A cell-based assay for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against alemtuzumab.
ABSTRACT: Aim: The humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab depletes lymphocytes and is currently used to treat relapsing multiple sclerosis. During treatment, anti-alemtuzumab antibodies may develop and reduce effective lymphocyte depletion in future treatment cycles. Results: Alemtuzumab-Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate binding to the CHO-CD52 cell surface was inhibited by anti-alemtuzumab antibodies. Conclusion: In this proof-of-concept study, a CHO-CD52 cell line has been developed and used to detect the presence of anti-alemtuzumab neutralizing antibodies. This platform provides the basis of an assay for routine screening of serum for neutralizing antibodies from patients treated with alemtuzumab.
Project description:Background and aims:Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that depletes CD52-bearing B and T lymphocytes. Clinical trials defined that systemic administration of alemtuzumab reduces disease severity in the relapsing-remitting phase of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its efficacy in progressive MS patients is limited, which may reflect the inability of alemtuzumab to cross the reconstituted BBB in these patients. Objective: to study whether central nervous system (CNS) delivery of anti-CD52 antibodies reduces disease severity and the neuroinflammatory burden in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Methods:Anti-CD52 antibodies were administered intrathecally during the acute and chronic phases of EAE. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were utilized to define immunological and pathological parameters. Results:We show that subcutaneously administrated anti-CD52 antibodies completely abolish EAE disease severity. CNS delivery of anti-CD52 antibodies during both the acute and chronic phases of EAE moderately reduces disease severity and the neuroinflammatory burden. Our findings further suggest that CNS delivery of anti-CD52 antibodies impacts both the peripheral and CNS immune cell compartments in the EAE model but not in healthy mice. Conclusion:Collectively, our findings highlight the therapeutic potential of CNS delivery of alemtuzumab for the treatment of progressive as well as early MS.
Project description:Alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) is a humanized monoclonal antibody (Ab) directed against CD52 that depletes lymphocytes and other leukocytes, mainly by complement-dependent mechanisms. We investigated the influence of alemtuzumab (i) on ex vivo-expanded cynomolgus monkey regulatory T cells (Treg) generated for prospective use in adoptive cell therapy and (ii) on naturally occurring Treg following alemtuzumab infusion. Treg were isolated from PBMC and lymph nodes and expanded for two rounds. CD52 expression, binding of alemtuzumab and both complement-mediated killing and Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) were compared between freshly isolated and expanded Treg and effector T cells. Monkeys undergoing allogeneic heart transplantation given alemtuzumab were monitored for Treg and serum alemtuzumab activity. Ex vivo-expanded Treg showed progressive downregulation of CD52 expression, absence of alemtuzumab binding, minimal change in complement inhibitory protein (CD46) expression and no complement-dependent killing or ADCC. Infusion of alemtuzumab caused potent depletion of all lymphocytes, but a transient increase in the incidence of circulating Treg. After infusion of alemtuzumab, monkey serum killed fresh PBMC, but not expanded Treg. Thus, expanded cynomolgus monkey Treg are resistant to alemtuzumab-mediated, complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, our data suggest that these expanded monkey Treg can be infused into graft recipients given alemtuzumab without risk of complement-mediated killing.
Project description:Alemtuzumab (Campath®, MabCampath®, Genzyme) is an IgG1k anti-CD52 humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) that was first licensed in March 2001 by FDA. EMEA granted its approval in July 2001 and Health Canada in November 2005. The initial indication was limited to B-CLL previously treated and resistant to alkylating agents. Starting from 2007, alemtuzumab was approved also as first-line therapy of B-CLL. So far, it has been experienced in over 60 countries. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/978-88-470-5313-7_7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:BACKGROUND:T-cell depleting strategies have become an integral part of immunosuppressive regimens in organ transplantation. Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD52, a cell-surface antigen on several immune cells. It has been suggested that lymphocyte depletion increases the risk of serious infections. However, this has not been observed with short-term alemtuzumab treatment in an organ transplant setting. For induction therapy using alemtuzumab following liver transplantation, we found that T- and B-cell numbers declined rapidly after alemtuzumab therapy; however, the natural killer (NK) cell number was sustained. NK cells are important effectors of innate immunity. Since the effects of alemtuzumab on NK cell functions, especially those of liver NK cells, are unknown, this study aimed to investigate this in detail. METHODS:To assess the effect of alemtuzumab on NK cells, samples were obtained from 7 organ donors and examined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide. Phenotypical and functional differences within subsets of NK cells with different levels of CD52 expression were determined by flow cytometry and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. RESULTS:CD52 expression on NK cells was lower than that on other lymphocyte subsets. The liver contained a large number of CD52- NK cells compared with the peripheral blood. In vitro treatment of liver-derived NK cells with alemtuzumab did not result in cell death. In contrast, co-incubation with alemtuzumab induced cell death in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and non-NK cells in the liver. Furthermore, CD52- liver NK cells were more cytotoxic and produced more IFN-? than CD52+ NK cells after cytokine activation. CONCLUSION:The liver contains a large number of CD52- NK cells. These cells are refractory to alemtuzumab and have robust activity. These findings indicate that CD52- NK cells persist and could protect against infection after alemtuzumab-based lymphocyte depletion.
Project description:Antibodies against cell surface antigens may be internalized through their specific interactions with these proteins and in some cases may induce or perturb antigen internalization. The anti-cancer efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates is thought to rely on their uptake by cancer cells expressing the surface antigen. Numerous techniques, including microscopy and flow cytometry, have been used to identify antibodies with desired cellular uptake rates. To enable quantitative measurements of internalization of labeled antibodies, an assay based on internalized and quenched fluorescence was developed. For this approach, we generated novel anti-Alexa Fluor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that effectively and specifically quench cell surface-bound Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 fluorescence. Utilizing Alexa Fluor-labeled mAbs against the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, we showed that the anti-Alexa Fluor reagents could be used to monitor internalization quantitatively over time. The anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs were also validated in a proof of concept dual-label internalization assay with simultaneous exposure of cells to two different mAbs. Importantly, the unique anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs described here may also enable other single- and dual-label experiments, including label detection and signal enhancement in macromolecules, trafficking of proteins and microorganisms, and cell migration and morphology.
Project description:Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD52 and causes depletion of T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. Alemtuzumab is registered for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is also used in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Alemtuzumab is used off-label in kidney transplantation as induction and anti-rejection therapy. The objective of this review is to present a review of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and use of alemtuzumab in kidney transplantation. A systematic literature search was conducted using Ovid Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials. No pharmacokinetic or dose-finding studies of alemtuzumab have been performed in kidney transplantation. Although such studies were conducted in patients with CLL and MS, these findings cannot be directly extrapolated to transplant recipients, because CLL patients have a much higher load of CD52-positive cells and, therefore, target-mediated clearance will differ between these two indications. Alemtuzumab used as induction therapy in kidney transplantation results in a lower incidence of acute rejection compared to basiliximab therapy and comparable results as compared with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG). Alemtuzumab used as anti-rejection therapy results in a comparable graft survival rate compared with rATG, although infusion-related side effects appear to be less. There is a need for pharmacokinetic and dose-finding studies of alemtuzumab in kidney transplant recipients to establish the optimal balance between efficacy and toxicity. Furthermore, randomized controlled trials with sufficient follow-up are necessary to provide further evidence for the treatment of severe kidney transplant rejection.
Project description:Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo. Although the cytolytic effects of alemtuzumab are dependent on the density of CD52 antigen on cells, there is scant information regarding the expression levels of CD52 on different cell types. In this study, CD52 expression was assessed on phenotypically distinct subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal donors. Results demonstrate that subsets of PBMCs express differing levels of CD52. Quantitative analysis showed that memory B cells and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) display the highest number while natural killer (NK) cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and basophils have the lowest number of CD52 molecules per cell amongst lymphoid and myeloid cell populations respectively. Results of complement dependent cytolysis (CDC) studies indicated that alemtuzumab mediated profound cytolytic effects on B and T cells with minimal effect on NK cells, basophils and pDCs, correlating with the density of CD52 on these cells. Interestingly, despite high CD52 levels, mDCs and monocytes were less susceptible to alemtuzumab-mediated CDC indicating that antigen density alone does not define susceptibility. Additional studies indicated that higher expression levels of complement inhibitory proteins (CIPs) on these cells partially contributes to their resistance to alemtuzumab mediated CDC. These results indicate that alemtuzumab is most effective in depleting cells of the adaptive immune system while leaving innate immune cells relatively intact.
Project description:Alemtuzumab, a CD52-depleting monoclonal antibody, effectively inhibits relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) but is associated with a high incidence of secondary B-cell autoimmunities that limit use. These effects may be avoided through control of B-cell hyperproliferation.To investigate whether the data describing the effect of alemtuzumab on lymphocyte subsets collected during the phase 3 trial program reveal mechanisms explaining efficacy and the risk for secondary autoimmunity with treatment of MS.Lymphocyte reconstitution data from regulatory submissions of the pivotal Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis I and II (CARE-MS I and II) trials were obtained from the European Medicines Agency via Freedom of Information requests. Data used in this study were reported from June 22 to October 12, 2016.Tabulated data from T- and B-lymphocyte subset analysis and antidrug antibody responses were extracted from the supplied documents.Alemtuzumab depleted CD4+ T cells by more than 95%, including regulatory cells (-80%) and CD8+ T cells (>80% depletion), which remained well below reference levels throughout the trials. However, although CD19+ B cells were initially also depleted (>85%), marked (180% increase) hyperrepopulation of immature B cells occurred with conversion to mature B cells over time. These lymphocyte kinetics were associated with rapid development of alemtuzumab-binding and -neutralizing antibodies and subsequent occurrence of secondary B-cell autoimmunity. Hyperrepopulation of B cells masked a marked, long-term depletion of CD19+ memory B cells that may underpin efficacy in MS.Although blockade of memory T and B cells may limit MS, rapid CD19+ B-cell subset repopulation in the absence of effective T-cell regulation has implications for the safety and efficacy of alemtuzumab. Controlling B-cell proliferation until T-cell regulation recovers may limit secondary autoimmunity, which does not occur with other B-cell-depleting agents.
Project description:Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against CD52 that depletes T and B lymphocytes.To evaluate the treatment effect of alemtuzumab on low-contrast vision in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients.This was a pre-defined exploratory analysis within a randomized, rater-blinded trial (CAMMS223) that was run at 49 academic medical centers in the US and in Europe. Patients with untreated, early, RRMS (McDonald, n = 334) were randomized 1:1:1 to subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (IFNB-1a), or alemtuzumab 12 mg or 24 mg. Visual contrast sensitivity was measured for each eye at baseline and quarterly, with Pelli-Robson charts.The eyes of patients in the pooled alemtuzumab group (versus IFNB-1a) had a greater than 2-fold higher rate of both 3-month and 6-month sustained visual improvement, of at least 0.3 log units (2 triplets, 6 letters) (At 3 months the hazard ratio (HR) = 2.26; CI = 1.19 to 4.31; P = 0.013; and at 6 months the HR = 2.44; CI =1.16 to 5.15; P = 0.019), and they had a lower risk of 3- and 6-month sustained worsening of at least 0.15 log units (1 triplet, 3 letters) (At 3 months the HR = 0.58; CI = 0.38 to 0.89; P = 0.012; and at 6 months HR = 0.55; CI=0.35 to 0.87; P = 0.010). Over the 36-month study period, the eyes of patients in the pooled alemtuzumab group improved in mean contrast sensitivity to a greater extent than those in the IFNB-1a group (0.080 log units versus 0.038 log units; P = 0.0102).Alemtuzumab was associated with a greater chance of improved contrast sensitivity in patients with RRMS and may delay the worsening of visual function. Contrast sensitivity testing was sensitive to treatment effects, even within an active comparator study design. These results support the validity of low-contrast vision testing as a clinical outcome in MS trials.
Project description:Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD52 (cluster of differentiation 52) and is approved for the therapy of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The application of alemtuzumab leads to a rapid, but long-lasting depletion predominantly of CD52-bearing B and T cells with reprogramming effects on immune cell composition resulting in the restoration of tolerogenic networks. Alemtuzumab has proven high efficacy in clinical phase II and III trials, where interferon β-1a was used as active comparator. However, alemtuzumab is associated with frequent and considerable risks. Most importantly secondary autoimmune disease affects 30%-40% of patients, predominantly impairing thyroid function. Extensive monitoring and early intervention allow for an appropriate risk management. However, new and reliable biomarkers for individual risk stratification and treatment response to improve patient selection and therapy guidance are a significant unmet need. Only a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action (MOA) will reveal such markers, maximizing the best potential risk-benefit ratio for the individual patient. This review provides and analyses the current knowledge on the MOA of alemtuzumab. Most recent data on efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab are presented and future research opportunities are discussed.