Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activity of Berries and Leaves from Four Romanian Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides L.) Varieties.
ABSTRACT: Hippophae rhamnoides L. is an important source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Phytochemical compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of berries, and leaf extracts from four Romanian sea buckthorn cultivars were investigated. Large differences in the content of total polyphenols and flavonoids between the varieties were observed. HPLC analysis of the polyphenolic compounds showed greater differences in content in leaves than in berries. This study confirmed that sea buckthorn leaves and berries are a rich source of phenolic compounds, especially quercetin derivatives and hydrocinnamic acid derivatives. Five carotenoid compounds were identified in the berries: lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-cryptoxanthin, cis-?-carotene, and ?-carotene. From the results obtained in this study, it can be stated that the varieties whose berries yielded the highest quantities of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity, can be ranked as follows: SF6 > Golden Abundant > Carmen > Colosal, and for leaf extracts the ranked order is SF6 > Golden Abundant > Colosal > Carmen. A strong correlation between the total flavonoid yield and antioxidant activity (r = 0.96), was observed. All extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, and P. aeruginosa, however extracts from berries were less potent than extracts from leaves.
Project description:Horticultural plant materials not usually used from onion, carrot, beetroot, sea buckthorn, black and red currants as well as a wastewater powder from olive oil production were analyzed for total phenols content (FC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), radical scavenging capacity (ABTS), and for major phenolic compounds by HPLC-MS. Antioxidant capacity and phenol content varied significantly between species and cultivars, with extracts of sea buckthorn leaves being superior. In different species, different phenolic compounds were closely associated with FRAP, ABTS and FC. For instance, hydrolysable tannins were major antioxidants in sea buckthorn whereas quercetin was the major antioxidant in onion peel and skin. This study shows that horticultural plant materials usually left in the field or waste materials from processing may have high antioxidant properties, and that extracts of these materials therefore could be of potential interest for development of antioxidant food additives.
Project description:The potential for using extracts of press residues from black, green, red, and white currants and from sea buckthorn berries as sources of antioxidants for foods use was investigated. Press residues were extracted with ethanol in four consecutive extractions, and total Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) reactive material and authentic phenolic compounds were determined. Radical quenching capability and mechanisms were determined from total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant capacity (TRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays and from diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) kinetics, respectively; specific activities were normalized to F-C reactive concentrations. Levels of total F-C reactive materials in press residue extracts were higher than in many fruits and showed significant radical quenching activity. Black currant had the highest authentic phenol content and ORAC, TRAP, and DPPH reactivity. Sea buckthorn grown in northern Finland showed extremely high total specific DPPH reactivity. These results suggest that berry press residues offer attractive value-added products that can provide antioxidants for use in stabilizing and fortifying foods.
Project description:Golden root (Rhodiola rosea L., Crassulaceae) is a famous medical plant with a one-sided history of scientific interest in the roots and rhizomes as sources of bioactive compounds, unlike the herb, which has not been studied extensively. To address this deficiency, we used high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray triple quadrupole mass detection for comparative qualitative and quantitative analysis of the metabolic profiles of Rhodiola rosea organs before and after gastrointestinal digestion in simulated conditions together with various biochemical assays to determine antioxidant properties of the extracts and selected compounds. R. rosea organs showed 146 compounds, including galloyl O-glucosides, catechins, procyanidins, simple phenolics, phenethyl alcohol derivatives, (hydroxy)cinnamates, hydroxynitrile glucosides, monoterpene O-glucosides, and flavonol O-glycosides, most of them for the first time in the species. The organ-specific distribution of compounds found for catechins, procyanidins, and cinnamyl alcohols and glucosides was typical for underground organs and flavonoids and galloylated glucoses concentrated in the herb. Extracts from rhizomes, leaves and flowers showed high phenolic content and were effective scavengers of free radicals (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), O2•-, •OH) and protected ?-carotene in a bleaching assay. Digestion in the gastric and intestine phase influenced the composition of R. rosea extracts negatively, affecting the content of catechins, procyanidins, and galloyl glucoses, and therefore, the antioxidativity level. After gut microbiota treatment, the antioxidant capacity of rhizome extract was lower than leaves and flowers due to the aglycone composition found in the colonic phase of digestion. Our study demonstrated that the herb of R. rosea is a rich source of metabolites with high antioxidant properties and could be a valuable plant for new bioactive products.
Project description:Hypericum androsaemum, also known as Tutsan, is a small evergreen shrub common in the Mediterranean basin where it is traditionally used as diuretic and hepatoprotective herbal drug. This plant possesses the peculiarity to produce fleshy and berry-like fruits that ripen from red to shiny black. In the present work, the chemical constituents of methanolic extracts and infusions of red and black fruits were analyzed by HPLC, and correlated with their antioxidant properties which were evaluated by the DPPH, ?-Carotene/linoleic acid, and hypochlorous acid tests. In addition, the red pigment of the fruit was isolated by column chromatography and structurally elucidated by NMR. Results showed that H. androsaemum fruits contain high amounts of shikimic and chlorogenic acids, while their color was given by a tetraoxygenated-type xanthone, reported for the first time in Hypericum species. The red berries infusion gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, DPPH, and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, and ?-carotene bleaching. Cytotoxicity of the berries extracts on three human tumor cell lines (malignant melanoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and colon carcinoma) was evaluated by MTT assay, and relevant inhibition on colon carcinoma cells (IC50 value of 8.4 ?g/mL) was found. Finally, the effects of red berries extract on the immune system were evaluated by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay that revealed a strong stimulation on lymphocytes at low doses (0.4-6 ?g/mL).
Project description:Sea buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides L., has considerable potential for landscape reclamation, food, medicinal, and cosmetics industries. In this study, we analyzed fungal microorganism populations associated with carposphere of sea buckthorn harvested in Lithuania. An amplicon metagenomic approach based on the ITS2 region of fungal rDNA was used to reveal the ripening-affected fungal community alterations on sea buckthorn berries. According to alpha and beta diversity analyses, depending on the ripening stage, sea buckthorn displayed significantly different fungal communities. Unripe berries were shown to be prevalent by Aureobasidium, Taphrina, and Cladosporium, while ripe berries were dominated by Aureobasidium and Metschnikowia. The selected yeast strains from unripe and mature berries were applied for volatile organic compounds identification by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques. It was demonstrated that the patterns of volatiles of four yeast species tested were distinct from each other. The current study for the first time revealed the alterations of fungal microorganism communities colonizing the surface of sea buckthorn berries at different ripening stages. The novel information on specific volatile profiles of cultivable sea buckthorn-associated yeasts with a potential role in biocontrol is important for the development of the strategies for plant cultivation and disease management, as well as for the improvement of the quality and preservation of the postharvest berries. Management of the fungal microorganisms present on the surface of berries might be a powerful instrument for control of phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms affecting development and quality of the berries.
Project description:Mentha species are well recognized for their medicinal and aromatic properties. The comprehensive metabolite profiles of nine Mentha species have been determined. The extracts of these Mentha species were also screened for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Forty-seven hydrophilic and seventeen lipophilic compounds were identified and quantified from the selected Mentha species. Also, eleven phenolic compounds, riboflavin and eight carotenoids were present, and their composition and content varied among the various Mentha species. The different Mentha species exhibited a range of antioxidant potencies. Horse mint especially exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, and reducing power assay) among the nine Mentha species. A difference between different samples from the same species was not observed by multivariate analysis. A high correlation between metabolites involved in closely linked biosynthetic pathways has been indicated. The projection to latent structure method, using the partial least squares (PLS) method, was applied to predict antioxidant capacities based on the metabolite profiles of Mentha leaves. According to the PLS analysis, several carotenoid contents, such as E-?-carotene, 9Z-?-carotene, 13Z-?-carotene and lutein, as well as phenolic compounds, showed a positive relationship in reducing the power of Mentha extracts. Horse mint is a good candidate because of its high antioxidant efficacy among the nine Mentha species included in the study.
Project description:The aim of this study was to find new sustainable, Nordic natural antioxidant sources, develop subcritical water extraction (SWE) process for recovering the antioxidant compounds from the most potential raw materials, and to test their antioxidative effects in meat products. The antioxidant capacities of water and 50% ethanol (aq) extracts of 13 berry, grain, and horticultural plant materials as well as hexane/ethanol extracted stilbene fractions from pine heartwood and spruce inner bark were measured in hydrophilic and lipophilic systems. Tree, bilberry leaf (BL), and sea buckthorn leaf (SBL) extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacities. BL and SBL were selected for the development of SWE. The optimal conditions for recovering maximal antioxidative capacities were 110 °C/1 min for SBL and 120 °C/1 min for BL. Dried BL and SBL and the respective optimized subcritical water extracts were applied in chicken slices and pork sausage, and their ability to prevent lipid oxidation was evaluated during 8 and 20 days storage, respectively, at 6 °C. All tested plant ingredients effectively prevented lipid oxidation in the products compared to the control samples. Sensory acceptance of the plant ingredients was good, especially in the chicken product. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the antioxidant effects of SW extracted berry leaves in meat products.
Project description:The aim of this work was to enrich the knowledge on the potential applications of Elaeagnus mollis leaf extracts. For this purpose, the bioactive compounds (phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, proanthocyanidin, chlorophyll and carotene content), antioxidant activity, anti-HepG2 cell proliferation, and cholinesterase inhibitory potential (AChE and BChE) of E. mollis leaves which obtained from different habitats were quantitatively analyzed using various solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane). The results showed that the methanol extracts exhibited the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and the water extracts showed the best antioxidant activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and reducing power (RP) assays. Moreover, the methanol extracts showed the best inhibitory activity against cholinesterase and HepG2 cancer cells. Correlation analysis revealed that the high antioxidant and anti-HepG2 cell proliferation activities were mainly attributed to the total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins while AChE inhibition was attributed to the total alkaloid and carotene content. The statistical results showed that the effect of habitats was lower than that of different solvents used. Additionally, the metabolic profiles of E. mollis leaves were evaluated using HPLC-ESI-Q TRAP-MS/MS, and a total of 1,017 chemical components were detected and classified into 23 classes. The organic acids and derivatives ranked the first, followed by flavone, amino acid and derivatives, and so on. In conclusion, the effects of different solvents were more significant than the effects of different habitats and the methanol extracts of E. mollis leaves could be used as an effective source of functional active components, provide benefits to physical health care and be applied to the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Project description:This study aimed at valorisation of sea buckthorn pomace (SBP) for the production of extracts containing valuable bioactive compounds. For this purpose, SBP defatted by supercritical CO2 was subjected to consecutive fractionation with pressurized ethanol and water, which yielded 11.9% and 4.8% of extracts, respectively. The extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant potential, phytochemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells. Water extracts exhibited remarkably higher values in Folin-Ciocalteu assay of total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ABTS?+/DPPH scavenging and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays and more efficiently inhibited proliferation of HT29 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations measured in non-tumoral Caco2 cells. Among 28 detected and 21 quantified phytochemicals, flavonols with the structures of isorhamnetin (five compounds), quercetin (three compounds), kaempferol (three compounds) glycosides and catechin (six compounds) were the most abundant in the extracts. In conclusion, the applied method of fractionation of SBP produces promising natural antioxidant complexes with antiproliferative properties that could find potential applications in nutraceuticals, functional foods and cosmeceuticals.
Project description:This study aims at investigating the contribution of two classes of compounds, flavonoids and iridoids, to the bioactivity of Arbutus unedo L. leaves and fruits. The impact of different extraction procedures on phytochemicals content and hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities of A. unedo fresh and dried plant materials was investigated. Ellagic acid 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, and norbergenin were identified for the first time in this genus by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Three iridoids (gardenoside, geniposide, unedoside) are specifically identified in the leaves. Interestingly, asperuloside was extracted only from dried fruits by ethanol with Soxhlet apparatus. Extracts were screened for their potential antioxidant activities by using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Activity Power (FRAP), and ?-carotene bleaching tests. Based on the Global Antioxidant Score (GAS) calculation, the most promising antioxidant extract was obtained by hydroalcoholic maceration of dried leaves that showed half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.42 and 0.98 ?g/mL in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. The hypoglycaemic activity was investigated by ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition tests. Extracts obtained by ethanol ultrasound extraction of fresh leaves and hydroalcoholic maceration of fresh fruits (IC50 of 19.56 and 28.42 ?g/mL, respectively) are more active against ?-glucosidase than the positive control acarbose (IC50 of 35.50 ?g/mL). Fruit extracts exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity.