ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and 3 (RIPK3) are well known for their capacity to drive necroptosis via mixed-lineage kinase-like domain (MLKL). Recently, RIPK1/3 kinase activity has been shown to drive inflammation via activation of MAPK signaling. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying this kinase-dependent cytokine production remain poorly understood. In the present study, we establish that the kinase activity of RIPK1/3 regulates cytokine translation in mouse and human macrophages. Furthermore, we show that this inflammatory response is downregulated by type I interferon (IFN) signaling, independent of type I IFN-promoted cell death. Specifically, low-level constitutive IFN signaling attenuates RIPK-driven activation of cap-dependent translation initiation pathway components AKT, mTORC1, 4E-BP and eIF4E, while promoting RIPK-dependent cell death. Altogether, these data characterize constitutive IFN signaling as a regulator of RIPK-dependent inflammation and establish cap-dependent translation as a crucial checkpoint in the regulation of cytokine production.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-1 is involved in RIPK3-dependent and -independent signaling pathways leading to cell death and/or inflammation. Genetic ablation of ripk1 causes postnatal lethality, which was not prevented by deletion of ripk3, caspase-8, or fadd. However, animals that lack RIPK1, RIPK3, and either caspase-8 or FADD survived weaning and matured normally. RIPK1 functions in vitro to limit caspase-8-dependent, TNFR-induced apoptosis, and animals lacking RIPK1, RIPK3, and TNFR1 survive to adulthood. The role of RIPK3 in promoting lethality in ripk1(-/-) mice suggests that RIPK3 activation is inhibited by RIPK1 postbirth. Whereas TNFR-induced RIPK3-dependent necroptosis requires RIPK1, cells lacking RIPK1 were sensitized to necroptosis triggered by poly I:C or interferons. Disruption of TLR (TRIF) or type I interferon (IFNAR) signaling delayed lethality in ripk1(-/-)tnfr1(-/-) mice. These results clarify the complex roles for RIPK1 in postnatal life and provide insights into the regulation of FADD-caspase-8 and RIPK3-MLKL signaling by RIPK1.
Project description:TNF is an inflammatory cytokine that upon binding to its receptor, TNFR1, can drive cytokine production, cell survival, or cell death. TNFR1 stimulation causes activation of NF-?B, p38?, and its downstream effector kinase MK2, thereby promoting transcription, mRNA stabilization, and translation of target genes. Here we show that TNF-induced activation of MK2 results in global RIPK1 phosphorylation. MK2 directly phosphorylates RIPK1 at residue S321, which inhibits its ability to bind FADD/caspase-8 and induce RIPK1-kinase-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis. Consistently, a phospho-mimetic S321D RIPK1 mutation limits TNF-induced death. Mechanistically, we find that phosphorylation of S321 inhibits RIPK1 kinase activation. We further show that cytosolic RIPK1 contributes to complex-II-mediated cell death, independent of its recruitment to complex-I, suggesting that complex-II originates from both RIPK1 in complex-I and cytosolic RIPK1. Thus, MK2-mediated phosphorylation of RIPK1 serves as a checkpoint within the TNF signaling pathway that integrates cell survival and cytokine production.
Project description:Both receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 can signal cell death following death receptor ligation. To study the requirements for RIPK-triggered cell death in the absence of death receptor signaling, we engineered inducible versions of RIPK1 and RIPK3 that can be activated by dimerization with the antibiotic coumermycin. In the absence of TNF or other death ligands, expression and dimerization of RIPK1 was sufficient to cause cell death by caspase- or RIPK3-dependent mechanisms. Dimerized RIPK3 induced cell death by an MLKL-dependent mechanism but, surprisingly, also induced death mediated by FADD, caspase 8 and RIPK1. Catalytically active RIPK3 kinase domains were essential for MLKL-dependent but not for caspase 8-dependent death. When RIPK1 or RIPK3 proteins were dimerized, the mode of cell death was determined by the availability of downstream molecules such as FADD, caspase 8 and MLKL. These observations imply that rather than a 'switch' operating between the two modes of cell death, the final mechanism depends on levels of the respective signaling and effector proteins.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)1 has an essential role in the signaling pathways triggered by death receptors through activation of NF-?B and regulation of caspase-dependent apoptosis and RIPK3/mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-mediated necroptosis. We examined the effect of RIPK1 antisense knockdown on immune-mediated liver injury in C57BL/6 mice caused by ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer), a specific activator for invariant NKT cells. We found that knockdown of RIPK1 markedly exacerbated ?GalCer-mediated liver injury and induced lethality. This was associated with increased hepatic inflammation and massive apoptotic death of hepatocytes, as indicated by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activation. Pretreatment with zVAD.fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, or neutralizing Abs against TNF, almost completely protected against the exacerbated liver injury and lethality. Primary hepatocytes isolated from RIPK1-knockdown mice were sensitized to TNF-induced cell death that was completely inhibited by adding zVAD.fmk. The exacerbated liver injury was not due to impaired hepatic NF-?B activation in terms of I?B? phosphorylation and degradation in in vivo and in vitro studies. Lack of RIPK1 kinase activity by pretreatment with necrostatin-1, a RIPK1 kinase inhibitor, or in the RIPK1 kinase-dead knock-in (RIPK1D138N) mice did not exacerbate ?GalCer-mediated liver injury. Furthermore, RIPK3-knockout and MLKL-knockout mice behaved similarly as wild-type control mice in response to ?GalCer, with or without knockdown of RIPK1, excluding a switch to RIPK3/MLKL-mediated necroptosis. Our findings reveal a critical kinase-independent platform role for RIPK1 in protecting against TNF/caspase-dependent apoptosis of hepatocytes in immune-mediated liver injury.
Project description:Necroptosis/regulated necrosis is a caspase-independent, but receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-dependent form of cell death. In previous studies, neoalbaconol (NA), a constituent extracted from Albatrellus confluens, was demonstrated to induce necroptosis in some cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism of NA-induced necroptosis is described in this research study. We determined that NA-induced cell death is partly dependent on tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) feed-forward signaling. More importantly, NA abolished the ubiquitination of RIPK1 by down-regulating E3 ubiquitin ligases, cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protein 1/2 (cIAP1/2) and TNF? receptor-associated factors (TRAFs). The suppression of RIPK1 ubiquitination induced the activation of the non-canonical nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway and stimulated the transcription of TNF?. Moreover, we also found that NA caused RIPK3-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and contribution to cell death. Taken together, these results suggested that two distinct mechanisms are involved in NA-induced necroptosis and include RIPK1/NF-?B-dependent expression of TNF? and RIPK3-dependent generation of ROS.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1 and RIPK3 have emerged as essential kinases mediating a regulated form of necrosis, known as necroptosis, that can be induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling. As a consequence, inhibiting RIPK1 kinase activity and repressing RIPK3 expression levels have become commonly used approaches to estimate the contribution of necroptosis to specific phenotypes. Here, we report that RIPK1 kinase activity and RIPK3 also contribute to TNF-induced apoptosis in conditions of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 and 2 (cIAP1/2) depletion or TGF-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) kinase inhibition, implying that inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity or depletion of RIPK3 under cell death conditions is not always a prerequisite to conclude on the involvement of necroptosis. Moreover, we found that, contrary to cIAP1/2 depletion, TAK1 kinase inhibition induces assembly of the cytosolic RIPK1/Fas-associated protein with death domain/caspase-8 apoptotic TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) complex IIb without affecting the RIPK1 ubiquitylation status at the level of TNFR1 complex I. These results indicate that the recruitment of TAK1 to the ubiquitin (Ub) chains, and not the Ub chains per se, regulates the contribution of RIPK1 to the apoptotic death trigger. In line with this, we found that cylindromatosis repression only provided protection to TNF-mediated RIPK1-dependent apoptosis in condition of reduced RIPK1 ubiquitylation obtained by cIAP1/2 depletion but not upon TAK1 kinase inhibition, again arguing for a role of TAK1 in preventing RIPK1-dependent apoptosis downstream of RIPK1 ubiquitylation. Importantly, we found that this function of TAK1 was independent of its known role in canonical nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. Our study therefore reports a new function of TAK1 in regulating an early NF-?B-independent cell death checkpoint in the TNFR1 apoptotic pathway. In both TNF-induced RIPK1 kinase-dependent apoptotic models, we found that RIPK3 contributes to full caspase-8 activation independently of its kinase activity or intact RHIM domain. In contrast, RIPK3 participates in caspase-8 activation by acting downstream of the cytosolic death complex assembly, possibly via reactive oxygen species generation.
Project description:Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) participates in several cell signaling complexes that promote cell activation and cell death. Stimulation of RIPK1 in the absence of caspase signaling induces regulated necrosis (necroptosis), which promotes an inflammatory response. Understanding of the mechanisms through which RIPK1 promotes inflammation has been unclear. Herein we have evaluated the impact of a K45A mutation of RIPK1 on necroptosis of macrophages and the activation of inflammatory response. We show that K45A mutation of RIPK1 results in attenuated necroptosis of macrophages in response to stimulation with LPS, TNF? and IFN? in the absence of caspase signaling. Impairment in necroptosis correlated with poor phosphorylation of RIPK1, RIPK3 and reduced trimerization of MLKL. Furthermore, K45A mutation of RIPK1 resulted in poor STAT1 phosphorylation (at S727) and expression of RANTES and MIP-1? following TNF-R engagement in the absence of caspase activation. Our results further indicate that in the absence of stimulation by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), cellular inhibitors of apoptotic proteins (cIAPs) prevent the K45-dependent auto-phosphorylation of RIPK1, leading to resistance against necroptosis. Finally, RIPK1(K45A) mice displayed attenuated inflammatory response in vivo as they were significantly resistant against endotoxin shock, but highly susceptible against a challenge with Salmonella typhimurium. This correlated with reduced expression of IL-1? and ROS, and poor processing of caspase 8 by RIPK1(K45A) macrophages. Overall, these results indicate that K45 mediated kinase activity of RIPK1 is not only important for necroptosis but it also has a key role in promoting cytokine signaling and host response to inflammatory stimuli.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1 functions as a key mediator of tissue homeostasis via formation of Caspase-8 activating ripoptosome complexes, positively and negatively regulating apoptosis, necroptosis, and inflammation. Here, we report an unanticipated cell-death- and inflammation-independent function of RIPK1 and Caspase-8, promoting faithful chromosome alignment in mitosis and thereby ensuring genome stability. We find that ripoptosome complexes progressively form as cells enter mitosis, peaking at metaphase and disassembling as cells exit mitosis. Genetic deletion and mitosis-specific inhibition of Ripk1 or Caspase-8 results in chromosome alignment defects independently of MLKL. We found that Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is recruited into mitotic ripoptosomes, where PLK1's activity is controlled via RIPK1-dependent recruitment and Caspase-8-mediated cleavage. A fine balance of ripoptosome assembly is required as deregulated ripoptosome activity modulates PLK1-dependent phosphorylation of downstream effectors, such as BUBR1. Our data suggest that ripoptosome-mediated regulation of PLK1 contributes to faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis.
Project description:Many pathogens deliver virulence factors or effectors into host cells in order to evade host defenses and establish infection. Although such effector proteins disrupt critical cellular signaling pathways, they also trigger specific antipathogen responses, a process termed "effector-triggered immunity." The Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Yersinia inactivates critical proteins of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling cascade, thereby blocking inflammatory cytokine production but also inducing apoptosis. Yersinia-induced apoptosis requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), a key regulator of cell death, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling. Through the targeted disruption of RIPK1 kinase activity, which selectively disrupts RIPK1-dependent cell death, we now reveal that Yersinia-induced apoptosis is critical for host survival, containment of bacteria in granulomas, and control of bacterial burdens in vivo. We demonstrate that this apoptotic response provides a cell-extrinsic signal that promotes optimal innate immune cytokine production and antibacterial defense, demonstrating a novel role for RIPK1 kinase-induced apoptosis in mediating effector-triggered immunity to circumvent pathogen inhibition of immune signaling.
Project description:Interferon ? (IFN-?) induces an inflammatory response and apoptotic cell death. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and T helper (Th) 17 cells, and downregulation of apoptosis of inflammatory cells. We hypothesized that IFN-? would reduce inflammatory cell death in vitro and that loss of IFN-? would aggravate inflammation in vivo. IFN-? downregulated necroptosis and the expression of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIPL) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). However, loss of IFN-? promoted the production of cFLIPL and MLKL, and necroptosis. IFN-? deficiency increased Th17 cell number and upregulated the expression of IL-17 and TNF-?. Expression of MLKL, receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK)1, and RIPK3 was increased in the joints of mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Compared with wild-type mice with CIA, IFN-?-/- CIA mice showed exacerbation of cartilage damage and joint inflammation, and acceleration of MLKL, RIPK1, and RIPK3 production in the joints. IFN-? deficiency induced the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. These results suggest that IFN-? regulates inflammatory cell death and may have potential for use in the treatment of RA.