A National, Palliative Care Competency Framework for Undergraduate Medical Curricula.
ABSTRACT: As nearly all doctors deal with patients requiring palliative care, it is imperative that palliative care education starts early. This study aimed to validate a national, palliative care competency framework for undergraduate medical curricula. We conducted a Delphi study with five groups of stakeholders (palliative care experts, physicians, nurses, curriculum coordinators, and junior doctors), inviting them to rate a competency list. The list was organized around six key competencies. For each competency, participants indicated the level to which students should have mastered the skill at the end of undergraduate training. Stability was reached after two rating rounds (N = 82 round 1, N = 54 round 2). The results showed high levels of agreement within and between stakeholder groups. Participants agreed that theoretical knowledge is not enough: Students must practice palliative care competencies, albeit to varying degrees. Overall, communication and personal development and well-being scored the highest: Junior doctors should be able to perform these in the workplace under close supervision. Advance care planning scored the lowest, indicating performance in a simulated setting. A wide range of stakeholders validated a palliative care competency framework for undergraduate medical curricula. This framework can be used to guide teaching about palliative care.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To assess global health (GH) training in all postgraduate medical education in the UK.<h4>Design</h4>Mixed methodology: scoping review and curricular content analysis using two GH competency frameworks.<h4>Setting and participants</h4>A scoping review (until December 2017) was used to develop a framework of GH competencies for doctors. National postgraduate medical training curricula were analysed against this and a prior framework for GH competencies. The number of core competencies addressed and/or appearing in each programme was recorded.<h4>Outcomes</h4>The scoping review identified eight relevant publications. A 16-competency framework was developed and, with a prior 5-competency framework, used to analyse each of 71 postgraduate medical curricula. Curricula were examined by a team of researchers and relevant learning outcomes were coded as one of the 5 or 16 core competencies. The number of core competencies in each programme was recorded.<h4>Results</h4>Using the 5-competency and 16-competency frameworks, 23 and 20, respectively, out of 71 programmes contained no global health competencies, most notably the Foundation Programme (equivalent to internship), a compulsory programme for UK medical graduates. Of a possible 16 competencies, the mean number across all 71 programmes was 1.73 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.04) and the highest number were in paediatrics and infectious diseases, each with five competencies. Of the 16 core competencies, global burden of disease and socioeconomic determinants of health were the two most cited with 47 and 35 citations, respectively. 8/16 competencies were not cited in any curriculum.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Equity of care and the challenges of practising in an increasingly globalised world necessitate GH competencies for all doctors. Across the whole of postgraduate training, the majority of UK doctors are receiving minimal or no training in GH. Our GH competency framework can be used to map and plan integration across postgraduate programmes.
Project description:Given the shortage of palliative care specialists in the United States, to ensure quality of care for patients with serious, life-threatening illness, generalist-level palliative care competencies need to be defined and taught. The purpose of this study was to define essential competencies for medical students and internal medicine and family medicine (IM/FM) residents through a national survey of palliative care experts.Proposed competencies were derived from existing hospice and palliative medicine fellowship competencies and revised to be developmentally appropriate for students and residents. In spring 2012, the authors administered a Web-based, national cross-sectional survey of palliative care educational experts to assess ratings and rankings of proposed competencies and competency domains.The authors identified 18 comprehensive palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents, respectively. Over 95% of survey respondents judged the competencies as comprehensive and developmentally appropriate (survey response rate = 72%, 71/98). Using predefined cutoff criteria, experts identified 7 medical student and 13 IM/FM resident competencies as essential. Communication and pain/symptom management were rated as the most critical domains.This national survey of palliative care experts defines comprehensive and essential palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents that are specific, measurable, and can be used to report educational outcomes; provide a sequence for palliative care curricula in undergraduate and graduate medical education; and highlight the importance of educating medical trainees in communication and pain management. Next steps include seeking input and endorsement from stakeholders in the broader medical education community.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess health informatics (HI) training in UK postgraduate medical education, across all specialties, against international standards in the context of UK digital health initiatives (eg, Health Data Research UK, National Health Service Digital Academy and Global Digital Exemplars). DESIGN:A mixed methods study of UK postgraduate clinician training curricula (71 specialties) against international HI standards: scoping review, curricular content analysis and expert consultation. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:A scoping literature review (PubMed until March 2017) informed development of a contemporary framework of HI competency domains for doctors. National training curricula for 71 postgraduate medical specialties were obtained from the UK General Medical Council and were analysed. Seven UK HI experts were consulted regarding findings. OUTCOMES:The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Recommendations for Biomedical and Health Informatics Education were used to develop a framework of competency domains. The number (maximum 50) of HI competency domains included in each of the 71 UK postgraduate medical specialties was investigated. After expert review, a universal HI competency framework was proposed. RESULTS:A framework of 50 HI competency domains was developed using 21 curricula from a scoping review, curricular content analysis and expert consultation. All 71 UK postgraduate medical curricula documents were mapped across 29 of 50 framework domains; that is, 21 domains were unrepresented. Curricula mapped between 0 (child and adolescent psychiatry and core surgical training) and 16 (chemical pathology and paediatric and perinatal pathology) of the 50 domains (median=7). Expert consultation found that HI competencies should be universal and integrated with existing competencies for UK clinicians and were under-represented in current curricula. Additional universal HI competencies were identified, including information governance and security and secondary use of data. CONCLUSIONS:Postgraduate medical education in the UK neglects HI competencies set out by international standards. Key HI competencies need to be urgently integrated into training curricula to prepare doctors for work in increasingly digitised healthcare environments.
Project description:Palliative care is central to the role of all clinical doctors. There is variability in the amount and type of teaching about palliative care at undergraduate level. Time allocated for such teaching within the undergraduate medical curricula remains scarce. Given this, the effectiveness of palliative care teaching needs to be known. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effectiveness of palliative care teaching for undergraduate medical students. DESIGN:A systematic review was prepared according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment (mixed methods and Cochrane risk of bias tool) were performed in duplicate. DATA SOURCES:Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane and grey literature in August 2019. Studies evaluating palliative care teaching interventions with medical students were included. RESULTS:1446 titles/abstracts and 122 full-text articles were screened. 19 studies were included with 3253 participants. 17 of the varied methods palliative care teaching interventions improved knowledge outcomes. The effect of teaching on clinical practice and patient outcomes was not evaluated in any study. CONCLUSIONS:The majority of palliative care teaching interventions reviewed improved knowledge of medical students. The studies did not show one type of teaching method to be better than others, and thus no 'best way' to provide teaching about palliative care was identified. High quality, comparative research is needed to further understand effectiveness of palliative care teaching on patient care/clinical practice/outcomes in the short-term and longer-term. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018115257.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To communicate competencies to other healthcare professionals in the emergency department (ED) setting. METHOD: A system of competency badges has been developed that are awarded to junior doctors as and when they complete a structured skills assessment. RESULTS: Early assessment suggests that the merit badge system has great potential benefits to ED management. Junior doctors are motivated to complete skills assessments and thereby to obtain the relevant badge. Merit badges allow a rapid communication of attained skills to all healthcare professionals in the ED setting. The department will be fully compliant with the system by 1 April 2008. CONCLUSION: A competency badge system may aid ED management and promote skills-based learning in the ED.
Project description:A World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution adopted in 2014 strongly encourages member states to integrate palliative care (PC) in undergraduate training for health professionals.The study objective was to describe a consensus-based process workshop to develop PC competences for medical and nursing schools in Colombia and to present a summary of the findings.The workshop included 36 participants representing 16 medical and 6 nursing schools from 18 universities in Colombia. Participants were distributed in four thematic groups. Using the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) List of Essential Practices (LEP) as guidance, they were asked to discuss and define PC competencies at the undergraduate level. Participants provided feedback and approved each recommendation, and then were asked to complete an evaluation.The resulting competences were separated into six categories: (1) Definition and Principles of PC, (2) Identification and Control of Symptoms, (3) End-of-Life Care, (4) Ethical and Legal Issues, (5) Psychosocial and Spiritual Issues, and (6) Teamwork. A comparative analysis revealed that treatment of several symptoms in the IAHPC LEP (pain, dyspnea, constipation, nausea, vomit, diarrhea, delirium, and insomnia) were included in the competencies. All of the IAHPC LEP related to psychological/emotional/spiritual care was included. The evaluation rate of return was 80%. The assessment was very positive: total score of 4.7/5.0; SD?=?0.426), with 89% considering the workshop to be helpful.The workshop provided an opportunity for individuals from different disciplines to discuss competencies and achieve consensus. The resulting competencies will be helpful in the development of PC curricula for physicians and nurses throughout schools in Colombia and other countries.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>A community-based training (CBT) program, where teaching and training are carried out in the community outside of the teaching hospital, is a vital part of undergraduate medical education. Worldwide, there is a shift to competency-based training, and CBT is no exception. We attempted to develop a tool that uses a competency-based approach for assessment of CBT.<h4>Methods</h4>Based on a review on competencies, we prepared a preliminary list of major domains with items under each domain. We used the Delphi technique to arrive at a consensus on this assessment tool. The Delphi panel consisted of eight purposively selected experts from the field of community medicine. The panel rated each item for its relevance, sensitivity, specificity, and understandability on a scale of 0-4. Median ratings were calculated at the end of each round and shared with the panel. Consensus was predefined as when 70% of the experts gave a rating of 3 or above for an item under relevance, sensitivity, and specificity. If an item failed to achieve consensus after being rated in 2 consecutive rounds, it was excluded. Anonymity of responses was maintained.<h4>Results</h4>The panel arrived at a consensus at the end of 3 rounds. The final version of the self-assessment tool consisted of 7 domains and 74 items. The domains (number of items) were Public health - epidemiology and research methodology (13), Public health - biostatistics (6), Public health administration at primary health center level (17), Family medicine (24), Cultural competencies (3), Community development and advocacy (2), and Generic competence (9). Each item was given a maximum score of 5 and minimum score of 1.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This is the first study worldwide to develop a tool for competency-based evaluation of CBT in undergraduate medical education. The competencies identified in the 74-item questionnaire may provide the base for development of authentic curricula for CBT.
Project description:Objective:This research identified the presence of information skill and behaviors components of information literacy in curricular competencies to inform a medical sciences library's instructional schema for five different professional programs at Texas A&M University: College of Medicine, College of Nursing, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, and School of Public Health. Methods:Curricular competency documents were collected from each program and reviewed. Coding categories were identified from the curricular competencies of professional health curricula using data-driven qualitative coding. To guide the identification and coding of competency categories, we developed a seven-category rubric from the coding categories. Three researchers used this rubric to independently code the categories of all of the included professional health curricular competencies. An additional researcher used a revised version of the rubric to identify action verbs in each competency. Results:Competencies for four of the five professional health curricula explicitly stated information skills and behaviors. Each of the five curricula included several competencies that depended on information-specific skills and behaviors. The most common verb used to describe implicit or explicit competencies was "evaluate." Conclusions:The representation of information skills and behaviors aligns with the drive behind the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. Both underpin the importance of evidence-based medicine methodology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This paper seeks to contribute to a reputable evidence base for required competencies across different topics in statistics and probability (statistical topics) in preparing medical graduates for clinical practice. This is in order to inform the prioritization of statistical topics within future undergraduate medical curricula, while exploring the need for preparing tomorrow's doctors to be producers, and not merely consumers, of statistics. METHODS:We conducted a comprehensive online survey from July 2013 to August 2014 for a target group of 462 medical graduates with current or prior experience of teaching undergraduate medical students of the University of Edinburgh of whom 278 (60.2%) responded. Statistical topics were ranked by proportion of respondents who identified the practice of statistics, performing statistical procedures or calculations using appropriate data, as a required competency for medical schools to provide in preparing undergraduate medical students for clinical practice. Mixed effects analyses were used to identify potential predictors for selection of the above competency and to compare the likelihood of this selection for a range of statistical topics versus critical appraisal. RESULTS:Evidence was gleaned from medical graduates' experiences of clinical practice for the need for, not only a theoretical understanding of statistics and probability but also, the ability to practice statistics. Nature of employment and statistical topic were highly significant predictors of choice of the practice of statistics as a required competency ((F?=?3.777, p?<?0.0005) and (F?=?45.834, p?<?0.0005), respectively). The most popular topic for this competency was graphical presentation of data (84.3% of respondents) in contrast to cross-over trials for the competency understanding the theory only (70.5% of respondents). Several topics were found to be more popular than critical appraisal for competency in the practice of statistics. CONCLUSIONS:The model of medical graduates as mere consumers of statistics is oversimplified. Contrary to what has been suggested elsewhere, statistical learning opportunities in undergraduate medicine should not be restricted to development of critical appraisal skills. Indeed, our findings support development of learning opportunities for undergraduate medical students as producers of statistics across a wide range of statistical topics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Collaborator, Health Advocate and Leader/Manager roles are highly relevant for safe patient management and optimization of healthcare system in rehabilitation and prevention. They are defined in competency-based frameworks and incorporate competencies empowering physicians to master typical daily tasks in interdisciplinary, interprofessional and institutional collaboration. However, appropriate implementation of roles remains difficult in undergraduate medical education (UME) and needs to be closely monitored. The aim of this cross-institutional mapping study was to examine for the roles of Collaborator, Health Advocate and Leader/Manager: (1) To what extent do German UME programs explicitly meet the given standards after 5 years of study? (2) Which information may be obtained from multi-site mapping data for evidence-based reflection on curricula and framework? METHODS:In a joint project of eight German UME programs, 80 to 100% of courses were mapped from teachers' perspective against given national standards: (sub-)competency coverage, competency level attainment and assessment. All faculties used a common tool and consented procedures for data collection and processing. The roles' representation was characterized by the curricular weighting of each role content expressed by the percentage of courses referring to it (citations). Data were visualized in a benchmarking approach related to a general mean of the intrinsic roles as reference line. RESULTS:(Sub-)competencies of the Health Advocate are consistently well-integrated in curricula with a wide range of generally high curricular weightings. The Collaborator reveals average curricular representation, but also signs of ongoing curricular development in relevant parts and clear weaknesses regarding assessment and achieved outcomes. The Leader/Manager displays consistently lowest curricular weightings with several substantial deficiencies in curricular representation, constructive alignment and/or outcome level. Our data allow identifying challenges to be considered by local curriculum developers or framework reviewers (e.g. non-achievement of competency levels, potential underrepresentation, lacking constructive alignment). CONCLUSION:Our non-normative, process-related benchmarking approach provides a differentiated crosscut snapshot to compare programs in the field of others, thus revealing shortcomings in role implementation, especially for Leader/Manager and Collaborator. The synopsis of multi-site data may serve as an external reference for program self-assessment and goal-oriented curriculum development. It may also provide practical data for framework review.