The Lipid Paradox is present in ST-elevation but not in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: Insights from the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry.
ABSTRACT: Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels form the cornerstone approach of cardiovascular risk reduction, and a higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) is thought to be protective. However, in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, higher admission LDL-C and TG levels have been shown to be associated with better clinical outcomes - termed the 'lipid paradox'. We studied the relationship between lipid profile obtained within 72?hours of presentation, and all-cause mortality (during hospitalization, at 30-days and 12-months), and rehospitalization for heart failure and non-fatal AMI at 12-months in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We included 11543 STEMI and 8470 NSTEMI patients who underwent PCI in the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry between 2008-2015. NSTEMI patients were older (60.3 years vs 57.7 years, p?
Project description:Comparable data on trends of hospitalization rates for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) remain unavailable in representative Asian populations.To examine the temporal trends of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and its subtypes in Beijing.Patients hospitalized for AMI in Beijing from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012 were identified from the validated Hospital Discharge Information System. Trends in hospitalization rates, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and hospitalization costs were analyzed by regression models for total AMI and for STEMI and NSTEMI separately. In total, 77,943 patients were admitted for AMI in Beijing during the 6 years, among whom 67.5% were males and 62.4% had STEMI. During the period, the rate of AMI hospitalization per 100,000 population increased by 31.2% (from 55.8 to 73.3 per 100,000 population) after age standardization, with a slight decrease in STEMI but a 3-fold increase in NSTEMI. The ratio of STEMI to NSTEMI decreased dramatically from 6.5:1.0 to 1.3:1.0. The age-standardized in-hospital mortality decreased from 11.2% to 8.6%, with a significant decreasing trend evident for STEMI in males and females (P?<?0.001) and for NSTEMI in males (P?=?0.02). The rate of percutaneous coronary intervention increased from 28.7% to 55.6% among STEMI patients. The total cost for AMI hospitalization increased by 56.8% after adjusting for inflation, although the LOS decreased by 1 day.The hospitalization burden for AMI has been increasing in Beijing with a transition from STEMI to NSTEMI. Diverse temporal trends in AMI subtypes from the unselected "real-world" data in Beijing may help to guide the management of AMI in China and other developing countries.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Whether there is a difference in prognosis between elderly patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) remains mysterious. <b>Methods:</b> We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing the data in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in Taiwan to explore differences between STEMI and NSTEMI with respect to in-hospital and long-term (3-year) outcomes among older adult patients (aged ≥65 years). Patients were further stratified based on whether they received coronary revascularization. <b>Results:</b> In total, 5,902 patients aged ≥65 years with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent revascularization (2,254) or medical therapy alone (3,648) were included. In the revascularized group, no difference was observed in cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality during hospitalization or at 3-year follow-up between the two AMIs. Conversely, in the non-revascularized group, patients with NSTEMI had higher crude odds ratio (cOR) for all-cause death during hospitalization [cOR: 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.65] and at 3-year follow-up (cOR: 1.47, 95% CI = 1.21-1.91) relative to patients with STEMI. However, after multivariable adjustments, only NSTEMI indicated fewer in-hospital CV death [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.98] than STEMI in non-revascularized group. Moreover, major bleeding was not different between patients with STEMI or NSTEMI aged ≥65 years old. <b>Conclusion:</b> Classification of AMI is not associated with the difference of in-hospital or 3-year CV and all-cause death in older adult patients received revascularization. In a 3-year follow-up period, STEMI was an independent predictor of a higher incidence of revascularization after the index event. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction had more incidence of MACE than patients with STEMI did in both treatment groups.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Race and sex have been shown to affect management of myocardial infarction (MI); however, it is unclear if such disparities exist in contemporary care of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).<h4>Hypothesis</h4>Disparities in care will be less prevalent in more heavily protocol-driven management of STEMI than the less algorithmic care of NSTEMI.<h4>Methods</h4>Data were collected from the ACTION Registry-GWTG database to assess care differences related to race and sex of patients presenting with NSTEMI or STEMI. For key treatments and outcomes, adjustments were made including patient demographics, baseline comorbidities, and markers of socioeconomic status.<h4>Results</h4>Key demographic variables demonstrate significant differences in baseline comorbidities; black patients had higher incidences of hypertension and diabetes, and women more frequently had diabetes. With few exceptions, rates of acute and discharge medical therapy were similar by race in any sex category in both STEMI and NSTEMI populations. Rates of catheterization were similar by race for STEMI but not for NSTEMI, where both black men and women had lower rates of invasive therapy. Rates of revascularization were significantly lower for black patients in both the STEMI and NSTEMI groups regardless of sex. Rates of adverse events differed by sex, with disparities for death and major bleeding; after adjustment, rates were similar by race within sex comparisons.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this contemporary cohort, although there are differences by race in presentation and management of MI, heavily protocol-driven processes seem to show fewer racial disparities.
Project description:AIMS:It is widely thought that ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is more likely to occur without warning (i.e. an unanticipated event in a previously healthy person) than non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), but no large study has evaluated this using prospectively collected data. The aim of this study was to compare the evolution of atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular risk between people going on to experience STEMI and NSTEMI. METHODS:We identified patients experiencing STEMI and NSTEMI in the national registry of myocardial infarction for England and Wales (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), for whom linked primary care records were available in the General Practice Research Database (as part of the CALIBER collaboration). We compared the prevalence and timing of atherosclerotic disease and major cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia, between patients later experiencing STEMI to those experiencing NSTEMI. RESULTS:A total of 8174 myocardial infarction patients were included (3780 STEMI, 4394 NSTEMI). Myocardial infarction without heralding by previously diagnosed atherosclerotic disease occurred in 71% STEMI (95% CI 69-72%) and 50% NSTEMI patients (95% CI 48-51%). The proportions of myocardial infarctions with no prior atherosclerotic disease, major risk factors, or chest pain was 14% (95% CI 13-16%) in STEMI and 9% (95% CI 9-10%) in NSTEMI. The rate of heralding coronary diagnoses was particularly high in the 12 months before infarct; 4.1-times higher (95% CI 3.3-5.0) in STEMI and 3.6-times higher (95% CI 3.1-4.2) in NSTEMI compared to the rate in earlier years. CONCLUSIONS:Acute myocardial infarction occurring without prior diagnosed coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral arterial disease was common, especially for STEMI. However, there was a high prevalence of risk factors or symptoms in patients without previously diagnosed disease. Better understanding of the antecedents in the year before myocardial infarction is required.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To analyze incidence, use of therapeutic procedures, and in-hospital outcomes in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) according to the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Spain (2016-2018) and to investigate sex differences.<h4>Methods</h4>Using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database, we estimated the incidence of myocardial infarctions (MI) in men and women with and without T2DM aged ≥ 40 years. We analyzed comorbidity, procedures, and outcomes. We matched each man and woman with T2DM with a non-T2DM man and woman of identical age, MI code, and year of hospitalization. Propensity score matching was used to compare men and women with T2DM.<h4>Results</h4>MI was coded in 109,759 men and 44,589 women (30.47% with T2DM). The adjusted incidence of STEMI (IRR 2.32; 95% CI 2.28-2.36) and NSTEMI (IRR 2.91; 95% CI 2.88-2.94) was higher in T2DM than non-T2DM patients, with higher IRRs for NSTEMI in both sexes. The incidence of STEMI and NSTEMI was higher in men with T2DM than in women with T2DM. After matching, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was less frequent among T2DM men than non-T2DM men who had STEMI and NSTEMI. Women with T2DM and STEMI less frequently had a code for PCI that matched that of non-T2DM women. In-hospital mortality (IHM) was higher among T2DM women with STEMI and NSTEMI than in matched non-T2DM women. In men, IHM was higher only for NSTEMI. Propensity score matching showed higher use of PCI and coronary artery bypass graft and lower IHM among men with T2DM than women with T2DM for both STEMI and NSTEMI.<h4>Conclusions</h4>T2DM is associated with a higher incidence of STEMI and NSTEMI in both sexes. Men with T2DM had higher incidence rates of STEMI and NSTEMI than women with T2DM. Having T2DM increased the risk of IHM after STEMI and NSTEMI among women and among men only for NSTEMI. PCI appears to be less frequently used in T2DM patients After STEMI and NSTEMI, women with T2DM less frequently undergo revascularization procedures and have a higher mortality risk than T2DM men.
Project description:Recent technological advances have made transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) possible in cells with low RNA copy number including platelets. Resulting studies have used RNA-seq in platelets isolated from healthy individuals to characterize the platelet transcriptome. However, platelets, possibly through gene expression changes, contribute to the etiology of and response to cardiovascular disease and events. To address this, we performed the largest human platelet RNA-seq analysis to date in 34 platelet samples: 16 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 16 non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and 2 controls. RNA-seq of platelet samples from 34 individuals: 16 with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 16 with non-STEMI, and 2 non-myocardial infarction controls
Project description:To assess temporal trends of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) enrolled in the Swiss nationwide registry (AMIS Plus) over the last 20 years with regard to gender, age and in-hospital treatment.All patients with AMI from 1997 to 2016 were stratified according to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and gender using logistic regression analyses.Among 51?725 patients, 30?398 (59%) had STEMI and 21?327 (41%) had NSTEMI; 73% were men (63.9±12.8 years) and 27% were women (71.7±12.5 years). Over 20 years, crude in-hospital STEMI mortality decreased from 9.8% to 5.5% in men and from 18.3% to 6.9% in women. In patients with NSTEMI, it decreased from 7.1% to 2.1% in men and from 11.0% to 3.6% in women. After adjustment for age, mortality decreased per additional admission year by 3% in men with STEMI (OR 0.97, 95%?CI 0.96 to 0.98, P<0.001), by 5% in women with STEMI (OR 0.95, 95%?CI 0.93 to 0.96, P<0.001), by 6% in men with NSTEMI (OR 0.94, 95%?CI 0.93 to 0.96, P<0.001) and by 5% in women with NSTEMI (OR 0.95, 95%?CI 0.93 to 0.97, P<0.001). In patients <60 years, a decrease in mortality was seen in women with STEMI (OR 0.94, 95%?CI 0.90 to 0.99, P=0.025) and NSTEMI (OR 0.87, 95%?CI 0.80 to 0.94, P<0.001) but not in men with STEMI (OR 1.01, 95%?CI 0.98 to 1.04, P=0.46) and NSTEMI (OR 0.98, 95%?CI 0.94 to 1.03, P=0.41). The mortality decrease in patients with AMI was closely associated with the increase in reperfusion therapy.From 1997 to 2016, in-hospital mortality of patients with AMI in Switzerland has halved and was more pronounced in women, particularly in the age category <60 years.NCT01305785; Results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Metformin affects low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density (HDL) subfractions in the context of impaired glucose tolerance, but its effects in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown. We determined whether metformin administration affects lipoprotein subfractions 4 months after ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI). Second, we assessed associations of lipoprotein subfractions with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size 4 months after STEMI. METHODS:371 participants without known diabetes participating in the GIPS-III trial, a placebo controlled, double-blind randomized trial studying the effect of metformin (500 mg bid) during 4 months after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI were included of whom 317 completed follow-up (clinicaltrial.gov Identifier: NCT01217307). Lipoprotein subfractions were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at presentation, 24 hours and 4 months after STEMI. (Apo)lipoprotein measures were obtained during acute STEMI and 4 months post-STEMI. LVEF and infarct size were measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS:Metformin treatment slightly decreased LDL cholesterol levels (adjusted P = 0.01), whereas apoB remained unchanged. Large LDL particles and LDL size were also decreased after metformin treatment (adjusted P<0.001). After adjustment for covariates, increased small HDL particles at 24 hours after STEMI predicted higher LVEF (P = 0.005). In addition, increased medium-sized VLDL particles at the same time point predicted a smaller infarct size (P<0.001). CONCLUSION:LDL cholesterol and large LDL particles were decreased during 4 months treatment with metformin started early after MI. Higher small HDL and medium VLDL particle concentrations are associated with favorable LVEF and infarct size.
Project description:Aims. We sought for peripheral blood gene expression signatures at presentation that distinguish the ST elevation (STEMI) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) conditions, to define a precise map of differentially regulated biological processes, unveil new distinctive traits, and help predict markers of outcome. Methods and results. Total RNA from whole blood of STEMI and NSTEMI patients was used to prepare poly(A)+ enriched libraries for paired-end RNA-Seq. Transcriptomes were reconstructed and, after adjustment for unwanted variation, we performed differential expression analysis. Enrichment analyses was performed to infer differentiating functional networks. We identified 153 differentially expressed genes, which stood correction for TnI levels at admission and included 32 putative novel genes (false discovery rate-adjusted P<0.05). We found a divergent modulation of inflammatory, immune-response, angiogenic, and mitochondrial dynamics pathways. Finally, we showed that specific gene expression patterns at admission predict troponin I (TnI) peak levels and/or GRACE risk score. Conclusions. RNA-Seq allowed identifying novel differentially expressed genes in STEMI vs. NSTEMI, which might uncover unappreciated mechanisms underlying acute MI. Overall, our results depicted a scenario characterizing different pathological traits of these two types of acute MI that could pave the way for the identification of novel, specific biomarkers for early diagnosis, risk stratification, and therapeutic decision-making. Overall design: Whole blood poly(A)+ RNA profiles of 15 STEMI and 15 NSTEMI patients were generated through RNA-Seq using the SOLiD 5500xl system.
Project description:We aim to determine blood transcriptome-based molecular signature of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and to identify novel serum biomarkers for early stage ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) We obtained peripheral blood from the patients with ACS who visited emergency department within 4 hours after the onset of chest pain: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, n=7), Non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI, n=10) and unstable angina (UA, n=9), and normal control (n=7)