Workplace interventions for intimate partner violence: A systematic review.
ABSTRACT: Workplace interventions represent important opportunities to increase awareness of and adherence to disease prevention and health promotion initiatives. However, research on workplace interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) has not been systematically evaluated. This systematic review summarizes existing studies evaluating workplace interventions for IPV. PubMed, PsycINFO, Business Source Complete, Web of Science, and Social Services Abstracts were systematically searched for English-language studies published before November 2017. Six studies evaluating five interventions were included. Only one study used a randomized design, and only two studies measured whether outcomes were sustained over time. None of the interventions addressed perpetrators of IPV. Interventions focused on recognizing signs of abuse, responding to victims, and providing referrals to community-based resources. Methodological rigor of included studies varied, but all reported at least one intervention-related benefit. Findings included improved awareness of IPV, increased provision of information to victims, and greater willingness to intervene if an employee may be experiencing IPV. Although sparse, available evidence suggests there are potential benefits of workplace interventions for IPV. It is important for future interventions to focus on primary and secondary prevention of IPV and address perpetration, and for investigators to use rigorous study designs and measure whether effects are sustained.
Project description:Intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnancy adversely affects the health of women and unborn children. To prevent this, the community responses, societal systems, and structures to support victims of IPV in pregnancy are vital. OBJECTIVES:to explore community stakeholders' perspectives related to IPV in pregnancy in Jimma, Ethiopia, and if needed, create the knowledge base for interventions. METHODS:using an exploratory design, this qualitative study had a maximum-variation (multiple spectrum sources) sampling strategy with 16 semi-structured interviews of purposively selected key informants representing different community institutions. Guided by Connell's theory of gender and power, a content analysis of the translated interviews was conducted using Atlas.ti 7 software. RESULTS:reconciliation between IPV victims and their abusers was the solution promoted by almost all the respondents. There was limited awareness of the adverse impacts IPV in pregnancy has on the health of the woman and the foetus. Despite regular encounters with victims, there is no organized or structured operational response to support IPV victims between the participating institutions. CONCLUSION:the potential danger of IPV for the mother or the unborn child was not well understood by the members of the studied Ethiopian community. Neither coordinated efforts to support IPV victims nor links among relevant agencies existed. The study demonstrated the dire need of coordinated practical action, changes in current socio-cultural norms, formal training and capacity building, awareness creation, clear intervention guidelines, and facilitation of support networks among relevant institutions in Ethiopian communities.
Project description:There is growing awareness of the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) among military populations. IPV victimisation has been shown to be associated with mental disorder. A better understanding of the link between IPV and mental disorder is needed to inform service development to meet the needs of military families. We aimed to systematically review the literature on the association between IPV victimisation and mental health disorders among military personnel.Searches of four electronic databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) were supplemented by reference list screening. Heterogeneity among studies precluded a meta-analysis.Thirteen studies were included. There was stronger evidence for an association between IPV and depression/alcohol problems than between IPV and PTSD. An association between IPV and mental health problems was more frequently found among veterans compared to active duty personnel. However, the link between IPV and alcohol misuse was more consistently found among active duty samples. Finally, among active duty personnel psychological IPV was more consistently associated with depression/alcohol problems than physical/sexual IPV. The review highlighted the lack of research on male IPV victimisation in the military.There is evidence that the burden of mental health need may be significant among military personnel who are victims of IPV. The influence of attitudes towards gender in the military on research in this area is discussed. Further research is needed to inform development of services and policy to reduce IPV victimisation and the mental health consequences among military personnel.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is a significant problem. Little is known about the association between IPV and health for MSM. We aimed to estimate the association between experience and perpetration of IPV, and various health conditions and sexual risk behaviours among MSM.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>We searched 13 electronic databases up to 23 October 2013 to identify research studies reporting the odds of health conditions or sexual risk behaviours for MSM experiencing or perpetrating IPV. Nineteen studies with 13,797 participants were included in the review. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Exposure to IPV as a victim was associated with increased odds of substance use (OR?=?1.88, 95% CI(OR) 1.59-2.22, I²?=?46.9%, 95% CI(I)² 0%-78%), being HIV positive (OR?=?1.46, 95% CI(OR) 1.26-1.69, I²?=?0.0%, 95% CI(I)² 0%-62%), reporting depressive symptoms (OR?=?1.52, 95% CI(OR) 1.24-1.86, I²?=?9.9%, 95% CI(I)² 0%-91%), and engagement in unprotected anal sex (OR?=?1.72, 95% CI(OR) 1.44-2.05, I²?=?0.0%, 95% CI(I)² 0%-68%). Perpetration of IPV was associated with increased odds of substance use (OR?=?1.99, 95% CI(OR) 1.33-2.99, I²?=?73.1%). These results should be interpreted with caution because of methodological weaknesses such as the lack of validated tools to measure IPV in this population and the diversity of recall periods and key outcomes in the identified studies.<h4>Conclusions</h4>MSM who are victims of IPV are more likely to engage in substance use, suffer from depressive symptoms, be HIV positive, and engage in unprotected anal sex. MSM who perpetrate IPV are more likely to engage in substance use. Our results highlight the need for research into effective interventions to prevent IPV in MSM, as well as the importance of providing health care professionals with training in how to address issues of IPV among MSM and the need to raise awareness of local and national support services.
Project description:BACKGROUND: About 50% of patients in substance abuse treatment with a partner perpetrated and/or experienced intimate partner violence in the past year. To date, there are no screeners to identify both perpetrators and victims of partner intimate violence in a substance abusing population. We developed a 4 item screening instrument for this purpose, the Jellinek Inventory for assessing Partner Violence (J-IPV). Important strengths of the J-IPV are that it takes only 2 minutes to administer and is easy to use and to score. METHODS: To investigate the validity of the J-IPV, two independent studies were conducted including 98 and 99 participants, respectively. Aim of the second study was to cross-validate findings from the first study. Psychometric properties of the J-IPV were determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratio's by comparing J-IPV outcomes to outcomes on the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales ('gold standard'). Also, receiver operator characteristics (ROC)-curves were determined to weight sensitivity and specificity as a result of different J-IPV cutoffs, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. RESULTS: Results of the first study demonstrated that the J-IPV possesses good psychometric properties to detect perpetrators and victims of any as well as severe intimate partner violence. Results from the second study replicated findings from the first study. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend administering the J-IPV to patients entering substance abuse treatment. If perpetrators and victims of partner violence are identified, action can be taken to stop IPV perpetration and arrange help for victims, for example by offering perpetrators treatment or by providing safety planning or advocacy interventions to victims.
Project description:Work-related stress represents a relevant public health issue and solution strategies are mandatory. Yoga is a common approach to manage stress and its effectiveness has been extensively confirmed. Therefore, this study aims systematically to review the effectiveness of Yoga interventions carried out at workplace on work-related stress among employees and to assess their impact quantitatively. Springerlink, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane CENTRAL and PEDro databases were searched. Clinical trials comparing workplace Yoga interventions to control groups, and evaluating perceived stress as outcome measure, were assessed for eligibility. All forms and styles of Yoga were considered for the analysis. Out of 3392 initially identified, 6 studies were included in the meta-analysis; 266 participants practicing Yoga interventions at worksite were compared to 221 subjects in control group. Included studies showed "some concerns" about different domains of source of bias. Quantitative analysis showed an overall effect size of -0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.86, -0.49] in favor of Yoga intervention in reducing stress outcome measures. Hence, workplace Yoga interventions were more effective when compared to no treatment in work-related stress management. Further high-quality studies are needed to improve the validity of these results and to specify more characteristics of the Yoga intervention, such as style, volume, and frequency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Research on elder abuse has defined it as a multidimensional construct that encompasses a set of different abusive behaviours, victims, perpetrators and settings. The array of possible elder abuse configurations is difficult to capture. This study sought to identify victimization patterns that represent distinct elder abuse configurations based on specific abusive behaviours and on the relationship with the perpetrator; it also sought to determine the association between these latent classes with victims' characteristics. METHOD:Data comes from two elder abuse surveys: a representative sample of community-dwelling adults and a convenience sample of older adults reporting elder abuse to four state and NGOs institutions. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to categorize victimization in the population-based (N = 245) and in the victims' sample (N = 510) using 7 items measuring physical, psychological and financial abuse, and appointed perpetrators. Association tests were conducted to determine differences and similarities of victims' characteristics between the different obtained classes. RESULTS:The LCA procedure identified six different latent classes of victimization experiences in each of the samples, which were statistically and plausibly distinct. In the population-based survey: verbal abuse by others (29%); psychological abuse from children/grandchildren (18%); overlooked by others (18%); stolen by others (15%); verbal Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) (14%) and physical and psychological IPV (6%). In the victims' survey: physical abuse by children/grandchildren (29%); physical IPV (26%); psychological abuse by children/grandchildren (18%); polyvictimization by others (16%); physical abuse by others (6%) and physical and psychological IPV (4%). In the victims survey the 6 groups significantly differ in age, gender, civil status, living arrangements, perceived social support and functional status. CONCLUSIONS:The results support the possibility of the multidimensionality of elder abuse not being accounted by the "classical" abuse typologies. Elder abuse victims seeking help may represent a distinct group from that included in population-based prevalence studies. The appointed perpetrators may be the most meaningful and relevant aspect in distinguishing victimization experiences. Further research is needed to develop tailored interventions to specific elder abuse cases and enhance successful outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant health problem that has been associated with HIV infection in numerous studies. We aimed to systematically review the literature on relationships between IPV and HIV in order to describe the prevalence of IPV in people with HIV, the prevalence of HIV in people experiencing IPV, the association between IPV and HIV, and evidence regarding mechanisms of risk and interventions.<h4>Methods</h4>Data sources were 10 electronic databases and reference lists. Studies were included if they reported data on the relationship between IPV and HIV. All records were independently reviewed by two authors at the stages of title and abstract review and full text review. Any abstract considered eligible by either reviewer was reviewed in full, and any disagreement regarding eligibility of full texts or data extracted was resolved by discussion.<h4>Results</h4>101 articles were included. Experiencing IPV and HIV infection were associated in unadjusted analyses in most studies, as well as in adjusted analyses in many studies. The findings of qualitative and quantitative studies assessing potential mechanisms linking IPV and HIV were variable. Few interventions have been assessed, but two identified in this review were promising in terms of preventing IPV, though not HIV infection.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Experiencing IPV and HIV infection tend to be associated in unadjusted analyses, suggesting that IPV screening and linkage with relevant programs and services may be valuable. It is unclear whether there is a causal association between experiencing IPV and HIV infection. Research should focus on defining parameters of IPV which are relevant to HIV infection, including type of IPV and period of exposure and risk, on assessing potential mechanisms, and on developing and assessing interventions which build on the strengths of existing studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a widespread global health problem with many negative consequences. Nevertheless, a lot remains unclear about which interventions are effective and might be adopted in the perinatal care context.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective is to provide a clear overview of the existing evidence on effectiveness of interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy.<h4>Methods</h4>Following databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. The search was limited to English peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to 2013. This review includes all types of interventions aiming to reduce IPV around the time of pregnancy as a primary outcome, and as secondary outcomes to enhance physical and/or mental health, quality of life, safety behavior, help seeking behavior, and/or social support.<h4>Results</h4>We found few randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Moreover, the nine studies identified did not produce strong evidence that certain interventions are effective. Nonetheless, home visitation programs and some multifaceted counseling interventions did produce promising results. Five studies reported a statistically significant decrease in physical, sexual and/or psychological partner violence (odds ratios from 0.47 to 0.92). Limited evidence was found for improved mental health, less postnatal depression, improved quality of life, fewer subsequent miscarriages, and less low birth weight/prematurity. None of the studies reported any evidence of a negative or harmful effect of the interventions.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>Strong evidence of effective interventions for IPV during the perinatal period is lacking, but some interventions show promising results. Additional large-scale, high-quality research is essential to provide further evidence about the effect of certain interventions and clarify which interventions should be adopted in the perinatal care context.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To fully understand the dynamics of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) it is necessary to understand the role of personality. The current understanding of which personality characteristics are associated with IPV victimization is, however, far from comprehensive. Given this gap in the literature, our objective was to examine the associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and psychopathological symptoms in women who had experienced IPV.<h4>Methods</h4>Using a case-control design, a group of women who had experienced IPV and who were living in shelters (<i>n</i> = 50) were compared to a group of control women who had not experienced IPV (<i>n</i> = 50). All women completed the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised and the Brief Symptom Inventory.<h4>Results</h4>Victims of IPV showed significantly higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Self-Transcendence, and lower levels of Reward Dependence and Self-Directedness, than the non-IPV control group. Victims of IPV also reported elevated levels of psychopathological symptoms. Personality dimensions showed a broadly consistent pattern of associations across different psychopathological symptoms. A regression analysis indicated that Novelty Seeking was negatively associated with psychopathological symptoms in victims of IPV, but not significantly associated in non-victims.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study highlights the important role of Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness for understanding psychopathological symptoms. Novelty Seeking appears to play an important role in the expression of individuals' experiences of IPV. These results have important implications for research and practice, particularly the development and implementation of interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health issue. The consistent evidence that alcohol use by one or both partners contributes to the risk and severity of IPV suggests that interventions that reduce alcohol consumption may also reduce IPV. This study sought to review the evidence for effects on IPV of alcohol interventions at the population, community, relationship and individual levels using the World Health Organization ecological framework for violence. METHODS: Eleven databases including Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched for English-language studies and grey literature published 1 January 1992 - 1 March 2013 investigating whether alcohol interventions/policies were associated with IPV reduction within adult (? 18) intimate relationships. Eleven studies meeting design criteria for attributing effects to the intervention and ten studies showing mediation of alcohol consumption were included in the review. The heterogeneity of study designs precluded quantitative meta analysis; therefore, a critical narrative approach was used. RESULTS: Population-level pricing and taxation studies found weak or no evidence for alcohol price changes influencing IPV. Studies of community-level policies or interventions (e.g., hours of sale, alcohol outlet density) showed weak evidence of an association with IPV. Couples-based and individual alcohol treatment studies found a relationship between reductions in alcohol consumption and reductions in IPV but their designs precluded attributing changes to treatment. Randomized controlled trials of combined alcohol and violence treatment programs found some positive effects of brief alcohol intervention as an adjunct to batterer treatment for hazardous drinking IPV perpetrators, and of brief interventions with non-dependent younger populations, but effects were often not sustained. CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence associating problematic alcohol use with IPV, the potential for alcohol interventions to reduce IPV has not been adequately tested, possibly because studies have not focused on those most at risk of alcohol-related IPV. Research using rigorous designs should target young adult populations among whom IPV and drinking is highly prevalent. Combining alcohol and IPV intervention/policy approaches at the population, community, relationship and individual-level may provide the best opportunity for effective intervention.