed that, in non-transplanted animals, the number of hair follicles was reduced. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) of transplanted ASCs revealed a gradual loss of transplanted cells, with a similar rate of cell death for each treatment group. The signal of fluorinated cells detected by a clinically applicable 19F MRI method correlated with the BLI findings, which points to 19F MRI as a reliable method with which to track ASCs after transplantation to skin wounds. No difference in therapeutic effect or cell survival was observed between labeled and non-labeled cells. We conclude that, despite being short-lived, transplanted ASCs can accelerate wound-healing and reduce hair loss in acid-burn skin injury. The fluorine nanoemulsion is a clinically applicable cell label capable of reporting on the survival of transplanted cells.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:When introducing a new intervention into burn care, it is important to consider both clinical and economic impacts, as the financial burden of burns in the USA is significant. This study utilizes a health economic modeling approach to estimate cost-effectiveness and burn center budget-impact for the use of the RECELL® Autologous Cell Harvesting Device to prepare autologous skin cell suspension (ASCS) compared to standard of care (SOC) split-thickness skin graft (STSG) for the treatment of severe burn injuries requiring surgical intervention for definitive closure. METHODS:A hospital-perspective model using sequential decision trees depicts the acute burn care pathway (wound assessment, debridement/excision, temporary coverage, definitive closure) and predicts the relative differences between use of ASCS compared to SOC. Clinical inputs and ASCS impact on length of stay (LOS) were derived from clinical trials and real-world use data, American Burn Association National Burn Repository database analyses, and burn surgeon interviews. Hospital resource use and unit costs were derived from three US burn centers. A budget impact calculation leverages Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the overall impact to a burn center. RESULTS:ASCS treatment is cost-saving or cost-neutral (< 2% difference) and results in lower LOS compared to SOC across expected patient profiles and scenarios. In aggregate, ASCS treatment saves a burn center 14-17.3% annually. Results are sensitive to, but remain robust across, changing assumptions for relative impact of ASCS use on LOS, procedure time, and number of procedures. CONCLUSIONS:Use of ASCS compared to SOC reduces hospital costs and LOS of severe burns in the USA. FUNDING:AVITA Medical.
Project description:Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC)-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as well as its downstream targets, including c-Fos, c-Jun, and Egr-1, which are key molecules involved in cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that BPC-157 treatment may accelerate wound healing in a model of alkali burn-induced skin injury. The therapeutic mechanism may be associated with accelerated granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and collagen deposition through ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Project description:Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been shown to produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and can increase perfusion in patients with critical limb ischemia. We will show that this concept can be applied to augment blood flow in zones of flap ischemia. We presented a case study of a 26-year-old man with a complex hand injury covered by a reverse radial perforator fasciocutaneous flap, which developed ischemic necrosis and was treated by debridement, transplantation of ASCs to enhance vascular support, and saline dressings. ASCs are found in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), a heterogeneous collection of cells, including pericytes and endothelial cells, that is prepared from lipoaspirate using collagenase digestion followed by centrifugation. These were injected into the flap, the palmar tissues both subjacent and peripheral to the flap, and the skin-grafted donor site. The case was documented with photography, measurements at hand therapy, and follow-up angiography MRI. At 72 hours, new vessels appeared diffusely; at 1 week, the remaining tissues of flap were bleeding. The wound, 11 cm × 4 cm, contracted spontaneously and was healed at 21 days. The skin graft over the donor site demonstrated unusual suppleness and elasticity. 3D CT angiography disclosed a new layer of vascularity in the superficial tissues of the palm when compared with the normal side. The patient regained full composite flexion, pinch, opposition, and wrist extension. Application of ASCs into the supporting tissues surrounding the ischemic flap, and into the flap itself, constituted a form of in-situ revascularization (ISR) that was subjectively and objectively effective for this patient.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>5.
Project description:Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) have a significant impact on approximately 3% of the adult population worldwide, with a mean NHS wound care cost of £7600 per VLU over 12?months. The standard care for VLUs is compression therapy, with a significant number of ulcers failing to heal with this treatment, especially with wound size being a risk factor for non-healing. This multicentre, prospective, randomised trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of autologous skin cell suspension (ASCS) combined with compression therapy compared with standard compression alone (Control) for the treatment of VLUs. Incidence of complete wound closure at 14?weeks, donor site closure, pain, Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), satisfaction, and safety were assessed in 52 patients. At Week 14, VLUs treated with ASCS?+?compression had a statistically greater decrease in ulcer area compared with the Control (8.94?cm2 versus 1.23?cm2 , P =?.0143). This finding was largely driven by ulcers >10 to 80?cm2 in size, as these ulcers had a higher mean percentage of reepithelialization at 14?weeks (ASCS?+?compression: 69.97% and Control: 11.07%, P =?.0480). Additionally, subjects treated with ASCS?+?compression experienced a decrease in pain and an increase in HRQoL compared with the Control. This study indicates that application of ASCS?+?compression accelerates healing in large venous ulcers.
Project description:According to the latest report from the World Health Organization, an estimated 265,000 deaths still occur every year as a direct result of burn injuries. A widespread range of these deaths induced by burn wound happens in low- and middle-income countries, where survivors face a lifetime of morbidity. Most of the deaths occur due to infections when a high percentage of the external regions of the body area is affected. Microbial nutrient availability, skin barrier disruption, and vascular supply destruction in burn injuries as well as systemic immunosuppression are important parameters that cause burns to be susceptible to infections. Topical antimicrobials and dressings are generally employed to inhibit burn infections followed by a burn wound therapy, because systemic antibiotics have problems in reaching the infected site, coupled with increasing microbial drug resistance. Nanotechnology has provided a range of molecular designed nanostructures (NS) that can be used in both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in burns. These NSs can be divided into organic and non-organic (such as polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and silver NPs, respectively), and many have been designed to display multifunctional activity. The present review covers the physiology of skin, burn classification, burn wound pathogenesis, animal models of burn wound infection, and various topical therapeutic approaches designed to combat infection and stimulate healing. These include biological based approaches (e.g. immune-based antimicrobial molecules, therapeutic microorganisms, antimicrobial agents, etc.), antimicrobial photo- and ultrasound-therapy, as well as nanotechnology-based wound healing approaches as a revolutionizing area. Thus, we focus on organic and non-organic NSs designed to deliver growth factors to burned skin, and scaffolds, dressings, etc. for exogenous stem cells to aid skin regeneration. Eventually, recent breakthroughs and technologies with substantial potentials in tissue regeneration and skin wound therapy (that are as the basis of burn wound therapies) are briefly taken into consideration including 3D-printing, cell-imprinted substrates, nano-architectured surfaces, and novel gene-editing tools such as CRISPR-Cas.
Project description:Wound assessment relies on visual evaluation by physicians. Such assessment is largely subjective and presents the opportunity to explore the use of emergent technologies.Emergent and powerful noninvasive imaging technologies applicable to assess burn and chronic wounds are reviewed.The need to estimate wound depth is critical in both chronic wound and burn injury settings. Harmonic ultrasound technology is powerful to study wound depth. It addresses the limitations of optical imaging with limited depth of penetration. What if a wound appears epithelialized by visual inspection, which shows no discharge yet is covered by repaired skin that lacks barrier function? In this case although the wound is closed as defined by current standards, it remains functionally open, presenting the risk of infection and other postclosure complications. Thus, assessment of skin barrier function is valuable in the context of assessing wound closure. Options for the study of tissue vascularization are many. If noncontact and noninvasive criteria are of importance, laser speckle imaging is powerful. Fluorescence imaging is standard in several clinical settings and is likely to serve the wound clinics well as long as indocyanine green injection is not of concern. A major advantage of harmonic ultrasound imaging of wound depth is that the same system is capable of providing information on blood flow dynamics in arterial perforators.With many productive imaging platforms to choose from, wound care is about to be transformed by technology that would help assess wound severity.