Innovative application of nested PCR for detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in human highly calcified atherothrombotic plaques.
ABSTRACT: Atherothrombosis, leading to stroke and myocardial infarction, is responsible for most of the deaths in the world. An increased risk of atherothrombotic vascular events has been reported in patients with periodontitis. Periodontitis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease, which involves a dysbiotic microbiota, and leads to a progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting apparatus. Transcient periodontal pathogen blood translocation, mainly bacteremia, has been associated with the severity of gingival inflammation. The identification of periodontal bacteria within atherothrombotic plaques is challenging and unpredictable. This review aims to summarize existing molecular technics for identifying periodontal microbiota in human atherothrombotic samples. A secondary objective is to describe a protocol for the identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis from highly calcified, atherothrombotic human samples that is based on our experience in translational cardiovascular research. Compared to direct real-time PCR, our protocol based on nested PCR has increased the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis by 22.2% with good specificity.
Project description:Microbial pathogens have evolved mechanisms to proactively manipulate innate immunity, thereby improving their fitness in mammalian hosts. We have previously shown that Porphyromonas gingivalis exploits CXC-chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) to instigate a subversive crosstalk with Toll-like receptor 2 that inhibits leukocyte killing of this periodontal pathogen. However, whether CXCR4 plays a role in periodontal disease pathogenesis has not been previously addressed. Here, we hypothesized that CXCR4 is required for P. gingivalis virulence in the periodontium and that treatment with AMD3100, a potent CXCR4 antagonist, would inhibit P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis. Indeed, mice given AMD3100 via osmotic minipumps became resistant to induction of periodontal bone loss following oral inoculation with P. gingivalis. AMD3100 appeared to act in an antimicrobial manner, because mice treated with AMD3100 were protected against P. gingivalis colonization and the associated elevation of the total microbiota counts in the periodontal tissue. Moreover, even when administered 2 weeks after infection, AMD3100 halted the progression of P. gingivalis-induced periodontal bone loss. Therefore, AMD3100 can act in both preventive and therapeutic ways and CXCR4 antagonism could be a promising novel approach to treat human periodontitis.
Project description:Periodontitis is a significant problem in companion animals, and yet little is known about the disease-associated microbiota. A major virulence factor for the human periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is the lysyl- and arginyl-specific proteolytic activity of the gingipains. We screened several Porphyromonas species isolated from companion animals-P. asaccharolytica, P. circumdentaria, P. endodontalis, P. levii, P. gulae, P. macacae, P. catoniae, and P. salivosa-for Lys- and Arg-specific proteolytic activity and compared the epithelial and macrophage responses and induction of alveolar bone resorption of the protease active species to that of Porphyromonas gingivalis Only P. gulae exhibited Lys-and Arg-specific proteolytic activity. The genes encoding the gingipains (RgpA/B and Kgp) were identified in the P. gulae strain ATCC 51700 and all publicly available 12 draft genomes of P. gulae strains. P. gulae ATCC 51700 induced levels of alveolar bone resorption in an animal model of periodontitis similar to those in P. gingivalis W50 and exhibited a higher capacity for autoaggregation and binding to oral epithelial cells with induction of apoptosis. Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were found to phagocytose P. gulae ATCC 51700 and the fimbriated P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 at similar levels. In response to P. gulae ATCC 51700, macrophages secreted higher levels of cytokines than those induced by P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 but lower than those induced by P. gingivalis W50, except for the interleukin-6 response. Our results indicate that P. gulae exhibits virulence characteristics similar to those of the human periodontal pathogen P. gingivalis and therefore may play a key role in the development of periodontitis in companion animals.
Project description:Periodontitis is defined as inflammation affecting the supporting tissue of teeth. Periodontal pathogens initiate the disease and induce inflammatory host response. Hypoxia may accelerate the process by producing pro-inflammatory factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS in inducing caspase-1 activation in normoxic or hypoxic phases. The results showed that healthy gingiva was in a normoxic phase (HIF-1? negative). However, hypoxia appeared in periodontitis, in which NLRP3, cleaved-caspase-1, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) and caspase-1-induced cell death was enhanced in periodontitis specimens. The in vitro experiment showed that P. gingivalis LPS slightly decreased the level of NLRP3 and IL-1? in gingival fibroblasts under normoxia. Surprisingly, hypoxia reversed the effects of P. gingivalis LPS, highly promoted caspase-1 activation and IL-1? maturation. E. coli LPS, a kind of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) was chosen to simulate the effect of Gram-negative microbiota. Different from P. gingivalis LPS, E. coli LPS enhanced IL-1? maturation both in normoxia and hypoxia. Moreover, E. coli LPS turned normoxia into hypoxia phase in experimental periodontitis model, which may subsequently propel the inflammatory effect of P. gingivalis LPS. It was concluded that E. coli LPS induced a hypoxic phase, which is a combing pathological factor of P. gingivalis LPS in caspase-1 activating and IL-1? maturation in periodontal inflammation.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is a low-abundance oral anaerobic bacterium implicated in periodontitis, a polymicrobial inflammatory disease, and the associated systemic conditions. However, the mechanism by which P. gingivalis contributes to inflammation and disease has remained elusive. Here we show that P. gingivalis, at very low colonization levels, triggers changes to the amount and composition of the oral commensal microbiota leading to inflammatory periodontal bone loss. The commensal microbiota and complement were both required for P. gingivalis-induced bone loss, as germ-free mice or conventionally raised C3a and C5a receptor-deficient mice did not develop bone loss after inoculation with P. gingivalis. These findings demonstrate that a single, low-abundance species can disrupt host-microbial homeostasis to cause inflammatory disease. The identification and targeting of similar low-abundance pathogens with community-wide impact may be important for treating inflammatory diseases of polymicrobial etiology.
Project description:Purpose:The aims of this study were to examine the salivary microbiota in conditions of periodontal health and disease and to explore microbial changes following nonsurgical periodontal treatment. Methods:Non-stimulated saliva samples were collected from 4 periodontally healthy participants at baseline and from 8 patients with chronic periodontitis at baseline and 3 months following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. The V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene from the DNA of saliva samples were amplified and sequenced. The salivary microbial compositions of the healthy participants and patients with periodontitis prior to and following nonsurgical treatment of periodontitis were compared based on the relative abundance of various taxa. Results:On average, 299 operational taxonomic units were identified in each sample. The phylogenetic diversity in patients with periodontitis was higher than that in healthy participants and decreased following treatment. The abundance of the phylum Spirochaetes and the genus Treponema in patients with periodontitis was 143- and 134-fold higher than in the healthy control group, respectively, but decreased significantly following treatment. The species that were overabundant in the saliva of patients with periodontitis included the Peptostreptococcus stomatis group, Porphyromonas gingivalis, the Fusobacterium nucleatum group, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Filifactor alocis, and Tannerella forsythia. The phylum Actinobacteria, the genus Streptococcaceae_uc, and the species Streptococcus salivarius group were more abundant in healthy participants than in those with periodontitis. There was a trend toward a decrease in disease-associated taxa and an increase in health-associated taxa following treatment. Conclusions:Our results revealed differences in the taxa of salivary microbiota between conditions of periodontal health and disease. The taxa found to be associated with health or disease have potential for use as salivary biomarkers for periodontal health or disease.
Project description:Periodontitis is an extremely prevalent disease worldwide and is driven by complex dysbiotic microbiota. Here we analyzed the transcriptional activity of the periodontal pocket microbiota from all domains of life as well as the human host in health and chronic periodontitis. Bacteria showed strong enrichment of 18 KEGG functional modules in chronic periodontitis, including bacterial chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, type III secretion system, type III CRISPR-Cas system, and two component system proteins. Upregulation of these functions was driven by the red-complex pathogens and candidate pathogens, e.g. Filifactor alocis, Prevotella intermedia, Fretibacterium fastidiosum and Selenomonas sputigena. Nine virulence factors were strongly up-regulated, among them the arginine deiminase arcA from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Mycoplasma arginini. Viruses and archaea accounted for about 0.1% and 0.22% of total putative mRNA reads, respectively, and a protozoan, Entamoeba gingivalis, was highly enriched in periodontitis. Fourteen human transcripts were enriched in periodontitis, including a gene for a ferric iron binding protein, indicating competition with the microbiota for iron, and genes associated with cancer, namely nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, ankyrin-repeat domain 30B-like protein and beta-enolase. The data provide evidence on the level of gene expression in vivo for the potentially severe impact of the dysbiotic microbiota on human health.
Project description:Periodontitis is a common intraoral infection and is inextricably linked to systemic diseases. Recently, the regulation between host immunologic response and periodontal pathogens has become a hotspot to explain the mechanism of periodontitis and related systemic diseases. Since Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) was proved as critical periodontal pathogen above all, researches focusing on the mechanism of its virulence factors have received extensive attention. Studies have shown that in the development of periodontitis, in addition to the direct release of virulent factors by periodontal pathogens to destroy periodontal tissues, over-low or over-high intrinsic immune and inflammatory response mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can lead to more lasting destruction of periodontal tissues. It is very necessary to sort out how various cytopathic factors of P. gingivalis mediate inflammation and immune responses between the host through TLRs so as to help precisely prevent, diagnose, and treat periodontitis in clinic. This review summarizes the role of three most widely studied pathogenic factors produced by P. gingivalis (lipopolysaccharide, gingipains, pili) and their interactions with TLRs at the cellular and molecular level in the progress of periodontitis.
Project description:FimA is an important virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). According to its DNA sequence, the fimA genotype of P. gingivalis can be divided into six categories (I, Ib, ?, III, IV, V). The fimA gene may be a key factor in the diversity of virulence found in P. gingivalis. Moreover, the role fimA plays in the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis is closely associated with periodontitis, making it an important factor of study for disease prevention and treatment. In this study, the prevalence of fimA genotypes of P. gingivalis in patients with periodontal diseases was evaluated by meta-analysis. The Embase and PubMed databases were searched for articles from 1999 to 2019 using the following search terms: Porphyromonas gingivalis or P. gingivalis; periodontitis or chronic periodontal disease; fimA or fimA genotype. The reference lists of relevant published articles were searched manually. A total of 17 studies were included in this report. A statistical software package (Stata, version 11.0/mp, StataCorp) was utilized to calculate and analyze the P. gingivalis fimA genotypes for each combined incidence estimate. The pooled rates of fimA ?, fimA Ib, fimA ?, fimA ?, fimA ? and fimA ? genotypes of P. gingivalis were 8.4% (95% CI: 5.7-11.1), 11.7% (95% CI: 7.4-16), 42.9% (95% CI: 34.2-51.7), 6.5% (95% CI: 5.1-7.9), 17.8% (95% CI: 9.0-26.5), and 3.2% (95% CI: 1.6-4.9), respectively. This study showed that the fimA ? and fimA ? genotypes of P. gingivalis are highly present in patients with periodontal disease. Therefore, these two genotypes may be related to the pathogenesis and progress of periodontal disease, one of the main risk factors of periodontitis.
Project description:Periodontitis is an infective process that ultimately leads to destruction of the soft and hard tissues that support the teeth (the periodontium). Periodontitis has been proposed as a candidate risk factor for development of the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontal pathogen, is the only known prokaryote expressing a peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) enzyme necessary for protein citrullination. Antibodies to citrullinated proteins (anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, ACPA) are highly specific for RA and precede disease onset. Objective of this study was to assess P. gingivalis PAD (PPAD) gene expression and citrullination patterns in representative samples of P. gingivalis clinical isolates derived from periodontitis patients with and without RA and in related microbes of the Porphyromonas genus. Our findings indicate that PPAD is omnipresent in P. gingivalis, but absent in related species. No significant differences were found in the composition and expression of the PPAD gene of P. gingivalis regardless of the presence of RA or periodontal disease phenotypes. From this study it can be concluded that if P. gingivalis plays a role in RA, it is unlikely to originate from a variation in PPAD gene expression.
Project description:Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P = 0.23. Higher colonization levels of specific periodontal microbiota are associated with higher prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults.