Identification of Host Blood Meals of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Collected at the Aripo Savannas Scientific Reserve in Trinidad, West Indies.
ABSTRACT: Surveillance for blood-fed female mosquitoes was performed between August 2015 and February 2016 at sites along the periphery of the Aripo Savannas Environmentally Reserve (ASSR) located in northeastern Trinidad, West Indies. We collected engorged female mosquitoes representing 13 species. DNA extractions from dissected abdomens were subjected to PCR amplification with three primer pairs targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences. High-quality sequence information and host identification were obtained for 42 specimens representing eight mosquito species with at least one primer combination. A broad range of vertebrates including humans were identified, but the majority were nonhuman mammals, both domestic and wild. Domestic dogs were the most common host and may represent potential sentinel species for monitoring local enzootic arbovirus activity in Trinidad. Culex declarator Dyer and Knab and Culex nigripalpus Theobald were the most common blood-fed mosquito species comprising 79.1% of the total number identified. These species obtained blood meals from birds, nonhuman mammals, and human hosts, and therefore pose significant risks as potential bridge vectors for epizootic arbovirus transmission in the ASSR area as well as other sylvan areas in Trinidad. These data represent the first such results for Trinidad.
Project description:Adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected in 2007 and tested for specific viruses, including West Nile virus, as part of the ongoing arbovirus surveillance efforts in the state of Iowa. A subset of these mosquitoes (6,061 individuals in 340 pools) was further tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using flavivirus universal primers. Of the 211 pools of Culex pipiens (L.) tested, 50 were positive. One of 51 pools of Culex tarsalis Coquillet was also positive. The flavivirus minimum infection rates (expressed as the number of positive mosquito pools per 1,000 mosquitoes tested) for Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis were 10.3 and 1.2, respectively. Flavivirus RNA was not detected in Aedes triseriatus (Say) (52 pools), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab) (25 pools), or Culex territans Walker (one pool). Sequence analysis of all RT-PCR products revealed that the mosquitoes had been infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific virus previously isolated in Japan, Indonesia, Texas, Mexico, Guatemala and Trinidad. The complete genome of one isolate was sequenced, as were the envelope protein genes of eight other isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CxFV isolates from the United States (Iowa and Texas) are more closely related to CxFV isolates from Asia than those from Mexico, Guatemala, and Trinidad.
Project description:The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b) or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM) analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya's Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus) in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats) and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents) informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies.
Project description:Background:Many arboviral outbreaks have occurred in various locations in Kenya. Entomological surveys are suitable methods for revealing information about circulating arboviruses before human outbreaks are recognized. Therefore, mosquitoes were collected in Kenya to determine the distribution of arboviruses. Methods:Various species of mosquitoes were sampled from January to July 2012 using several collection methods. Mosquito homogenates were directly tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using various arbovirus-targeted primer pairs. Results:We collected 12,569 mosquitoes. Although no human-related arboviruses were detected, Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific arbovirus, was detected in 54 pools of 324 Culex quinquefasciatus individuals collected during the rainy season. Of these 54 positive pools, 96.3% (52/54) of the mosquitoes were collected in Busia, on the border of western Kenya and Uganda. The remaining two CxFV-positive pools were collected in Mombasa and Kakamega, far from Busia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed minimal genetic diversity among the CxFVs collected in Mombasa, Kakamega, and Busia, even though these cities are in geographically different regions. Additionally, CxFV was detected in one mosquito pool collected in Mombasa during the dry season. In addition to Culex mosquitoes, Aedes (Stegomyia) and Anopheles mosquitoes were also positive for the Flavivirus genus. Cell fusing agent virus was detected in one pool of Aedes aegypti. Mosquito flavivirus was detected in three pools of Anopheles gambiae s.l. collected in the dry and rainy seasons. Conclusions:Although no mosquitoes were positive for human-related arbovirus, insect-specific viruses were detected in various species of mosquitoes. The heterogeneity observed in the number of CxFVs in Culex mosquitoes in different locations in Kenya suggests that the abundance of human-related viruses might differ depending on the abundance of insect-specific viruses. We may have underestimated the circulation of any human-related arbovirus in Kenya, and the collection of larger samples may allow for determination of the presence of human-related arboviruses.
Project description:Japanese encephalitis (JE) remains a public health concern in several countries, and the Culex mosquito plays a central role in its transmission cycle. Culex mosquitoes harbor a wide range of viruses, including insect-specific viruses (ISVs), and can transmit a variety of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that cause human and animal diseases. The current trend of studies displays enhanced efforts to characterize the mosquito virome through bulk RNA sequencing due to possible arbovirus-ISV interactions; however, the extent of viral diversity in the mosquito taxon is still poorly understood, particularly in some disease vectors. In this study, arboviral screening and RNA virome analysis of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and C. pseudovishnui, which are part of the Culex vishnui subgroup mosquitoes, were performed. Results from these two mosquito species, known as the major vectors of JE virus (JEV) in Asia, collected in three prefectures in Japan were also compared with the sympatric species C. inatomii. A total of 27 viruses, including JEV, were detected from these Culex mosquitoes. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses classified 15 of the 27 viruses as novel species, notably belonging to the Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Totiviridae, and Iflaviridae families. The successful isolation of JEV genotype I confirmed its continuous presence in Japan, suggesting the need for periodic surveillance. Aside from JEV, this study has also reported the diversity of the RNA virome of disease vectors and broadened the knowledge on mosquito virome profiles containing both arbovirus and ISV. Mosquito taxon seemed to contribute largely to the virome structure (e.g., virome composition, diversity, and abundance) as opposed to the geographical location of the mosquito species. This study therefore offers notable insights into the ecology and evolution of each identified virus and viral family. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the viromes of the major JE vectors in Japan.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. METHODS:Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. RESULTS:A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. CONCLUSIONS:The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports year-round adult mosquito activity.
Project description:Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes affect the transmission and maintenance of arboviral diseases. In the Caribbean, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes are the dominant mosquito species in developed areas. However, no information is available on the bloodmeal hosts of these invasive vectors in Grenada, where arboviral pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses cause significant human suffering. To this end, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were investigated from five semirural locations near houses in St. George's Parish, from 2017 to 2018. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted on DNA extracted from individual blood-fed mosquitoes using vertebrate-specific cytochrome b primers. The 32 Ae. aegypti bloodmeals included humans (70%), mongooses (18%), domestic dogs (6%), a domestic cat (3%), and an unidentified bird (3%). Thirty-seven Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes took bloodmeals from seven species of birds (51%), humans (27%), domestic cats (8%), iguanas (5%), a domestic dog (3%), a rat (3%), and a common opossum (3%). The high percentage of human bloodmeal hosts in our study, especially by the normally anthropophilic Ae. aegypti, is expected. The bloodmeal sources and the percentage of nonhuman bloodmeals (30%) taken by Ae. aegypti are comparable to other studies. The large range of hosts may be explained in part by the semirural nature of most local housing. Accordingly, this may contribute to an exchange of pathogens between domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic transmission cycles.
Project description:Mosquito surveillance was carried out in three forested regions of Trinidad during July 2007-March 2009. A total of 185,397 mosquitoes representing at least 46 species was collected, divided into pools of 1-50 mosquitoes according to species and sex, and screened for arboviruses using cytopathic effect assays on Vero cell monolayers. Eighty-five viruses were isolated, including members of the genera Alphavirus (Mucambo virus; MUCV) and Orthobunyavirus (Caraparu, Oriboca, Bimiti, and Wyeomyia viruses). Species of the Culex subgenus Melanoconion accounted for 56% of the total number of mosquitoes collected and 97% of the viruses isolated; Cx. (Mel.) portesi accounted for 92% of virus isolations. Our results also implicate for the first time Aedes (Ochlerotatus) hortator as a potential vector of MUCV. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 MUCV strains suggest population subdivision within Trinidad, consistent with the hypothesis of enzootic maintenance in localized rodent populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes have been implicated as causative agents of both human and animal illnesses in East Africa. Although epidemics of arboviral emerging infectious diseases have risen in frequency in recent years, the extent to which mosquitoes maintain pathogens in circulation during inter-epidemic periods is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate whether arboviruses may be maintained by vertical transmission via immature life stages of different mosquito vector species. METHODOLOGY:We collected immature mosquitoes (egg, larva, pupa) on the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in western Kenya and reared them to adults. Mosquito pools (?25 specimens/pool) of each species were screened for mosquito-borne viruses by high-resolution melting analysis and sequencing of multiplex PCR products of genus-specific primers (alphaviruses, flaviviruses, phleboviruses and Bunyamwera-group orthobunyaviruses). We further confirmed positive samples by culturing in baby hamster kidney and Aedes mosquito cell lines and re-sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Culex univittatus (2/31pools) and Anopheles gambiae (1/77 pools) from the Lake Victoria region were positive for Bunyamwera virus, a pathogenic virus that is of public health concern. In addition, Aedes aegypti (3/50), Aedes luteocephalus (3/13), Aedes spp. (2/15), and Culex pipiens (1/140) pools were positive for Aedes flaviviruses at Lake Victoria, whereas at Lake Baringo, three pools of An. gambiae mosquitoes were positive for Anopheles flavivirus. These insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs), which are presumably non-pathogenic to vertebrates, were found in known medically important arbovirus and malaria vectors. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that not only ISFVs, but also a pathogenic arbovirus, are naturally maintained within mosquito populations by vertical transmission, even in the absence of vertebrate hosts. Therefore, virus and vector surveillance, even during inter-epidemics, and the study of vector-arbovirus-ISFV interactions, may aid in identifying arbovirus transmission risks, with the potential to inform control strategies that lead to disease prevention.
Project description:Mosquitoes transmit many kinds of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses), and numerous arboviral diseases have become serious problems in Indonesia. In this study, we conducted surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses at several sites in Indonesia during 2016-2018 for risk assessment of arbovirus infection and analysis of virus biodiversity in mosquito populations. We collected 10,015 mosquitoes comprising at least 11 species from 4 genera. Major collected mosquito species were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes aegypti, and Armigeres subalbatus. The collected mosquitoes were divided into 285 pools and used for virus isolation using two mammalian cell lines, Vero and BHK-21, and one mosquito cell line, C6/36. Seventy-two pools showed clear cytopathic effects only in C6/36 cells. Using RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing approaches, these isolates were identified as insect flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), Banna virus (family Reoviridae, genus Seadornavirus), new permutotetravirus (designed as Bogor virus) (family Permutotetraviridae, genus Alphapermutotetravirus), and alphamesoniviruses 2 and 3 (family Mesoniviridae, genus Alphamesonivirus). We believed that this large surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses provides basic information for the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The range of vertebrate hosts on which species of mosquito blood-feed is an important parameter for identifying potential vectors and in assessing the risk of incursion and establishment of vector-borne pathogens. In the United Kingdom, studies of mosquito host range have collected relatively few specimens and used techniques that could only broadly identify host species. This study conducted intensive collection and analysis of mosquitoes from a grazing marsh environment in southeast England. This site provides extensive wetland habitat for resident and migratory birds and has abundant human nuisance biting mosquitoes. The aim was to identify the blood-feeding patterns of mosquito species present at the site which could contribute to the transmission of pathogens.<h4>Methods</h4>Twice-weekly collections of mosquitoes were made from Elmley Nature Reserve, Kent, between June and October 2014. Mosquitoes were collected using resting boxes, by aspiration from man-made structures and using a Mosquito Magnet Pro baited with 1-octen-3-ol. Blood-fed specimens were classified according to the degree of blood meal digestion using the Sella scale and vertebrate origin determined using sequencing of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Mosquitoes that were morphologically cryptic were identified to species level using multiplex PCR and sequencing methods.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 20,666 mosquitoes of 11 species were collected, and 2,159 (10.4%) were blood-fed (Sella scale II-VI); of these 1,341 blood-fed specimens were selected for blood meal analysis. Vertebrate origin was successfully identified in 964 specimens (72%). Collections of blood-fed individuals were dominated by Anopheles maculipennis complex (73.5%), Culiseta annulata (21.2%) and Culex pipiens form pipiens (10.4%). Nineteen vertebrate hosts comprising five mammals and 14 birds were identified as hosts for mosquitoes, including two migratory bird species. Feeding on birds by Culex modestus and Anopheles atroparvus populations in England was demonstrated.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study expands the vertebrate host range of mosquitoes in the Thames estuary region of the UK. Feeding on both resident and migratory bird species by potential arbovirus vectors including Cx. pipiens f. pipiens and Cx. modestus indicates the potential for enzootic transmission of an introduced arbovirus between migratory and local bird species by native mosquito species.