Genome Mining Revealed a High Biosynthetic Potential for Antifungal Streptomyces sp. S-2 Isolated from Black Soot.
ABSTRACT: The increasing resistance of fungal pathogens has heightened the necessity of searching for new organisms and compounds to combat their spread. Streptomyces are bacteria that are well-known for the production of many antibiotics. To find novel antibiotic agents, researchers have turned to previously neglected and extreme environments. Here, we isolated a new strain, Streptomyces sp. S-2, for the first time, from black soot after hard coal combustion (collected from an in-use household chimney). We examined its antifungal properties against plant pathogens and against fungi that potentially pose threat to human health (Fusarium avenaceum, Aspergillus niger and the environmental isolates Trichoderma citrinoviridae Cin-9, Nigrospora oryzae sp. roseF7, and Curvularia coatesieae sp. junF9). Furthermore, we obtained the genome sequence of S-2 and examined its potential for secondary metabolites production using anti-SMASH software. The S-2 strain shows activity against all of the tested fungi. Genome mining elucidated a vast number of biosynthetic gene clusters (55), which distinguish this strain from closely related strains. The majority of the predicted clusters were assigned to non-ribosomal peptide synthetases or type 1 polyketide synthetases, groups known to produce compounds with antimicrobial activity. A high number of the gene clusters showed no, or low similarity to those in the database, raising the possibility that S-2 could be a producer of novel antibiotics. Future studies on Streptomyces sp. S-2 will elucidate its full biotechnological potential.
Project description:In an effort to stem the rising tide of multi-resistant bacteria, researchers have turned to niche environments in the hope of discovering new varieties of antibiotics. We investigated an ethnopharmacological (cure) from an alkaline/radon soil in the area of Boho, in the Fermanagh Scarplands (N. Ireland) for the presence of Streptomyces, a well-known producer of antibiotics. From this soil we isolated a novel (closest relative 57% of genome relatedness) Streptomyces sp. capable of growth at high alkaline pH (10.5) and tolerant of gamma radiation to 4 kGy. Genomic sequencing identified many alkaline tolerance (antiporter/multi-resistance) genes compared to S. coelicolor M145 (at 3:1), hence we designated the strain Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1, from the Greek, myro (fragrance) and phorea (porter/carrier). In vitro tests demonstrated the ability of the Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1 to inhibit the growth of many strains of ESKAPE pathogens; most notably carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (a critical pathogen on the WHO priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (both listed as high priority pathogens). Further in silico prediction of antimicrobial potential of Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1 by anti-SMASH and RAST software identified many secondary metabolite and toxicity resistance gene clusters (45 and 27, respectively) as well as many antibiotic resistance genes potentially related to antibiotic production. Follow-up in vitro tests show that the Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1 was resistant to 28 out of 36 clinical antibiotics. Although not a comprehensive analysis, we think that some of the Boho soils' reputed curative properties may be linked to the ability of Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1 to inhibit ESKAPE pathogens. More importantly, further analysis may elucidate other key components that could alleviate the tide of multi-resistant nosocomial infections.
Project description:We recently described 13-deoxytetrodecamycin, a new member of the tetrodecamycin family of antibiotics. A defining feature of these molecules is the presence of a five-membered lactone called a tetronate ring. By sequencing the genome of a producer strain, Streptomyces sp. strain WAC04657, and searching for a gene previously implicated in tetronate ring formation, we identified the biosynthetic genes responsible for producing 13-deoxytetrodecamycin (the ted genes). Using the ted cluster in WAC04657 as a reference, we found related clusters in three other organisms: Streptomyces atroolivaceus ATCC 19725, Streptomyces globisporus NRRL B-2293, and Streptomyces sp. strain LaPpAH-202. Comparing the four clusters allowed us to identify the cluster boundaries. Genetic manipulation of the cluster confirmed the involvement of the ted genes in 13-deoxytetrodecamycin biosynthesis and revealed several additional molecules produced through the ted biosynthetic pathway, including tetrodecamycin, dihydrotetrodecamycin, and another, W5.9, a novel molecule. Comparison of the bioactivities of these four molecules suggests that they may act through the covalent modification of their target(s).The tetrodecamycins are a distinct subgroup of the tetronate family of secondary metabolites. Little is known about their biosynthesis or mechanisms of action, making them an attractive subject for investigation. In this paper we present the biosynthetic gene cluster for 13-deoxytetrodecamycin in Streptomyces sp. strain WAC04657. We identify related clusters in several other organisms and show that they produce related molecules.
Project description:Streptomyces sp. Sge12 was isolated from forest soil and exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activities against selected fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which contains 37 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters.
Project description:To identify the species of butyrolactol-producing Streptomyces strain TP-A0882, whole genome-sequencing of three type strains in a close taxonomic relationship was performed. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization using the genome sequences suggested that Streptomyces sp. TP-A0882 is classified as Streptomyces diastaticus subsp. ardesiacus. Strain TP-A0882, S. diastaticus subsp. ardesiacus NBRC 15402T, Streptomyces coelicoflavus NBRC 15399T, and Streptomyces rubrogriseus NBRC 15455T harbor at least 14, 14, 10, and 12 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), respectively, coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs). All 14 gene clusters were shared by S. diastaticus subsp. ardesiacus strains TP-A0882 and NBRC 15402T, while only four gene clusters were shared by the three distinct species. Although BGCs for bacteriocin, ectoine, indole, melanine, siderophores such as deferrioxamine, terpenes such as albaflavenone, hopene, carotenoid and geosmin are shared by the three species, many BGCs for secondary metabolites such as butyrolactone, lantipeptides, oligosaccharide, some terpenes are species-specific. These results indicate the possibility that strains belonging to the same species possess the same set of secondary metabolite-biosynthetic pathways, whereas strains belonging to distinct species have species-specific pathways, in addition to some common pathways, even if the strains are taxonomically close.
Project description:The capability of the fungi Nigrospora sp. CBMAI 1328 and Arthopyrenia sp. CBMAI 1330 isolated from marine sponge to synthesise laccases (Lcc) in the presence of the inducer copper (1-10 ?M) was assessed. In a liquid culture medium supplemented with 5 ?M of copper sulphate after 5 days of incubation, Nigrospora sp. presented the highest Lcc activity (25.2 U·L(-1)). The effect of copper on Lcc gene expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Nigrospora sp. showed the highest gene expression of Lcc under the same conditions of Lcc synthesis. The highest Lcc expression by the Arthopyrenia sp. was detected at 96 h of incubation in absence of copper. Molecular approaches allowed the detection of Lcc isozymes and suggest the presence of at least two undescribed putative genes. Additionally, Lcc sequences from the both fungal strains clustered with other Lcc sequences from other fungi that inhabit marine environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. RESULTS: Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. CONCLUSIONS: Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.
Project description:In this study, the microbial communities of two nests of black garden ants (Lasius niger) in the hollows of stem branches of old apple trees were found to have similar species compositions: each community contained representatives of three species from the Bacillaceae family and one species of actinomycetes from the genus Streptomyces. In total, four types of bacilli and two actinomycetes were isolated. Actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces antibioticus-like and Streptomyces sp. None of the bacilli had antibiotic activity, whereas both streptomycetes produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro, including isolates from their community. Antibiotic compounds of S. antibioticus-like strain INA 01148 (Institute of New Antibiotics) were identified as actinomycin D and its closest homologue, actinomycin A. Actinomycins presumably change the microbial community of the ant nest substrate as they act against Gram-positive bacteria and against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibiotic activity of the isolated Streptomyces sp. INA 01156 is of interest, since the substances produced by this strain inhibit the growth of drug-resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides VKPM B-4177 (VR) (VKPM-National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (Russian acronym)).
Project description:We have previously isolated a new actinomycete strain from Tunisian soil called Streptomyces sp. US24, and have shown that it produces two bioactive molecules including a Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro) diketopiperazine (DKP). To identify the structural genes responsible for the synthesis of this DKP derivative, a PCR amplification (696 bp) was carried out using the Streptomyces sp. US24 genomic DNA as template and two degenerate oligonucleotides designed by analogy with genes encoding peptide synthetases (NRPS). The detection of DKP derivative biosynthetic pathway of the Streptomyces sp. US24 strain was then achieved by gene disruption via homologous recombination using a suicide vector derived from the conjugative plasmid pSET152 and containing the PCR product. Chromatography analysis, biological tests and spectroscopic studies of supernatant cultures of the wild-type Streptomyces sp. US24 strain and three mutants obtained by this gene targeting disruption approach showed that the amplified DNA fragment is required for Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro) biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. US24 strain. This DKP derivative seems to be produced either directly via a nonribosomal pathway or as a side product in the course of nonribosomal synthesis of a longer peptide.
Project description:Antarctic have been suggested as an attractive source for antibiotics discovery and members of Streptomyces genus have historically been studied as natural producers of antimicrobial metabolites. Nonetheless, our knowledge on antibiotic-producing Streptomyces from Antarctic is very limited. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of organic extracts from Antarctic Streptomyces strains was evaluated by disk diffusion assays and minimum inhibitory concentration. The strain Streptomyces sp. So13.3 showed the greatest antibiotic activity (MIC?=?15.6??g/mL) against Gram-positive bacteria and growth reduction of Gram?negative pathogens. The bioactive fraction in the crude extract was revealed by TLC?bioautography at Rf?=?0.78 with molecular weight between 148 and 624?m/z detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The strain So13.3 was taxonomically affiliated as Streptomyces fildesensis. Whole genome sequencing and analysis suggested a 9.47?Mb genome size with 42 predicted biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and 56 putative clusters representing a 22% of total genome content. Interestingly, a large number of them (11 of 42 BGCs and 40 of 56 putative BGCs), did not show similarities with other known BGCs. Our results highlight the potential of the Antarctic Streptomyces strains as a promising source of novel antimicrobials, particularly the strain Streptomyces fildesensis So13.3, which first draft genome is reported in this work.
Project description:An actinomycete strain, CB-75, was isolated from the soil of a diseased banana plantation in Hainan, China. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and 99.93% sequence similarity with Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424 (AB184393), the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against 11 plant pathogenic fungi. Type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) were detected, which were indicative of the antifungal compounds that Streptomyces sp. CB-75 could produce. An ethyl acetate extract from the strain exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Colletotrichum musae (ATCC 96167) (0.78 ?g/ml) and yielded the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (ATCC 16330) (50.0 ?g/ml). Also, spore germination was significantly inhibited by the crude extract. After treatment with the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. CB-75 at the concentration 2 × MIC, the pathogenic fungi showed deformation, shrinkage, collapse, and tortuosity when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the crude extract, 18 chemical constituents were identified; (Z)-13-docosenamide was the major constituent. Pot experiments showed that the incidence of banana seedlings was reduced after using Streptomyces sp. CB-75 treatment. The disease index was 10.23, and the prevention and control effect was 83.12%. Furthermore, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 had a growth-promoting effect on banana plants. The chlorophyll content showed 88.24% improvement, the leaf area, root length, root diameter, plant height, and stem showed 88.24, 90.49, 136.17, 61.78, and 50.98% improvement, respectively, and the shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight showed 82.38, 72.01, 195.33, and 113.33% improvement, respectively, compared with treatment of fermentation broth without Streptomyces sp. CB-75. Thus, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 is an important microbial resource as a biological control against plant pathogenic fungi and for promoting banana growth.