Immediate Effects of Medially Posted Insoles on Lower Limb Joint Contact Forces in Adult Acquired Flatfoot: A Pilot Study.
ABSTRACT: Flatfoot is linked to secondary lower limb joint problems, such as patellofemoral pain. This study aimed to investigate the influence of medial posting insoles on the joint mechanics of the lower extremity in adults with flatfoot. Gait analysis was performed on fifteen young adults with flatfoot under two conditions: walking with shoes and foot orthoses (WSFO), and walking with shoes (WS) in random order. The data collected by a vicon system were used to drive the musculoskeletal model to estimate the hip, patellofemoral, ankle, medial and lateral tibiofemoral joint contact forces. The joint contact forces in WSFO and WS conditions were compared. Compared to the WS group, the second peak patellofemoral contact force (p < 0.05) and the peak ankle contact force (p < 0.05) were significantly lower in the WSFO group by 10.2% and 6.8%, respectively. The foot orthosis significantly reduced the peak ankle eversion angle (p < 0.05) and ankle eversion moment (p < 0.05); however, the peak knee adduction moment increased (p < 0.05). The reduction in the patellofemoral joint force and ankle contact force could potentially inhibit flatfoot-induced lower limb joint problems, despite a greater knee adduction moment.
Project description:Physical fatigue and pronated feet constitute two risk factors for running-related lower limb injuries. Accordingly, different running shoe companies designed anti-pronation shoes with medial support to limit over pronation in runners. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness and clinical relevance of anti-pronation shoes. This study examined lower limb kinematics and kinetics in young female runners with pronated feet during running with anti-pronation versus regular (neutral) running shoes in unfatigued and fatigued condition. Twenty-six female runners aged 24.1±5.6 years with pronated feet volunteered to participate in this study. Kinetic (3D Kistler force plate) and kinematic analyses (Vicon motion analysis system) were conducted to record participants' ground reaction forces and joint kinematics when running with anti-pronation compared with neutral running shoes. Physical fatigue was induced through an individualized submaximal running protocol on a motorized treadmill using rate of perceived exertion and heart rate monitoring. The statistical analyses indicated significant main effects of "footwear" for peak ankle inversion, peak ankle eversion, and peak hip internal rotation angles (p<0.03; d = 0.46-0.95). Pair-wise comparisons revealed a significantly greater peak ankle inversion angle (p<0.03; d = 0.95; 2.70°) and smaller peak eversion angle (p<0.03; d = 0.46; 2.53°) when running with anti-pronation shoes compared with neutral shoes. For kinetic data, significant main effects of "footwear" were found for peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak hip flexor moment, peak hip extensor moment, peak hip abductor moment, and peak hip internal rotator moment (p<0.02; d = 1.00-1.79). For peak positive hip power in sagittal and frontal planes and peak negative hip power in horizontal plane, we observed significant main effects of "footwear" (p<0.03; d = 0.92-1.06). Pairwise comparisons revealed that peak positive hip power in sagittal plane (p<0.03; d = 0.98; 2.39 w/kg), peak positive hip power in frontal plane (p = 0.014; d = 1.06; 0.54 w/kg), and peak negative hip power in horizontal plane (p<0.03; d = 0.92; 0.43 w/kg) were greater with anti-pronation shoes. Furthermore, the statistical analyses indicated significant main effects of "Fatigue" for peak ankle inversion, peak ankle eversion, and peak knee external rotation angles. Pair-wise comparisons revealed a fatigue-induced decrease in peak ankle inversion angle (p<0.01; d = 1.23; 2.69°) and a fatigue-induced increase in peak knee external rotation angle (p<0.05; d = 0.83; 5.40°). In addition, a fatigue-related increase was found for peak ankle eversion (p<0.01; d = 1.24; 2.67°). For kinetic data, we observed a significant main effect of "Fatigue" for knee flexor moment, knee internal rotator moment, and hip extensor moment (p<0.05; d = 0.83-1.01). The statistical analyses indicated significant a main effect of "Fatigue" for peak negative ankle power in sagittal plane (p<0.01; d = 1.25). Finally, we could not detect any significant footwear by fatigue interaction effects for all measures of joint kinetics and kinematics. Running in anti-pronation compared with neutral running shoes produced lower peak moments and powers in lower limb joints and better control in rear foot eversion. Physical fatigue increased peak moments and powers in lower limb joints irrespective of the type of footwear.
Project description:Lateral wedge insoles are a potential simple treatment for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients by reducing the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). However in some patients, an increase in their EKAM is seen. Understanding the role of the ankle joint complex in the response to lateral wedge insoles is critical in understanding and potentially identifying why some patients respond differently to lateral wedge insoles.Participants with medial tibiofemoral OA underwent gait analysis whilst walking in a control shoe and a lateral wedge insole. We evaluated if dynamic ankle joint complex coronal plane biomechanical measures could explain and identify those participants that increased (biomechanical non-responder) or decreased (biomechanical responder) EKAM under lateral wedge conditions compared to the control shoe.Of the 70 participants studied (43 male), 33% increased their EKAM and 67% decreased their EKAM. Overall, lateral wedge insoles shifted the centre of foot pressure laterally, increased eversion of the ankle/subtalar joint complex (STJ) and the eversion moment compared to the control condition. Ankle angle at peak EKAM and peak eversion ankle/STJ complex angle in the control condition predicted if individuals were likely to decrease EKAM under lateral wedge conditions.Coronal plane ankle/STJ complex biomechanical measures play a key role in reducing EKAM when wearing lateral wedge insoles. These findings may assist in the identification of those individuals that could benefit more from wearing lateral wedge insoles.
Project description:The triceps surae primarily acts as plantarflexor of the ankle joint. However, the group also causes inversion and eversion at the subtalar joint. Despite this, the Achilles tendon moment arm is generally measured without considering the potential influence of inversion/eversion of the foot during plantarflexion. This study investigated the effect of foot inversion and eversion on the plantarflexion Achilles tendon moment arm. Achilles tendon moment arms were determined using the centre-of-rotation method in magnetic resonance images of the left ankle of 11 participants. The foot was positioned at 15° dorsiflexion, 0° or 15° plantarflexion using a Styrofoam wedge. In each of these positions, the foot was either 10° inverted, neutral or 10° everted using an additional Styrofoam wedge. Achilles tendon moment arm in neutral foot position was 47.93?±?4.54?mm and did not differ significantly when the foot was positioned in 10° inversion and 10° eversion. Hence, inversion/eversion position of the foot may not considerably affect the length of the Achilles tendon moment arm. This information could be useful in musculoskeletal models of the human lower leg and foot and when estimating Achilles tendon forces during plantarflexion with the foot positioned in inversion or eversion.
Project description:Ankle sprains are one of the most prevalent athletic injuries. Prior work has investigated lateral ankle sprains, but research on generally more severe medial sprains is lacking. This case report performs a kinematic analysis using novel motion analysis methods on a non-contact medial ankle sprain. Peak eversion (50°) occurred 0.2 seconds following ground contact, maximum velocity of 426°/s, while peak dorsiflexion (64°) occurred with a greater maximum velocity (573°/s). The combination of dorsiflexion at ground contact and rapid eversion is associated with a non-contact eversion sprain. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the eversion ankle sprain injury mechanism.
Project description:This study presents an investigation of the changes in foot posture, joint kinematics, joint moments and joint contact forces in the lower extremity following a 5 k treadmill run. A relationship between knee and ankle joint loading and foot posture index (FPI) is developed. Twenty recreational male heel-strike runners participated in this study. All participants had a history of running exercise and were free from lower extremity injuries and foot deformities. Foot posture was assessed from a six-item FPI to quantitatively classify high supination to high pronation foot poses. The FPI is scored using a combination of observations and foot palpations. The three-dimensional marker trajectories, ground reaction force and surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded at pre and post-gait sessions conducted over-ground and 5 k running was conducted on a treadmill. Joint kinematics, joint moments and joint contact forces were computed in OpenSim. Simulated EMG activations were compared against experimental EMG to validate the model. A paired sample t-test was conducted using a 1D statistical parametric mapping method computed temporally. Hip joint moments and contact forces increased during initial foot contact following 5 k running. Knee abduction moment and superior-inferior knee contact force increased, whereas the knee extension moment decreased. Ankle plantarflexion moment and ankle contact forces increased during stance. FPI was found to be moderately correlated with peak knee and ankle moments. Recreational male runners presented increased static foot pronation after 5 k treadmill running. These findings suggest that following mid distance running foot pronation may be an early indicator of increased lower limb joint loading. Furthermore, the FPI may be used to quantify the changes in knee and ankle joint moments.
Project description:Purpose:To explore the changes in knee sagittal angle and moment and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) force and stress before and after 12-week gait retraining. Methods:A total of 30 healthy male recreational runners were randomized into a control group (n = 15) who ran in their original strike pattern using minimalist shoes or experimental group (n = 15) who ran in a forefoot strike pattern using minimalist shoes during the 12-week gait retraining. The kinematic and kinetic data of the dominant leg of the participants during the 12?km/h running were collected by 3D motion capture systems and 3D force platforms. Besides, the biomechanical property of the PFJ was calculated on the basis of the joint force model and the regression equation of the contact area. Results:After the 12-week gait retraining, 78% of the rearfoot strikers turned into forefoot strikers. Peak knee extension moment and peak PFJ stress decreased by 13.8% and 13.3% without altering the running speed, respectively. Meanwhile, no changes in maximum knee flexion angle/extension moment and PFJ force/stress were observed for the control group. Conclusion:The 12-week gait retraining effectively reduced the PFJ stress, thereby providing a potential means of reducing the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome while running.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Yearly changes in active joint stiffness may help explain when neuromuscular sex differences emerge in adolescent athletes that may relate to increased anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in females. HYPOTHESIS:Pubertal males would demonstrate increases in knee stiffness while pubertal females would not. Second, postpubertal female athletes would have significantly lower knee joint stiffness than postpubertal male athletes. STUDY DESIGN:Cohort Study; Level of Evidence 2 and Cross-Sectional Study; Level of Evidence 3. METHODS:Two hundred sixty-five females and 50 males participated in 2 testing sessions approximately 1 year apart. The subjects were classified as either pubertal (n = 182, age 12.4 +/- 0.9 years) or postpubertal (n = 133, age 14.5 +/- 1.4 years) based on the modified Pubertal Maturational Observational Scale at each visit. Active joint stiffness of the ankle, knee, and hip was estimated during a drop vertical jump. Stiffness was calculated as the slope of the moment-angle curve from a least squares linear regression during the stance phase. RESULTS:All athletes showed increased active knee stiffness during the span of a year (P < 0.05). However, this increase was not different when stiffness was normalized to body mass. Only males demonstrated greater magnitudes of ankle and hip active stiffness (P < .05). Peak ankle and hip moments, but not knee moments, in postpubertal males were significantly greater than postpubertal females (P < .05). Females had a higher knee to hip moment ratio than males (P < .05). CONCLUSION:Both males and females showed increased active knee stiffness during the span of a year; males demonstrated increased ankle and hip active stiffness as well. Differences in hip joint posture at initial contact (greater flexion in males) and external hip flexion moment (greater flexion magnitude in males) may indicate that males use a different hip recruitment strategy during drop vertical jumps than females.
Project description:Red is perceived as a "winning color", which may influence actual and perceived performances in sports, but little effort has been done to assess the added value on colored foot insoles in basketball movements. This study examined if colored foot insole would influence perceived comfort and lower extremity biomechanics during drop landing. Nineteen male basketball players performed drop landing trials with different insoles (red arch-support, white arch-support, and white-flat) and landing heights (0.45 and 0.61 m). Two-way (Insole x Height) ANOVAs with repeated measures were performed on each of the knee and ankle angles and moments variables. Wearing red arch-support insoles induced better perception of forefoot and rearfoot cushioning and overall comfort but smaller plantarflexion moment than the white-flat insoles (p < 0.05). Increased landing height was related to higher ground reaction loading, sagittal flexion angles, range of motion, and joint moments but smaller ankle eversion (p < 0.05). Findings indicate that foot insoles might have influenced comfort perception and joint kinetics, but not joint kinematics. The use of red color in foot insoles could potentially maximize the effectiveness of foot insoles in a way that alters comfort perception and motor control during landing, with implications for risk of injury.
Project description:Though both contraction of agonist muscles and co-contraction of antagonistic muscle pairs across the ankle joint are essential to postural stability, they are perceived to operate independently of each other, In an antagonistic setup, agonist muscles contract generating moment about the joint, while antagonist muscles contract generating stiffness across the joint. While both work together in maintaining robustness in the face of external perturbations, contractions of agonist muscles and co-contractions of antagonistic muscle pairs across the ankle joint play different roles in responding to and adapting to external perturbations. To determine their respective roles, we exposed participants to repeated perturbations in both large and small magnitudes. The center of pressure (COP) and a co-contraction index (CCI) were used to quantify the activation of agonist muscles and antagonistic muscle pairs across the ankle joint. Our results found that participants generated moment of a large magnitude across the ankle joint-a large deviation in the COP curve-in response to perturbations of a large magnitude (p <0.05), whereas the same participants generated higher stiffness about the ankle-a larger value in CCI-in response to perturbations of a small magnitude (p <0.05). These results indicate that participants use different postural strategies pertaining to circumstances. Further, the moment across the ankle decreased with repetitions of the same perturbation (p <0.05), and CCI tended to remain unchanged even in response to a different perturbation following repetition of the same perturbation (p <0.05). These findings suggest that ankle muscle contraction and co-contraction play different roles in regaining and maintaining postural stability. This study demonstrates that ankle moment and stiffness are not correlated in response to external perturbations.
Project description:The knee and ankle are the two most injured joints associated with the sport of badminton. This study evaluates biomechanical factors between professional and amateur badminton players using an injury mechanism model. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic motion and kinetic loading differences of the right knee and ankle while performing a maximal right lunge. Amateur players exhibited greater ankle range of motion (p < 0.05, r = 0.89) and inversion joint moment (p < 0.05, r = 0.54) in the frontal plane as well as greater internal joint rotation moment (p < 0.05, r = 0.28) in the horizontal plane. In contrast, professional badminton players presented a greater knee joint moment in the sagittal (p < 0.05, r = 0.59) and frontal (p < 0.05, r = 0.37) planes, which may be associated with increased knee ligamentous injury risk. To avoid injury, the players need to forcefully extend the knee with internal rotation, strengthen the muscles around the ankle ligament, and maximise joint coordination during training. The injuries recorded and the forces responsible for the injuries seem to have developed during training activity. Training programmes and injury prevention strategies for badminton players should account for these findings to reduce potential injury to the ankle and knee.