A Case of Logopenic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia with Parkinsonism and Anosmia.
ABSTRACT: A 69-year-old right-handed woman developed difficulty naming objects and word-finding. The clinical features of language disorder and predominant atrophy on MRI and predominant hypoperfusion on 123I-IMP SPECT in the left temporo-parietal junction area were consistent with the diagnostic criteria for the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA). Neurological examination showed slight right-side rigidity and resting tremor (UPDRS-III: 4). 123I-FP-CIT SPECT showed presynaptic dopamine transporter reduction in the posterior putamina with left-side predominance. The odor-stick identification test for Japanese exhibited complete loss of the sense of smell (anosmia). These findings suggest that lvPPA may be accompanied by parkinsonism and anosmia.
Project description:Logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) is a progressive language disorder characterized by anomia, difficulty repeating complex sentences, and phonological errors. The majority, although not all, lvPPA patients have underlying Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine whether clinical or neuroimaging features differ according to the deposition of A? on Pittsburgh-compound B PET in lvPPA. Clinical features, patterns of atrophy on MRI, hypometabolism on FDG-PET, and white matter tract degeneration were compared between six PiB-negative and 20 PiB-positive lvPPA patients. PiB-negative patients showed more asymmetric left-sided patterns of atrophy, hypometabolism and white matter tract degeneration, with greater left anteromedial temporal and medial prefrontal involvement, than PiB-positive patients. PiB-positive patients showed greater involvement of right temporoparietal and frontal lobes. There was very little evidence for clinical differences between the groups. Strikingly asymmetric neuroimaging findings with relatively preserved right hemisphere may provide clues that AD pathology is absent in lvPPA.
Project description:Logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) typically results from underlying Alzheimer's disease, but subjects have been reported that do not show beta-amyloid (A?) deposition. These subjects do not differ on neurological and speech-language testing from A?-positive lvPPA, but they impressionistically show increased grammatical deficits. We performed a quantitative linguistic analysis of grammatical characteristics in A?-negative lvPPA compared to A?-positive lvPPA and agrammatic PPA, which is characterized by increased grammatical difficulties. A?-negative lvPPA used fewer function words and correct verbs but more syntactic and semantic errors compared to A?-positive lvPPA. These measures did not differ between A?-negative lvPPA and agPPA. Both lvPPA cohorts showed a higher mean length of utterance, more complex sentences, and fewer nouns than agPPA. A?-negative lvPPA subjects appear unique and share linguistic features with both agPPA and A?-positive lvPPA. Quantitative language analysis in lvPPA may be able to distinguish those with and without A? deposition.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether logopenic features of phonologic loop dysfunction reflect Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). METHODS:We performed a retrospective case-control study of 34 patients with PPA with available autopsy tissue. We compared baseline and longitudinal clinical features in patients with primary AD neuropathology to those with primary non-AD pathologies. We analyzed regional neuroanatomic disease burden in pathology-defined groups using postmortem neuropathologic data. RESULTS:A total of 19/34 patients had primary AD pathology and 15/34 had non-AD pathology (13 frontotemporal lobar degeneration, 2 Lewy body disease). A total of 16/19 (84%) patients with AD had a logopenic spectrum phenotype; 5 met published criteria for the logopenic variant (lvPPA), 8 had additional grammatical or semantic deficits (lvPPA+), and 3 had relatively preserved sentence repetition (lvPPA-). Sentence repetition was impaired in 68% of patients with PPA with AD pathology; forward digit span (DF) was impaired in 90%, substantially higher than in non-AD PPA (33%, p < 0.01). Lexical retrieval difficulty was common in all patients with PPA and did not discriminate between groups. Compared to non-AD, PPA with AD pathology had elevated microscopic neurodegenerative pathology in the superior/midtemporal gyrus, angular gyrus, and midfrontal cortex (p < 0.01). Low DF scores correlated with high microscopic pathologic burden in superior/midtemporal and angular gyri (p ? 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Phonologic loop dysfunction is a central feature of AD-associated PPA and specifically correlates with temporoparietal neurodegeneration. Quantitative measures of phonologic loop function, combined with modified clinical lvPPA criteria, may help discriminate AD-associated PPA.
Project description:Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) is a neurodegenerative language disorder primarily characterized by impaired phonological processing. Sentence repetition and comprehension deficits are observed in lvPPA and linked to impaired phonological working memory, but recent evidence also implicates impaired speech perception. Currently, neural encoding of the speech envelope, which forms the scaffolding for perception, is not clearly understood in lvPPA. We leveraged recent analytical advances in electrophysiology to examine speech envelope encoding in lvPPA. We assessed cortical tracking of the speech envelope and in-task comprehension of two spoken narratives in individuals with lvPPA (<i>n</i> = 10) and age-matched (<i>n</i> = 10) controls. Despite markedly reduced narrative comprehension relative to controls, individuals with lvPPA had increased cortical tracking of the speech envelope in theta oscillations, which track low-level features (e.g., syllables), but not delta oscillations, which track speech units that unfold across a longer time scale (e.g., words, phrases, prosody). This neural signature was highly correlated across narratives. Results indicate an increased reliance on acoustic cues during speech encoding. This may reflect inefficient encoding of bottom-up speech cues, likely as a consequence of dysfunctional temporoparietal cortex.
Project description:Differentiation of logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (nfvPPA) variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia is important yet remains challenging since it hinges on expert based evaluation of speech and language production. In this study acoustic measures of speech in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry were used to determine the success of the measures as an adjunct to diagnosis and to explore the neural basis of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA. Forty-one patients (21 lvPPA, 20 nfvPPA) were recruited from a consecutive sample with suspected frontotemporal dementia. Patients were diagnosed using the current gold-standard of expert perceptual judgment, based on presence/absence of particular speech features during speaking tasks. Seventeen healthy age-matched adults served as controls. MRI scans were available for 11 control and 37 PPA cases; 23 of the PPA cases underwent amyloid ligand PET imaging. Measures, corresponding to perceptual features of apraxia of speech, were periods of silence during reading and relative vowel duration and intensity in polysyllable word repetition. Discriminant function analyses revealed that a measure of relative vowel duration differentiated nfvPPA cases from both control and lvPPA cases (r(2)?= 0.47) with 88% agreement with expert judgment of presence of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA cases. VBM analysis showed that relative vowel duration covaried with grey matter intensity in areas critical for speech motor planning and programming: precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, only affected in the nfvPPA group. This bilateral involvement of frontal speech networks in nfvPPA potentially affects access to compensatory mechanisms involving right hemisphere homologues. Measures of silences during reading also discriminated the PPA and control groups, but did not increase predictive accuracy. Findings suggest that a measure of relative vowel duration from of a polysyllable word repetition task may be sufficient for detecting most cases of apraxia of speech and distinguishing between nfvPPA and lvPPA.
Project description:We aimed to identify an Alzheimer's disease (AD) subtype with right predominant focal atrophy. We recruited 17 amyloid PET positive logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) and 226 amyloid PET positive AD patients. To identify AD with right focal atrophy (Rt-AD), we selected cortical areas that showed more atrophy in lvPPA than in AD and calculated an asymmetry index (AI) for this area in each individual. Using a receiver operating characteristic curve, we found that the optimal AI cut-off to discriminate lvPPA from AD was -3.1 (mean AI - 1.00 standard deviation) (sensitivity 88.2, specificity 89.8). We identified 32 Rt-AD patients whose AI was above mean AI?+?1.00 standard deviation, 38 Lt-AD patients whose AI was lower than mean AI - 1.00 standard deviation, and 173 Symmetric-AD patients whose AI was within mean AI?±?1.00 standard deviation. We characterized clinical and cognitive profiles of Rt-AD patients by comparing with those of Lt-AD and Symmetric-AD patients. Compared to Symmetric-AD patients, Rt-AD patients had asymmetric focal atrophy in the right temporoparietal area and showed poor performance on visuospatial function testing (p?=?0.009). Our findings suggested that there is an AD variant characterized by right focal atrophy and visuospatial dysfunction.
Project description:This study evaluated the efficacy of phonological and orthographic treatments for anomia in the semantic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA and lvPPA, respectively). Both treatments were administered for 6 months. The treatment stimuli consisted of nouns that were consistently named correctly at baseline (prophylaxis items) and/or nouns that were consistently named incorrectly at baseline (remediation items). Oral naming accuracy was measured for trained and untrained picture exemplars, as well as matched items from an untrained condition (UC). Written naming and scene description tasks were also conducted. For all tasks, the change in naming accuracy from baseline to 1 month post-treatment was compared between the UC and each treatment condition. These comparisons indicated that both treatments were effective in the remediation and prophylaxis of anomia in both variants. Furthermore, generalisation to untrained exemplars occurred in both subtypes, whereas item generalisation occurred in lvPPA, and task generalisation was present in svPPA.
Project description:The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is an atypical clinical variant of Alzheimer's disease which is typically characterized by left temporoparietal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging and hypometabolism on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We aimed to characterize and compare patterns of atrophy and hypometabolism in logopenic primary progressive aphasia, and determine which brain regions and imaging modality best differentiates logopenic primary progressive aphasia from typical dementia of the Alzheimer's type.A total of 27 logopenic primary progressive aphasia subjects underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. These subjects were matched to 27 controls and 27 subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Patterns of atrophy and hypometabolism were assessed at the voxel and region-level using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Penalized logistic regression analysis was used to determine what combinations of regions best discriminate between groups.Atrophy and hypometabolism was observed in lateral temporoparietal and medial parietal lobes, left greater than right, and left frontal lobe in the logopenic group. The logopenic group showed greater left inferior, middle and superior lateral temporal atrophy (inferior p?=?0.02; middle p?=?0.007, superior p?=?0.002) and hypometabolism (inferior p?=?0.006, middle p?=?0.002, superior p?=?0.001), and less right medial temporal atrophy (p?=?0.02) and hypometabolism (p<0.001), and right posterior cingulate hypometabolism (p<0.001) than dementia of the Alzheimer's type. An age-adjusted penalized logistic model incorporating atrophy and hypometabolism achieved excellent discrimination (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve?=?0.89) between logopenic and dementia of the Alzheimer's type subjects, with optimal discrimination achieved using right medial temporal and posterior cingulate hypometabolism, left inferior, middle and superior temporal hypometabolism, and left superior temporal volume.Patterns of atrophy and hypometabolism both differ between logopenic primary progressive aphasia and dementia of the Alzheimer's type and both modalities provide excellent discrimination between groups.
Project description:Logopenic progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by sentence repetition and naming difficulties arising from left-lateralized temporoparietal atrophy. Clinical descriptions of logopenic progressive aphasia largely concentrate on profiling language deficits, however, accumulating evidence points to the presence of cognitive deficits even on tasks with minimal language demands. Although non-linguistic cognitive deficits in logopenic progressive aphasia are thought to scale with disease severity, patients at discrete stages of language dysfunction display overlapping cognitive profiles, suggesting individual-level variation in cognitive performance, independent of primary language dysfunction. To address this issue, we used principal component analysis to decompose the individual-level variation in cognitive performance in 43 well-characterized logopenic progressive aphasia patients who underwent multi-domain neuropsychological assessments and structural neuroimaging. The principal component analysis solution revealed the presence of two, statistically independent factors, providing stable and clinically intuitive explanations for the majority of variance in cognitive performance in the syndrome. Factor 1 reflected 'speech production and verbal memory' deficits which typify logopenic progressive aphasia. Systematic variations were also confirmed on a second, orthogonal factor mainly comprising visuospatial and executive processes. Adopting a case-comparison approach, we further demonstrate that pairs of patients with comparable Factor 1 scores, regardless of their severity, diverge considerably on visuo-executive test performance, underscoring the inter-individual variability in cognitive profiles in comparably 'logopenic' patients. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that speech production and verbal memory factor scores correlated with left middle frontal gyrus, while visuospatial and executive factor scores were associated with grey matter intensity of right-lateralized temporoparietal, middle frontal regions and their underlying white matter connectivity. Importantly, logopenic progressive aphasia patients with poorer visuospatial and executive factor scores demonstrated greater right-lateralized temporoparietal and frontal atrophy. Our findings demonstrate the inherent variation in cognitive performance at an individual- and group-level in logopenic progressive aphasia, suggesting the presence of a genuine co-occurring cognitive impairment that is statistically independent of language function and disease severity.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:There are three distinct subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): the nonfluent/agrammatic variant (nfvPPA), the semantic variant (svPPA), and the logopenic variant (lvPPA). We sought to characterize the pattern of [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention across all three subtypes and determine the topography of [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention correlated with each neurolinguistic score. METHODS:We enrolled 50 participants, comprising 13 PPA patients (3 nfvPPA, 5 svPPA, and 5 lvPPA) and 37 subjects with normal cognition (NC) who underwent 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging, [¹⁸F]-THK5351 positron-emission tomography scans, and detailed neuropsychological tests. The PPA patients additionally participated in extensive neurolinguistic tests. Voxel-wise and region-of-interest-based analyses were performed to analyze [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention. RESULTS:The nfvPPA patients exhibited higher [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the the left inferior frontal and precentral gyri. In svPPA patients, [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention was elevated in the anteroinferior and lateral temporal cortices compared to the NC group (left>right). The lvPPA patients exhibited predominant [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the inferior parietal, lateral temporal, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and the precuneus (left>right). [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the left inferior frontal area was associated with lower fluency scores. Comprehension was correlated with [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the left temporal cortices. Repetition was associated with [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the left inferior parietal and posterior temporal areas, while naming difficulty was correlated with retention in the left fusiform and temporal cortices. CONCLUSIONS:The pattern of [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention was well matched with clinical and radiological findings for each PPA subtype, in agreement with the anatomical and functional location of each language domain.