Efficacy of Brentuximab Vedotin in Relapsed or Refractory High-CD30-Expressing Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas: Results of a Multicenter, Open-Labeled Phase II Trial.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The treatment outcome of brentuximab vedotin (BV) has not been related with CD30 expression in previous studies enrolling patients with a wide range of CD30 expression level. Thus, this study explored the efficacy of BV in high-CD30-expressing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients most likely to benefit. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This phase II study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02280785) enrolled relapsed or refractory high-CD30-expressing NHL, with BV administered intravenously at 1.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was > 40% disease control rate, consisting of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease. We defined high CD30 expression as ? 30% tumor cells positive for CD30 by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:High-CD30-expressing NHL patients (n=33) were enrolled except anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The disease control rate was 48.5% (16/33) including six CR and six PR; six patients (4CR, 2PR) maintained their response over 16 completed cycles. Response to BV and survival were not associated with CD30 expression levels. Over a median of 29.2 months of follow-up, the median progression-free and overall survival rates were 1.9 months and 6.1 months, respectively. The most common adverse events were fever (39%), neutropenia (30%), fatigue (24%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (27%). In a post-hoc analysis for the association of multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) on treatment outcome, MUM1- negative patients showed a higher response (55.6%, 5/9) than MUM1-positive patients (13.3%, 2/15). CONCLUSION:BV performance as a single agent was acceptable in terms of disease control rates and toxicity profiles, especially MUM1-negative patients.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Brentuximab vedotin (BV) showed high overall remission rates in refractory/relapsed classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL). Although the efficacy of BV has been reported in clinical trials, its efficacy as a frontline therapy in real world for patients with CD30 positive subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) such as peripheral T-cell lymphoma with T-follicular helper cell (TFH) phenotype (PTCL, TFH), anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) in China has not been well documented.<h4>Methods</h4>Analysis of a real-world, observational, retrospective case series in patients suffering from AITL, sALCL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma with T-follicular helper phenotype (PTCL-TFH) and other types of PTCL treated with BV in frontline treatment was conducted. The patients were given treatment from May 2020 till June 28, 2021. All patients were pathologically diagnosed to have PTCL before treatment and expressed CD30. Patients received BV (1.8 mg/kg) combined with CEP (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, prednisone acetate every 3 weeks). The primary endpoint was objective response rates (ORR), and secondary endpoints were duration of response and incidence of adverse events (AEs). Exploratory endpoints such as progression-free survival (PFS) are discussed even though after such a short period.<h4>Results</h4>Nineteen patients completed ≥ 1 cycles of BV-CEP treatment (16 cases completed ≥ 4 cycles, 3 cases only completed 1 cycle). Among them, the ORR reached 89.5% [CR 52.7%; partial response (PR) 36.8%]. In the ALCL group, CR reached 100% with the median duration of response of up to 8 months, while in the AITL group, the ORR was 75% and 2 patients had disease progression after treatment with BV + CEP. We also observed that BV-CEP may extend the PFS compared to traditional chemotherapy such as the CHOEP regimen (BV-CEP: not evaluable, CHOEP: 6.5 months), although the median follow-up was only 6.7 months. Adverse events (AEs), including incidence and severity of febrile neutropenia (26% patients in the BV-CEP group and 30% in the CHOEP group), were similar between groups. There was no incidence of AEs leading to treatment withdrawal or death under BV-CEP treatment.<h4>Conclusion</h4>BV is a promising treatment in patients with ALCL, AITL and PTCL-TFH in frontline treatment settings.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies which typically respond to standard first-line chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Unfortunately, patients with refractory NHL face a poor prognosis and represent an unmet need for improved therapeutics. We present two cases of refractory CD30+ NHL who responded to novel brentuximab vedotin- (BV-) based regimens. The first is a patient with stage IV anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with cranial nerve involvement who failed front-line treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone (CHOEP) and second line cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone alternating with high-dose methotrexate (MTX), and cytarabine (hyperCVAD) with intrathecal- (IT-) MTX and IT-cytarabine, but responded when BV was substituted for vincristine (hyperCBAD). The second patient was a man with stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with leptomeningeal involvement whose disease progressed during first-line rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and progressed despite salvage therapy with rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP) in whom addition of BV to topotecan resulted in a significant response. This report describes the first successful salvage treatments of highly aggressive, double refractory CD30+ NHL using two unreported BV-based chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Both regimens appear effective and have manageable toxicities. Further clinical trials assessing novel BV combinations are warranted.
Project description:Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjucate (ADC) comprising a CD30-directed antibody, conjugated to the microtubule-disrupting agent MMAE via a protease cleavable linker. BV is FDA approved for use in relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and relapsed systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL). There are multiple publications for its utility in other malignancies such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mycosis fungoides (MF), Sézary syndrome (SS), T-cell lymphomas (TCL), primary mediastinal lymphoma (PMBL), and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). We believe that BV could potentially provide a strong additional treatment option for patients suffering from NHL.Perform a systematic review on the use of BV in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and other CD30+ malignancies in humans.We searched various databases including PubMed (1946-2015), EMBASE (1947-2015), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1898-2015).Inclusion criteria specified all studies and case reports of NHLs in which BV therapy was administered.A total of 28 articles met these criteria and are summarized in this manuscript.Our findings indicate that BV induces a variety of responses, largely positive in nature and variable between NHL subtypes. With additional, properly powered prospective studies, BV may prove to be a strong candidate in the treatment of various CD30+ malignancies.
Project description:Purpose Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate used in the treatment of several types of lymphomas. Expression of the target antigen has also been reported on a variety of malignant tumors of nonlymphoid origin. This phase 2, open-label study evaluated the safety and antitumor activity of BV in patients with CD30-expressing nonlymphomatous malignancies. Methods Patients were dosed with 1.8 or 2.4 mg/kg BV once every three weeks. Antitumor activity was assessed at Cycles 2, 4, and every 4 cycles thereafter. Patients with stable disease or better were eligible to continue treatment until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or study closure. Results Of the 2693 patients screened, 3.8% had solid tumors with CD30 expression and 63 eligible patients with solid tumors enrolled in this study. The most common CD30 positive solid tumors were testicular cancer and mesothelioma. Both subtypes had more than one patient with an objective response. The median duration of BV exposure was 6.1 weeks. The disease control rate, defined as achieving stable disease or better at any point during the study, was 55%. The objective response rate was 11%, with a median duration of response of 2.92 months. The most common adverse events reported were fatigue (57%), nausea (33%), and decreased appetite (32%). Conclusion The safety profile of BV in patients with solid tumors was similar to the known safety profile of BV. In solid tumors, BV had modest activity as a single agent, which was similar to other second-line treatments already available to patients.
Project description:In November 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved brentuximab vedotin (BV) for the treatment of adult patients with previously untreated systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma or other CD30-expressing peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL), including angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and PTCL not otherwise specified, in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHP). Approval was based on ECHELON-2, a randomized, double-blind, actively controlled trial that compared BV+CHP with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) in 452 patients with newly diagnosed, CD30-expressing PTCL. Efficacy was based on independent review facility-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). The median PFS was 48.2 months with BV+CHP versus 20.8 months with CHOP, resulting in a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54-0.93). The trial also demonstrated improvement in overall survival (HR 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.95), complete response rate (68% vs. 56%), and overall response rate (83% vs. 72%) with BV+CHP. The most common adverse reactions (incidence ?20%) observed ?2% more with BV+CHP were nausea, diarrhea, fatigue or asthenia, mucositis, pyrexia, vomiting, and anemia. Peripheral neuropathy rates were similar (52% with BV+CHP, 55% with CHOP). Through the Real-Time Oncology Review pilot program, which allows FDA early access to key data, FDA granted this approval less than 2 weeks after official submission of the application. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This is the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for treatment of patients with newly diagnosed peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL). Improvement in progression-free and overall survival over cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy, which has been the standard of care for decades, is unprecedented. The new regimen represents a major advance for the frontline treatment of patients with CD30-expressing PTCL.
Project description:Front-line treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) involves regimens such as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) and results in a 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of less than 50%. This phase I open-label study evaluated the safety and activity of brentuximab vedotin administered sequentially with CHOP or in combination with CHP (CHOP without vincristine) as front-line treatment in patients with CD30(+) PTCL.Patients received sequential treatment (once every 3 weeks) with brentuximab vedotin 1.8 mg/kg (two cycles) followed by CHOP (six cycles) or brentuximab vedotin 1.8 mg/kg plus CHP (BV+CHP) for six cycles (once every 3 weeks). Responders received single-agent brentuximab vedotin for eight to 10 additional cycles (for a total of 16 cycles). The primary objective was assessment of safety; secondary end points included objective response rate, complete remission (CR) rate, progression-free survival rate (PFS), and OS. There were no prespecified comparisons of the two treatment approaches.After sequential treatment, 11 (85%) of 13 patients achieved an objective response (CR rate, 62%; estimated 1-year PFS rate, 77%). Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in eight (62%) of 13 patients. At the end of combination treatment, all patients (n = 26) achieved an objective response (CR rate, 88%; estimated 1-year PFS rate, 71%). All seven patients without anaplastic large-cell lymphoma achieved CR. Grade 3/4 adverse events (? 10%) in the combination-treatment group were febrile neutropenia (31%), neutropenia (23%), anemia (15%), and pulmonary embolism (12%).Brentuximab vedotin, administered sequentially with CHOP or in combination with CHP, had a manageable safety profile and exhibited substantial antitumor activity in newly diagnosed patients with CD30(+) PTCL. A randomized phase III trial is under way, comparing BV+CHP with CHOP (clinical trial No. NCT01777152).
Project description:Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity.We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other therapy for malignancy was discontinued at least 4 weeks before CD30.CAR-T infusion. Seven patients had previously experienced disease progression while being treated with brentuximab.No toxicities attributable to CD30.CAR-Ts were observed. Of 7 patients with relapsed HL, 1 entered complete response (CR) lasting more than 2.5 years after the second infusion of CD30.CAR-Ts, 1 remained in continued CR for almost 2 years, and 3 had transient stable disease. Of 2 patients with ALCL, 1 had a CR that persisted 9 months after the fourth infusion of CD30.CAR-Ts. CD30.CAR-T expansion in peripheral blood peaked 1 week after infusion, and CD30.CAR-Ts remained detectable for over 6 weeks. Although CD30 may also be expressed by normal activated T cells, no patients developed impaired virus-specific immunity.CD30.CAR-Ts are safe and can lead to clinical responses in patients with HL and ALCL, indicating that further assessment of this therapy is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01316146.National Cancer Institute (3P50CA126752, R01CA131027 and P30CA125123), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01HL114564), and Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLSTR 6227-08).
Project description:There is an unmet need for effective therapies for advanced systemic mastocytosis (advSM). CD30 is expressed on the surface of neoplastic mast cells (MC) in more than 50% of patients with advSM. Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is a CD30-directed antibody-drug conjugate with preclinical evidence supporting both an antineoplastic effect and an attenuation of immunoglobulin E-associated mediator release. These observations are the basis for this phase 2 trial of BV monotherapy (1.8 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks up to 8 cycles) in patients with CD30-positive advSM. The primary objective was to determine the efficacy of BV according to International Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment-European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (IWG-MRT-ECNM) response criteria. Secondary objectives included evaluation of safety, changes in bone marrow (BM) MC burden, serum tryptase level, flow cytometric quantification of MC surface expression of CD30, and self-reported symptom burden. The trial enrolled 10 patients with a diagnosis of CD30+ advSM (aggressive SM, SM with an associated hematologic neoplasm [SM-AHN], or mast cell leukemia [MCL]) with 1 or more signs of SM-related organ damage. According to IWG-MRT-ECNM criteria, none of the patients demonstrated better than stable disease with BV. In addition, there were no significant reductions in BM MC burden, serum tryptase levels, or MC surface expression of CD30. Self-reported symptom scores showed no durable improvement with BV treatment. We conclude that BV is not active as a single agent in CD30+ advSM. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01807598.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) accounts for 4% of all cancers diagnosed in the United States. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common type of indolent NHL with a survival from 5 to 15 years. Although it is very sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, relapses are the main cause of therapeutic failure, and currently there is no consensus on the first-line treatment and optimal therapeutic strategies for patients with FL. Immediate treatment offers any survival benefit for asymptomatic and more indolent disease. In order to improve outcomes in FL, extend the remission, postpone the need for chemotherapy and improve OS, maintenance therapies with rituximab and consolidation treatments represent very attractive strategies. (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan ((90)Y-IT, Zevalin®) is approval as consolidation therapy in previously untreated FL patients who achieve response to first-line chemotherapy. Consolidation therapy with (90)Y-IT after initial induction treatment has shown improved activity compared with induction chemotherapy alone, even in patients previously treated with rituximab, in one phase III and several phase II trials, improving progression-free survival (PFS) and rate of conversion from partial response (PR) to complete response (CR). The phase III international FIT trial shows an improvement in PFS that is maintained after a median follow up of 7.3 years. Several phase II trials show high rate of conversion from PR to CR and a significant improvement in PFS. Treatment is feasible and well tolerated although myelodysplastic syndrome cases has been observed in some trials. (90)Y-IT should be considered for the initial treatment of FL in patients who are unable to tolerate standard chemotherapy, e.g., elderly or frail patients and otherwise in high-risk patients who achieve a PR or CR due to improvements in CR rate and PFS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of copanlisib, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Phase I dose-escalation study including patients with advanced solid tumors or NHL, and a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients received three weekly intravenous infusions of copanlisib per 28-day cycle over the dose range 0.1-1.2 mg/kg. Plasma copanlisib levels were analyzed for pharmacokinetics. Biomarker analysis included PIK3CA, KRAS, BRAF, and PTEN mutational status and PTEN immunohistochemistry. Whole-body [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) was carried out at baseline and following the first dose to assess early pharmacodynamic effects. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were evaluated serially. RESULTS:Fifty-seven patients received treatment. The MTD was 0.8 mg/kg copanlisib. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were nausea and transient hyperglycemia. Copanlisib exposure was dose-proportional with no accumulation; peak exposure positively correlated with transient hyperglycemia post-infusion. Sixteen of 20 patients treated at the MTD had reduced (18)FDG-PET uptake; 7 (33%) had a reduction >25%. One patient achieved a complete response (CR; endometrial carcinoma exhibiting both PIK3CA and PTEN mutations and complete PTEN loss) and two had a partial response (PR; both metastatic breast cancer). Among the nine NHL patients, all six with follicular lymphoma (FL) responded (one CR and five PRs) and one patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma had a PR by investigator assessment; two patients with FL who achieved CR (per post hoc independent radiologic review) were on treatment >3 years. CONCLUSION:Copanlisib, dosed intermittently on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle, was well tolerated and the MTD was determined to be 0.8 mg/kg. Copanlisib exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and promising anti-tumor activity, particularly in patients with NHL. CLINICALTRIALSGOV:NCT00962611; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00962611.