Diallyl Disulfide Suppresses Inflammatory and Oxidative Machineries following Carrageenan Injection-Induced Paw Edema in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the major organosulfur constituent in garlic, with a variety of pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Here, we examined the potential antiedematous impact of DADS- versus carrageenan-mediated paw edema in mice. Carrageenan injection potentiated an inflammatory reaction as presented by the elevated serological C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and transcription of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?, Tnf?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?, Il1b), interleukin-2 (IL-2, Il2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, Ptgs2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, Ccl1), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while interleukin-10 (IL-10) was declined in the injured paw tissue. Additionally, carrageenan elevated lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased glutathione content (GSH). Remarkably, DADS was found to inhibit the inflammatory signaling, suppressed the developed oxidative damage, and protected the histopathological alterations in the inflamed paw tissue in response to carrageenan injection. Our findings suggest that DADS could be used as an alternative therapy used to alleviate the pathophysiological changes associated with the genesis of paw edema through its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant impacts.
Project description:According to the GC-MS analysis, compositional variation was observed between samples of patchouli oil, of which an unknown compound identified as patchoulene epoxide (PAO) was found only in the long-stored oil, whose biological activity still remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activity with three in vivo inflammatory models: xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Further investigation into its underlying mechanism on carrageenan-induced paw edema was conducted. Results demonstrated that PAO significantly inhibited the ear edema induced by xylene, lowered vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, PAO markedly decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO), but increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). PAO was also shown to significantly downregulate the protein and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Western blot analysis revealed that PAO remarkably inhibited p50 and p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus by suppressing IKKβ and IκBα phosphorylation. In conclusion, PAO exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity probably by suppressing the activation of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB signaling pathways.
Project description:We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of (+)-syringaresinol (SGRS), a lignan isolated from Rubia philippinensis, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells using enzyme-based immuno assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR analyses. Additionally, in vivo effects of SGRS in the acute inflammatory state were examined by using the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema assay in experimental mice. As a result, treatment with SGRS (25, 50, and 100??M) inhibited protein expression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) as well as production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1beta (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced by LPS. Moreover, SGRS also reduced LPS-induced mRNA expression levels of iNOS and COX-2, including NO, PGE2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 cytokines in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, carrageenan-induced paw edema assay validated the in vivo anti-edema effect of SGRS. Interestingly, SGRS (30?mg/kg) suppressed carrageenan-induced elevation of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 mRNA levels as well as COX-2 and NF-?B protein levels, suggesting SGRS may possess anti-inflammatory activities.
Project description:Background:Therapeutic potential of low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) has become evident in various musculoskeletal diseases. We have previously shown that LIUS has an inhibitory effect on local edema in various diseases including the arthritis and brain injury. In this study, we examined whether LIUS can attenuate paw edema formation vis-à-vis vascular permeability and inflammation in rats induced by carrageenan. LIUS with a frequency of 1?MHz and the intensities of 50, 100, or 200?mW/cm2 were exposed on rat paws for 10?min immediately after carrageenan injection. Results:Carrageenan injection induced paw edema which was peaked at 6?h and gradually decreased nearly to the initial baseline value after 72?h. LIUS showed a significant reduction of paw edema formation at 2 and 6?h at all intensities tested. The highest reduction was observed at the intensity of 50?mW/cm2. Histological analyses confirmed that LIUS clearly decreased the carrageenan-induced swelling of interstitial space under the paw skin and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Moreover, Evans Blue extravasation analyses exhibited a significant decreases of vascular permeability by LIUS. Finally, immunohistochemical staining showed that expression of pro-inflammatory proteins, namely, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by carrageenan injection was reduced back to the normal level after LIUS stimulation. Conclusions:These results provide a new supporting evidence for LIUS as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of edema in inflammatory diseases such as cellulitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anacardium occidentale L. is a medicinal plant with powerful anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Acute inflammatory events cause tissue alterations, decrease of anti-oxidative endogenous enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione, neutrophils infiltration, increase in the activities of myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, and pro-inflammatory release. METHODS:Paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hind paw in rats, but 30 min before a group of animals were orally treated with 100 mg/kg of cashew nuts to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative response. RESULTS:In the present work, we found that (1) cashew nuts reduced the development of carrageenan-induced paw edema limiting the formation of edema and pain; (2) cashew nuts ameliorated the diminutions of the anti-oxidative enzymes caused by carrageenan injection; (3) cashew nuts decreased myeloperoxidase malondialdehyde activity induced by carrageenan; and (4) cashew nuts acted by blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines response and nitrate/nitrite formation stimulated by carrageenan injection. CONCLUSIONS:The mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects exerted by cashew nuts were relevant to oxygen free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the formation of inflammatory cytokines.
Project description:The present study aimed to test the anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of two synthesized molecules and compare them to routinely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as diclofenac and the serum urate-lowering drug, allopurinol. The anti-inflammatory effects of the designed compounds (A and B) were evaluated in carrageenan (CAR)-induced paw edema in mice. The levels of nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase activity were measured in paw skin using biochemical methods. Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), C-reactive protein (CRP), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2 and IL-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of inflammation-related genes was confirmed by real-time qPCR. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) were estimated using immunohistochemistry, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay. The results revealed that compounds A and B decreased inflammation, as was observed by a reduction in the elevation of all the tested markers. In addition, the tested compounds markedly decreased paw swelling, mobilization of inflammatory cells, iNOS-, and NF-?B-immunoreactive cells in a mouse model of paw edema. Interestingly, both compounds were potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors as well as Cox inhibitors with higher activity in favor of compound B providing potential dual acting series of anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.
Project description:A series of gold(I) triphenylphosphine (PPh3) complexes (1-9) involving 2-chloro-N6-(substituted-benzyl)adenine derivatives as N-donor ligands was synthesized and thoroughly characterized by relevant methods, including electrospray-ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The anti-inflammatory and antiedematous effects of three representatives 1, 5 and 9 were evaluated by means of in vitro model based on the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and influence of the complexes on selected forms of matrix metalloproteinases secreted by LPS-activated THP-1 monocytes and in vivo model evaluating the antiedematous effect of the complexes in the carrageenan-induced rat hind-paw edema model. In addition to the pharmacological observations, the affected hind paws were post mortem subjected to histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. The results of both in vivo and ex vivo methods revealed low antiedematous and anti-inflammatory effects of the complexes, even though the in vitro model identified them as promising anti-inflammatory acting compounds. The reason for this discrepancy lies probably in low stability of the studied complexes in biological environment, as demonstrated by the solution interaction studies with sulfur-containing biomolecules (cysteine and reduced glutathione) using the ESI mass spectrometry.
Project description:1 The role of nitric oxide (NO) derived from constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase (cNOS and iNOS) and its relationship to oxygen-derived free radicals and prostaglandins (PG) was investigated in a carrageenan-induced model of acute hindpaw inflammation. 2 The intraplantar injection of carrageenan elicited an inflammatory response that was characterized by a time-dependent increase in paw oedema, neutrophil infiltration, and increased levels of nitrite/nitrate (NO2-/NO3-) and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) in the paw exudate. 3 Paw oedema was maximal by 6 h and remained elevated for 10 h following carrageenan administration. The non-selective cNOS/iNOS inhibitors, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) given intravenously (30-300 mg kg-1) 1 h before or after carrageenan administration, inhibited paw oedema at all time points. 4 The selective iNOS inhibitors, N-iminoethyl-L-lysine (L-NIL) or aminoguanidine (AG), failed to inhibit carrageenan-induced paw oedema during the first 4 h following carrageenan administration, but inhibited paw oedema at subsequent time points (from 5-10 h). iNOS mRNA was detected between 3 to 10 h following carrageenan administration using ribonuclease protection assays. iNOS protein was first detected 6 h and was maximal 10 h following carrageenan administration as shown by Western blot analysis. Administration of the iNOS inhibitors 5 h after carrageenan (a time point where iNOS was expressed) inhibited paw oedema at all subsequent time points. Infiltrating neutrophils were not the source of iNOS since pretreatment with colchicine (2 mg kg-1) suppressed neutrophil infiltration, but did not inhibit the iNOS mRNA expression or the elevated NO2-/NO3- levels in the paw exudate. 5 Inhibition of paw oedema by the NOS inhibitors was associated with attenuation of both the NO2-/NO3- and PGE2 levels in the paw exudate. These inhibitors also reduced the neutrophil infiltration at the site of inflammation. 6 Recombinant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase coupled to polyethyleneglycol (PEGrhSOD; 12 x 10(3) u kg-1), administered intravenously either 30 min prior to or 1 h after carrageenan injection, inhibited paw oedema and neutrophil infiltration, but had no effect on NO2-/NO3- or PGE2 production in the paw exudate. The administration of catalase (40 x 10(3) u kg-1), given intraperitoneally 30 min before carrageenan administration, had no effect on paw oedema. Treatment with desferrioxamine (300 mg kg-1), given subcutaneously 1 h before carrageenan, inhibited paw oedema during the first 2 h after carrageenan administration, but not at later times. 7 These results suggest that the NO produced by cNOS is involved in the development of inflammation at early time points following carrageenan administration and that NO produced by iNOS is involved in the maintenance of the inflammatory response at later time points. The potential interactions of NO with superoxide anion and PG is discussed.
Project description:Artemisia apiacea Hance is one of the most widely used herbs for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, and dyspeptic complaint in oriental medicine. This study investigated the effects of methanol extracts of A. apiacea Hance (MEAH) on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and proinflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Raw264.7 macrophage cells and also evaluated the in vivo effect of MEAH on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. MEAH treatment in Raw264.7 cells significantly decreased LPS-inducible nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, while MEAH (up to 100? ? g/mL) had no cytotoxic activity. Results from immunoblot analyses and ELISA revealed that MEAH significantly inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 in LPS-activated cells. As a plausible molecular mechanism, increased degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory-?B? and nuclear factor-?B accumulation in the nucleus by LPS were partly blocked by MEAH treatment. Finally, MEAH treatment decreased the carrageenan-induced formation of paw edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats. These results demonstrate that MEAH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential that may result from the inhibition of nuclear factor-?B activation, subsequently decreasing the expression of proinflammatory mediators.
Project description:Research so far has only shown that edible red macroalgae, Sarcodia ceylanica has the ability to eliminate free radicals and anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial properties. This study was conducted both in vitro and in vivo on the ethyl acetate extract (PD1) of farmed red macroalgae in order to explore its anti-inflammatory properties. In order to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of PD1, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammatory responses in murine macrophages. For evaluating the potential in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of PD1, we used carrageenan-induced rat paw edema to produce inflammatory pain. The in vitro results indicated that PD1 inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages. Oral PD1 can reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and inflammatory nociception. PD1 can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced leukocyte infiltration, as well as the protein expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, interleukin-1?, and myeloperoxidase) in inflammatory tissue. The above results indicated that PD1 has great potential to be turned into a functional food or used in the development of new anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agents. The results from this study are expected to help scientists in the continued development of Sarcodia ceylanica for other biomedical applications.
Project description:Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is the inducible isoform of cycloxygenase enzyme family that catalyzes synthesis of inflammatory mediators, prostanoids and prostaglandins, and therefore, can be targeted by anti-inflammatory drugs. Here, we showed a plant polyphenol, kaempferol, attenuated IL-6-induced COX-2 expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells suggesting its beneficial role in chronic inflammation. Kaempferol deactivated and prevented nuclear localization of two major transcription factors STAT3 and NF-?B, mutually responsible for COX-2 induction in response to IL-6. Moreover, STAT3 and NF-?B were simultaneously deactivated by kaempferol in acute inflammation, as shown by carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model. The concomitant reduction in COX-2 expression in paw tissues suggested kaempferol's role in mitigation of inflammation by targeting STAT3 and NF-?B.