HIV-1 integrase resistance associated mutations and the use of dolutegravir in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Sub-Saharan Africa carries the greatest burden of HIV-infection with increasing drug resistance burden, which requires improved patient management and monitoring. Current WHO recommendations suggest transitioning to dolutegravir-based (adults) or raltegravir-based-regimens (neonates) for initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and as a suitable alternative in cases of multi-resistance in resource-limited settings. This review aims at synthesizing the current knowledge on dolutegravir use and integrase resistance-associated mutations found before the wide use of dolutegravir-based regimens. METHODS:This systematic review will include randomized and non-randomized trials, cohort, and cross-sectional studies published on dolutegravir use or integrase resistance-associated mutations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Searches will be conducted (from 2007 onwards) in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILAC), Web of Science, African Journals Online, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. Hand searching of the reference lists of relevant reviews and trials will be conducted and we will also look for conference abstracts. We will include studies of adults and/or children exposed to integrase inhibitors-based therapies; especially dolutegravir or raltegravir (which is our intervention of interest as compared to other antiretroviral regimens). We will exclude studies of patients with specific co-morbidities such as tuberculosis or opportunistic infections. Primary outcomes will be "the rate of viral suppression" and "the level of drug resistance" on integrase inhibitor-based regimens among patients in Sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary outcomes will be "the effect of baseline viremia on viral suppression," "the effect of treatment duration on viral suppression," "the proportion of patients with immune recovery," "the rate of non-adherence," "rate of adverse events;" "drug resistance according to different integrase inhibitor-based regimens," and "drug resistance according to viral subtypes/recombinants." Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, assess the full texts for eligibility, and extract data. If data permits, random effects models will be used where appropriate. Subgroup and additional analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g., age, sex, baseline viremia, CD4 following treatment, treatment duration, and adherence level). DISCUSSION:This review will help to strengthen evidence on the effectiveness of integrase strand transfer inhibitors by contributing to current knowledge on the use of dolutegravir and/or raltegravir (especially for neonates) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Results will therefore help in setting-up baseline data for an optimal management of people living with HIV as Sub-Saharan African countries are transitioning to dolutegravir-based regimens. Evidence will also support HIV/AIDS programs in identifying gaps and actions to be undertaken for improved long-term care and treatment of people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42019122424.
Project description:Raltegravir, an integrase inhibitor, is not a component of the current South African antiretroviral treatment guidelines, but it could be introduced in the near future as cases of virological failures from current treatment regimens begin to occur. The aim of this study was to analyze the complete HIV integrase gene obtained from individuals at two treatment sites in northeastern South Africa for the presence of Raltegravir associated drug resistant mutations and viral subtypes based on the integrase gene. Examination for mutations against other integrase inhibitors, such as Elvitegravir and Dolutegravir, was also done. Viruses from 127 treatment naive individuals were analyzed. Genetic drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Interpretation program and the International AIDS society-USA guidelines. Viral subtyping was done by phylogenetic analysis, and recombinants were determined using the REGA, jpHMM and RIP tools. No major resistance mutations were detected. However, 7% of the sequences had minor mutations and polymorphisms. The majority (99%) of the viruses were HIV-1 C. Recombination analysis showed that the polymerase gene of one virus was likely composed of HIV-1 subtype A1 and C sequences. The present study indicates that Raltegravir, Elvitegravir and Dolutegravir resistant mutations may be absent in the study communities and further indicates the presence of recombinant viruses in northeastern South Africa.
Project description:Bictegravir, cabotegravir, dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir are members of the latest class of antiretrovirals available to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors are potent inhibitors of the HIV integrase enzyme with IC<sub>90/95</sub> values in the low nanogram per milliliter range and they retain antiviral activity against strains of HIV with acquired resistance to other classes of antiretrovirals. Each of the integrase strand transfer inhibitors have unique pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, influencing their role in clinical use in specific subsets of patients. Cabotegravir, approved for use in Canada but not yet by the US Food and Drug Administration, is formulated in both oral and intramuscular formulations; the latter of which has shown efficacy as a long-acting extended-release formulation. Cabotegravir, raltegravir, and dolutegravir have minimal drug-drug interaction profiles, as their metabolism has minimal cytochrome P450 involvement. Conversely, elvitegravir metabolism occurs primarily via cytochrome P450 3A4 and requires pharmacokinetic boosting to achieve systemic exposures amenable to once-daily dosing. Bictegravir metabolism has similar contributions from both cytochrome P450 3A4 and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. Bictegravir, dolutegravir, and raltegravir are recommended components of initial regimens for most people with HIV in the US adult and adolescent HIV treatment guidelines. This review summarizes and compares the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the integrase strand transfer inhibitor agents, and describes specific pharmacokinetic considerations for persons with hepatic impairment, renal dysfunction, pregnancy, and co-infections.
Project description:HIV drug resistance has been one of the major obstacles to HIV eradication and has contributed to the need for the constant development of new antiretroviral drugs over the past 25 years. With the recent approval of dolutegravir for human therapy by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, health practitioners may soon have access to three integrase strand transfer inhibitors to treat individuals living with HIV. Here, we review the use of raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir for use in first- and second-line HIV treatment regimens and the issue of HIV resistance against integrase inhibitors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Increasing first-line treatment failures in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have led to increased use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) such as dolutegravir. However, HIV-1 susceptibility to INSTIs in LMICs, especially with previous raltegravir exposure, is poorly understood due to infrequent reporting of INSTI failures and testing for INSTI drug resistance mutations (DRMs).<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 51 non-subtype B HIV-1 infected patients failing third-line (raltegravir-based) therapy in Uganda were initially selected for the study. DRMs were detected using Sanger and deep sequencing. HIV integrase genes of 13 patients were cloned and replication capacities (RCs) and phenotypic susceptibilities to dolutegravir, raltegravir and elvitegravir were determined with TZM-bl cells. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine cross-resistance between INSTIs.<h4>Results</h4>INSTI DRMs were detected in 47% of patients. HIV integrase-recombinant virus carrying one primary INSTI DRM (N155H or Y143R/S) was susceptible to dolutegravir but highly resistant to raltegravir and elvitegravir (>50-fold change). Two patients, one with E138A/G140A/Q148R/G163R and one with E138K/G140A/S147G/Q148K, displayed the highest reported resistance to raltegravir, elvitegravir and even dolutegravir. The former multi-DRM virus had WT RC whereas the latter had lower RCs than WT.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In HIV-1 subtype A- and D-infected patients failing raltegravir and harbouring INSTI DRMs, there is high-level resistance to elvitegravir and raltegravir. More routine monitoring of INSTI treatment may be advised in LMICs, considering that multiple INSTI DRMs may have accumulated during prolonged exposure to raltegravir during virological failure, leading to high-level INSTI resistance, including dolutegravir resistance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Roll-out of Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (INSTIs) such as dolutegravir for HIV combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in sub-Saharan Africa necessitates the development of affordable HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) assays targeting the Integrase gene. We optimised and evaluated an in-house integrase HIV-1 drug resistance assay (IH-Int) and compared it to a commercially available assay, ViroSeq™ Integrase Genotyping kit (VS-Int) amongst HIV-1 clade C infected individuals.<h4>Methods</h4>We used 54 plasma samples from treatment naïve participants and one plasma sample from a patient failing INSTI based cART. Specimens were genotyped using both the VS-Int and IH-Int assays. Stanford HIV drug resistance database were used for integrase resistance interpretation. We compared the major and minor resistance mutations, pairwise nucleotide and amino-acid identity, costs and assay time.<h4>Results</h4>Among 55 specimens tested with IH-Int, 53 (96.4%) successfully amplified compared to 45/55 (81.8%) for the VS-Int assay. The mean nucleotide and amino acid similarity from 33 paired sequences was 99.8% (SD ± 0.30) and 99.8% (SD ± 0.39) for the IH-Int and VS-Int assay respectively. The reagent cost/sample were 32 USD and 147 USD for IH-Int and VS-Int assay, respectively. All sequenced samples were confirmed as HIV-1 subtype C.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The IH-Int assay had a high amplification success rate and high concordance with the commercial assay. It is significantly cheaper compared to the commercial assay. Our assay has the needed specifications for routine monitoring of participants on Dolutegravir based regimens in Botswana.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sub-Saharan African countries are transitioning to dolutegravir-based regimens, even for patients with extensive previous drug exposure, including first-generation integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTI) such as raltegravir. Such exposure might have implications on cross-resistance to dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapies (ART). CASE PRESENTATION:We report a 65?years old Cameroonian, previously exposed to raltegravir, and failing on third-line treatment with multi-drug resistance to darunavir/r and dolutegravir. Genotypic resistance testing (GRT) and viral tropism were performed during monitoring time points. The patient initiated ART in August 2007. At the time point of the first (29.04.2010), second (01.12.2017) and third (08.08.2019) GRT, prior ART exposure included 3TC, d4T, NVP and EFV; additionally TDF, DRV/r and RAL; and additionally ABC and DTG respectively. First GRT revealed mutations associated with resistance only to first-generation Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI). Second GRT revealed mutations associated with high-level resistance to all NRTIs, first generation NNRTIs, all ritonavir boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r), and all INSTI, while viral tropism (using geno2pheno) revealed a CCR5-tropic virus with a false positive rate (FPR) of 60.9% suggesting effectiveness of maraviroc (MRV). The third GRT showed high-level resistance to NRTI, NNRTI, all PI and all INSTI, with additional mutations (H221HY for NNRTI and S147G for INSTI), and a CCR5-tropic virus with a slightly reduced FPR (57.0%). Without any locally available active therapeutic option, the patient has been on a maintenance therapy with "DRV/r (600mg x 2/day)+TDF+3TC" and patient/family-centered adherence has been reinforced. Since the first viral load (VL) measurement in 2010, the patient has had 12 VL tests with the VL ranging from 4.97 Log to 6.44 Log copies/mL and the CD4 count never exceeded 200 cells/?L. CONCLUSIONS:As African countries transition to dolutegravir-based regimens, prior raltegravir-exposure may prompt selection (and potential transmission) of dolutegravir-resistance, supporting case surveillance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is concern over increasing prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance in people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative public health responses in countries in sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance to NNRTIs is high.<h4>Methods</h4>The HIV Synthesis Model is an individual-based simulation model of sexual HIV transmission, progression, and the effect of ART in adults, which is based on extensive published data sources and considers specific drugs and resistance mutations. We used this model to generate multiple setting scenarios mimicking those in sub-Saharan Africa and considered the prevalence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in 2017. We then compared effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative policy options. We took a 20 year time horizon, used a cost effectiveness threshold of US$500 per DALY averted, and discounted DALYs and costs at 3% per year.<h4>Findings</h4>A transition to use of a dolutegravir as a first-line regimen in all new ART initiators is the option predicted to produce the most health benefits, resulting in a reduction of about 1 death per year per 100 people on ART over the next 20 years in a situation in which more than 10% of ART initiators have NNRTI resistance. The negative effect on population health of postponing the transition to dolutegravir increases substantially with higher prevalence of HIV drug resistance to NNRTI in ART initiators. Because of the reduced risk of resistance acquisition with dolutegravir-based regimens and reduced use of expensive second-line boosted protease inhibitor regimens, this policy option is also predicted to lead to a reduction of overall programme cost.<h4>Interpretation</h4>A future transition from first-line regimens containing efavirenz to regimens containing dolutegravir formulations in adult ART initiators is predicted to be effective and cost-effective in low-income settings in sub-Saharan Africa at any prevalence of pre-ART NNRTI resistance. The urgency of the transition will depend largely on the country-specific prevalence of NNRTI resistance.<h4>Funding</h4>Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Health Organization.
Project description:Signature HIV-1 integrase mutations associated with clinical raltegravir resistance involve 1 of 3 primary genetic pathways, Y143C/R, Q148H/K/R and N155H, the latter 2 of which confer cross-resistance to elvitegravir. In accord with clinical findings, in vitro drug resistance profiling studies with wild-type and site-directed integrase mutant viruses have shown significant fold increases in raltegravir and elvitegravir resistance for the specified viral mutants relative to wild-type HIV-1. Dolutegravir, in contrast, has demonstrated clinical efficacy in subjects failing raltegravir therapy due to integrase mutations at Y143, Q148 or N155, which is consistent with its distinct in vitro resistance profile as dolutegravir's antiviral activity against these viral mutants is equivalent to its activity against wild-type HIV-1. Kinetic studies of inhibitor dissociation from wild-type and mutant integrase-viral DNA complexes have shown that dolutegravir also has a distinct off-rate profile with dissociative half-lives substantially longer than those of raltegravir and elvitegravir, suggesting that dolutegravir's prolonged binding may be an important contributing factor to its distinct resistance profile. To provide a structural rationale for these observations, we constructed several molecular models of wild-type and clinically relevant mutant HIV-1 integrase enzymes in complex with viral DNA and dolutegravir, raltegravir or elvitegravir. Here, we discuss our structural models and the posited effects that the integrase mutations and the structural and electronic properties of the integrase inhibitors may have on the catalytic pocket and inhibitor binding and, consequently, on antiviral potency in vitro and in the clinic.
Project description:FDA-approved integrase strand transfer inhibitors (raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir) efficiently inhibit HIV-1 replication. Here, we present fluorescence properties of these inhibitors. Dolutegravir displays an excitation mode particularly dependent on Mg<sup>2+</sup> chelation, allowing to directly probe its Mg<sup>2+</sup>-dependent binding to the prototype foamy virus (PFV) integrase. Dolutegravir-binding studied by both its fluorescence anisotropy and subsequent emission enhancement, strictly requires a preformed integrase/DNA complex, the ten terminal base pairs from the 3'-end of the DNA reactive strand being crucial to optimize dolutegravir-binding in the context of the ternary complex. From the protein side, mutation of any catalytic residue fully abolishes dolutegravir-binding. We also compared dolutegravir-binding to PFV F190Y, G187R and S217K mutants, corresponding to HIV-1 F121Y, G118R and G140S/Q148K mutations that confer low-to-high resistance levels against raltegravir/dolutegravir. The dolutegravir-binding properties derived from fluorescence-based binding assays and drug susceptibilities in terms of catalytic activity, are well correlated. Indeed, dolutegravir-binding to wild-type and F190Y integrases are comparable while strongly compromised with G187R and S217K. Accordingly, the two latter mutants are highly resistant to dolutegravir while F190Y shows only moderate or no resistance. Intrinsic fluorescence properties of dolutegravir are thus particularly suitable for a thorough characterization of both DNA-binding properties of integrase and resistance mutations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although antiretroviral regimens containing integrase inhibitors rapidly suppress HIV viral load in non-pregnant adults, few published data from randomised controlled trials have compared the safety and efficacy of any integrase inhibitor to efavirenz when initiated during pregnancy. We compared safety and efficacy of antiretroviral therapy with either raltegravir or efavirenz in late pregnancy.<h4>Methods</h4>An open-label, randomised controlled trial was done at 19 hospitals and clinics in Argentina, Brazil, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, and the USA. Antiretroviral-naive pregnant women (20-<37 weeks gestation) living with HIV were assigned to antiretroviral regimens containing either raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) or efavirenz (600 mg each night) plus lamivudine 150 mg and zidovudine 300 mg twice daily (or approved alternative backbone regimen), using a web-based, permuted-block randomisation stratified by gestational age and backbone regimen. The primary efficacy outcome was plasma HIV viral load below 200 copies per mL at (or near) delivery. The primary efficacy analysis included all women with a viral load measurement at (or near) delivery who had viral load of at least 200 copies per mL before treatment and no genotypic resistance to any study drugs; secondary analyses eliminated these exclusion criteria. The primary safety analyses included all women who received study drug, and their infants. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT01618305.<h4>Findings</h4>From Sep 5, 2013, to Dec 11, 2018, 408 women were enrolled (206 raltegravir, 202 efavirenz) and 394 delivered on-study (200 raltegravir, 194 efavirenz); 307 were included in the primary efficacy analysis (153 raltegravir, 154 efavirenz). 144 (94%) women in the raltegravir group and 129 (84%) in the efavirenz group met the primary efficacy outcome (absolute difference 10%, 95% CI 3-18; p=0·0015); the difference primarily occurred among women enrolling later in pregnancy (interaction p=0·040). Frequencies of severe or life-threatening adverse events were similar among mothers (30% in each group; 61 raltegravir, 59 efavirenz) and infants (25% in each group; 50 raltegravir, 48 efavirenz), with no treatment-related deaths.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Our findings support major guidelines. The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir is currently a preferred regimen for the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission with raltegravir recommended as a preferred or alternative integrase inhibitor for pregnant women living with HIV.<h4>Funding</h4>Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.