Do state insurance mandates alter ICSI utilization?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Assisted reproductive technology (ART) insurance mandates resulted in improved access to infertility treatments like intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Our objective was to examine whether ART insurance mandates demonstrate an increased association with ICSI use. METHODS:In this retrospective cohort study, clinic-specific data for 2000-2016 from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) were grouped by state and subgrouped by the presence and extent of ART state insurance mandates. Mandated (n?=?8) and non-mandated (n?=?22) states were compared for ICSI use and male factor (MF) infertility in fresh non-donor ART cycles with a transfer in women
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study focused on the outcomes of patients with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 who underwent IVF/ICSI and fresh day 2 or day 3 embryo transfer and the possible impacts of carrier gender and chromosome karyotype on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS:A total of 214 couples (107 couples with one pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 in one partner [Group 1], 107 couples with normal karyotypes [Group 2]) underwent their first IVF/ICSI treatment and were included in this study. Oocyte number, normal fertilization rates, abnormal fertilization rates, cleavage rates, embryo utilization rates, fresh embryo transfer rates, clinical pregnancy rates (CPR), implantation rates, miscarriage rates, and live birth rates per embryo transfer (LBR) were compared between groups. RESULTS:Group 1 did not show any disadvantage when compared with Group 2. The CPR and LBR were similar between all groups. The female carrier group had a higher normal fertilization rate and higher utilization rate than the male carrier group. Cases with inv(9)(p12;q13) had a lower utilization rate but a higher implantation rate than the remaining karyotypes. CONCLUSION:In the first IVF or ICSI cycle, couples with one pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 in one partner had satisfactory outcomes. The subgroup analysis showed a tendency of better prognosis for the female carrier and inv(9)(p12;q13) type.
Project description:PURPOSE:The new-generation spermatozoon selection method, microfluidic technique called Fertile Chip® gives the chance to select spermatozoa with lower DNA fragmentation indexes. We aimed to determine the effect of microfluidic techniques for spermatozoon selection in ICSI treatment in patients with unexplained infertility. METHODS:This prospective randomized controlled study was conducted at a university hospital. One hundred twenty-two couples with unexplained infertility were included, in which 61 of them were treated with conventional swim-up techniques (control group) and another 61 with the microfluidic technique (study group) for spermatozoon selection in IVF treatment. The fertilization rates and the quality of embryos were the primary outcomes, and clinical pregnancy (CPR) and live birth rates (LBR) were the secondary outcomes of our study. RESULTS:CPR in the study group and control group were 48.3% and 44.8% (p?=?0.35) and LBR were 38.3% and 36.2% (p?=?0.48), respectively. The fertilization rates were similar (63.6% and 57.4%, p?=?0.098). A total number of grade 1 embryos were significantly higher in microfluidic technique group than in control group (1.45?±?1.62 vs. 0.83?±?1.03, p?=?0.01). There were more surplus top quality embryos leftover to freeze in the study group (0.71?±?1.48 vs. 0.22?±?0.69, p?=?0.02). CONCLUSION:Our study showed that the microfluidic technique does not change fertilization, CPR, and LBR during IVF treatment for couples with unexplained infertility. Despite the fact that the total number of grade 1 embryos after ICSI treatment and the surplus number of grade 1 embryos after embryo transfer were higher in the microfluidic technique group, the study was not powered to detect this difference. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02488434.
Project description:Objective: To assess the association between serum ovulation trigger progesterone (P) levels and the outcome of in vitro fertilization cycles. Design Setting: Real world single-center retrospective cohort study. Patient Intervention(s): All fresh cleavage and blastocyst-stage embryo transfers (ETs) performed from January 2012 to December 2016. Main outcome Measure(s): The impact of premature high serum P levels cycles in terms of clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) and live birth rates (LBRs). Results: 8,034 ETs were performed: 7,597 cleavage-stage transfers and 437 blastocyst transfers. Serum P levels demonstrated to be inversely related to CPR (OR 0.72, p < 0.001) and LBR (OR 0.73, p < 0.001). The progressive decrease of LBR and CPR started when P levels were >1 ng/ml in a good prognosis cleavage ET subgroup, whereas in patients with worse prognosis only for P ? 1.75 ng/ml. In the blastocyst ET subgroup, the negative effect of P elevation was reported only if P was >1.75 ng/ml. CPR (OR 0.71 (0.62–0.80), p < 0.001) and LBR (OR 0.73 (0.63–0.84), p < 0.001) in thawed cycles resulted statistically significantly higher than in fresh cycles in the cleavage-stage subgroup. In the blastocyst group, no significant difference resulted between thawed and fresh cycles, independently of P levels [CPR OR 0. 37 (0.49–1.09), p = 0.123; LBR OR 0.71 (0.46–1.10), p = 0.126]. Conclusion: High P levels decrease CPR as well as LBR in both cleavage and blastocyst ET. In the cleavage group, for P levels below 1.75 ng/ml, our data suggest the possibility to wait until day 5 for ET, and if P level is ?1.75 ng/ml, it should be considered to freeze all embryos and postpone the ET. Clinical Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT04253470
Project description:Background:Studies have suggested that embryo-endometrial developmental asynchrony caused by slow-growing embryos can be corrected by freezing the embryo and transferring it back in a subsequent cycle. Therefore, we hypothesized that live birth rates (LBR) would be higher in frozen embryo transfer (FET) compared with fresh embryo transfers. Objective:To compare LBR between fresh and FET cycles. Materials and Methods:A cross-sectional analysis of 10,744 single autologous embryo transfer cycles that used a single cleavage stage embryo was performed. Multivariate analysis was performed to compare LBR between FET and fresh cycles, after correcting for various confounding factors. Sub-analysis was also performed in cycles using slow embryos. Results:Both LBR (19.13% vs 14.13%) and clinical pregnancy (22.48% vs 16.25%) rates (CPR) were higher in the fresh cycle group (p < 0.00). Multivariate analysis for confounding factors also confirmed that women receiving a frozen-thawed embryo had a significantly lower LBR rate compared to those receiving a fresh embryo (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.68-0.86, p < 0.00). In the sub-analysis of 1,154 cycles using slow embryos, there was no statistical difference in LBR (6.40% vs 6.26%, p = 0.92) or CPR (8.10% vs 7.22%, p = 0.58) between the two groups. Conclusion:This study shows a lower LBR in FET cycles when compared to fresh cycles. Our results suggest that any potential gains in LBR due to improved embryo-endometrial synchrony following FET are lost, presumably due to freeze-thaw process-related embryo damage.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate clinical outcomes after ICSI cycles using surgically recovered sperm and (2) to assess the influence of maternal age on those outcomes. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study of 24,763 IVF cycles of fresh autologous oocytes and ICSI using surgically recovered sperm reported to the SART CORS database from 2004 to 2015. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:Older women had significantly longer stimulation (p < 0.001), a lower number of oocytes retrieved (p < 0.001), a lower number of 2PN zygotes (p < 0.001), a lower chance of having a blastocyst transferred (p < 0.001), and a higher number of fresh embryos transferred (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the number of 2PNs per oocyte retrieved and maternal age (p = 0.214). Both clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates (LBR) decreased with advanced maternal age (p < 0.001). LBR ranged from 50.4% in women < 30 to 7.2% in women > 42 years, and for cleavage-stage transfers, the LBR ranged from 47.3% in women< 30 to 6.3% in women > 42 years. There were no differences in gestational age at delivery, proportion of term deliveries, preterm deliveries, neonatal birth weight < 2500 g, neonatal birth weight > 4000 g and average birthweight of neonates for singleton pregnancies according to age. For twin pregnancies, women < 30 years had significantly higher number of live births, term deliveries, and lower preterm deliveries than older women. There was a similar number of female (6051) and male neonates (5858; p = 0.2). Overall, pregnancy outcomes with ICSI using surgically recovered sperm are reassuring and comparable to those of ICSI with ejaculated sperm.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The effects of acupuncture on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes remain controversial. And the variation in participant, interventions, outcomes studied, and trial design may relate to the efficacy of adjuvant acupuncture. METHODS:We searched digital databases for relevant studies, including Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library and some Chinese databases up to December 2018, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of acupuncture on women undergoing IVF. We included studies with intervention groups using needling, and control groups consisting of no acupuncture or sham (placebo) acupuncture. Primary outcomes were clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and live birth rate (LBR). Meta-regression and subgroup analysis were conducted on the basis of eight pre-specified covariates to investigate the variances of the effects of adjuvant acupuncture on pregnancy rates and the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS:Twenty-seven studies with 6116 participants were included. The pooled clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) from all of acupuncture groups was significantly greater than that of control groups (RR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.07-1.38), whereas the pooled live birth rate (LBR) was not. Meta-regression subgroup analysis showed a more significant benefit of acupuncture for repeated IVF cycle proportion (number of women with a history of prior unsuccessful IVF attempt divided by number of women included in each trial) ≥ 50% group (CPR: RR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00; LBR: RR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05-1.92), and this covariate explained most of the heterogeneity (CPR and LBR: adjusted R2 = 100 and 87.90%). Similar results were found between CPR and number of acupuncture treatments (CPR: p = 0.002, adjusted R2 = 51.90%), but not LBR. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis finds a benefit of acupuncture for IVF outcomes in women with a history of unsuccessful IVF attempt, and number of acupuncture treatments is a potential influential factor. Given the poor reporting and methodological flaws of existing studies, studies with larger scales and better methodologies are needed to verify these findings.
Project description:STUDY QUESTION:Are selected embryo culture conditions namely media, oxygen level, and incubator type, associated with IVF live birth rate (LBR) and the health of singleton offspring at birth? SUMMARY ANSWER:There were statistically significant differences in LBR between the eight culture media systems analysed; however, none of the embryo culture factors showed statistically significant associations with birth weight (BW) in multivariable regression analyses. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:In clinical ART culture media is the initial environment provided for the growth of human embryos. Pre-implantation development is a critical period of developmental plasticity, which could have long-lasting effects on offspring growth and health. Although some studies have shown an impact of culture medium type on BW, the interaction between culture medium type and associated culture conditions on both treatment success rates (LBR) and offspring BW is largely unexplored. This study aimed to examine these factors in a large multicentre national survey capturing the range of clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN SIZE DURATION:In this cross-sectional study, data from a survey circulated to all UK IVF clinics requesting information regarding culture medium type, incubator type, and oxygen level used in ART between January 2011 and December 2013 were merged with routinely recorded treatment and outcome data held in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority Register up to the end of 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING METHODS:Forty-six (62%) UK clinics responded to the survey. A total of 75?287 fresh IVF/ICSI cycles were captured, including 18?693 singleton live births. IVF success (live birth, singleton or multiple; LB), singleton gestation and singleton gestation-adjusted BW were analysed using logistic and linear regression models adjusting for patient/treatment characteristics and clinic-specific effects. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:Culture medium type was shown to have some impact on LBR (multivariable logistic regression, (MRL); post-regression Wald test, P <?0.001), but not on BW (MLR; post-regression Wald test, P =?0.215). However, blastocyst culture had the largest observed effect on odds of LBR (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.35, CI: 1.29-1.42), increased the risk of pre-term birth even when controlling for oxygen tension (MLR; OR?=?1.42, CI: 1.23-1.63), and gestation-adjusted BW (MLR, ? =?38.97 g, CI: 19.42-58.53 g) when compared to cleavage-stage embryo culture. We noted a very strong effect of clinic site on both LBR and BW, thus confounding between treatment practices and clinic site may have masked the effect of culture conditions. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION:Larger datasets with more inter-centre variation are also needed, with key embryo culture variables comprehensively recorded in national treatment registries. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:This study is the largest investigation of laboratory environmental effects in IVF on both LBR and singleton BW. Our findings largely agree with the literature, which has failed to show a consistent advantage of one culture media type over another. However, we noted some association of LBR with medium type, and the duration of embryo exposure to laboratory conditions (blastocyst culture) was associated with both LBR and singleton health at birth. Because of the strong effect of clinic site noted, further randomized controlled trials are needed in order to reliably determine the effect of embryo culture on IVF success rates and the growth and health of subsequent offspring. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS:This study was funded by the EU FP7 project grant EpiHealthNet (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN -317?146). The authors have no competing interests to declare.
Project description:Importance:To mitigate the opioid overdose crisis, states have implemented a variety of legal interventions aimed at increasing access to the opioid antagonist naloxone. Recently, Virginia and Vermont mandated the coprescription of naloxone for potentially at-risk patients. Objective:To assess the association between naloxone coprescription legal mandates and naloxone dispensing in retail pharmacies. Design, Setting, and Participants:This was a population-based, state-level cohort study. The sample included all prescriptions dispensed for naloxone in the retail pharmacy setting contained in IQVIA's national prescription audit, which represents 90% of all retail pharmacies in the United States. The unit of observation was state-month and the study period was January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. Exposures:State legal intervention mandating naloxone coprescription. Main Outcomes and Measures:Number of naloxone prescriptions dispensed. State rates of naloxone prescriptions dispensed per month per 100 000 standard population were calculated. Results:The rate of naloxone dispensing increased after implementation of legal mandates for naloxone coprescription. An estimated 88 naloxone prescriptions per 100 000 were dispensed in Virginia and 111 prescriptions per 100 000 were dispensed in Vermont during the first full month the legal requirement was effective. In comparison, 16 naloxone prescriptions per 100 000 were dispensed in the 10 states (including the District of Columbia) with the highest opioid overdose death rates and 6 prescriptions per 100 000 were dispensed in the 39 remaining states. The number of naloxone prescriptions dispensed was associated with the legal mandate for naloxone coprescription (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 7.75; 95% CI, 1.22-49.35). Implementation of the naloxone coprescription mandate was associated with an estimated 214 additional naloxone prescriptions dispensed per month in the period following the mandates, holding all other variables constant. Among covariates, naloxone access laws (IRR, 1.37; 1.05-1.78), opioid overdose death rates (IRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), the percentage of naloxone prescriptions paid by third-party payers (IRR 1.009; 1.008-1.010), and time (IRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.07) were significantly associated with naloxone prescription dispensing. Conclusions and Relevance:These study findings suggest that legally mandated naloxone prescription for those at risk for opioid overdose may be associated with substantial increases in naloxone dispensing and further reduction in opioid-related harm.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prescription opioid misuse is an ongoing crisis and a risk factor for injection drug use (IDU). Few studies have evaluated strategies for preventing opioid or IDU initiation among adolescents. We evaluated changes in the proportion of adolescents reporting IDU before and after prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) mandates were implemented in 18 states compared to 29 states without such mandates. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This difference-in-differences analysis used biannual Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System (YRBSS) data representative of adolescents 17 to 18 years old across 47 states from 1995 to 2017. We compared changes in adolescent IDU in 18 states with and 29 states without PDMP mandates. Among 331,025 adolescents, 51.7% identified as male, 62.1% as non-Hispanic white, 17.4% as non-Hispanic black, and 14.6% as Hispanic. Overall, 3.5% reported IDU during the 2 years prior to PDMP mandates. In the final multivariable difference-in-differences model, we included individual age, sex, and race/ethnicity, as well as state and year as covariates from the YRBSS. We also included state- and year-specific poverty rates based on US Census Bureau data. Additionally, we controlled for state implementation of (non-mandated) PDMPs before states subsequently implemented mandates and pill mill laws. We conducted several sensitivity analyses, including repeating our main analysis using a logistic, rather than linear, model, and with a lead indicator on PDMP mandate implementation, a lag indicator, and alternative policy implementation dates. PDMP mandates were associated with a 1.5 percentage point reduction (95% CI -2.3 to -0.6 percentage points; p = 0.001) in adolescent IDU, on average over the years following mandate implementation, a relative reduction of 42.9% (95% CI -65.7% to -17.1%). The association of PDMP mandates with this reduction persisted at least 4 years beyond implementation. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main results. Limitations include the multi-stepped causal pathway from PDMP mandate implementation to changes in IDU and the potential for omitted state-level time-varying confounders. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis indicated that PDMP mandates were associated with a reduction in adolescent IDU, providing empirical evidence that such mandates may prevent adolescents from initiating IDU. Policymakers might consider PDMP mandates as a potential strategy for preventing adolescent IDU.
Project description:Twin births among users of assisted reproductive technology (ART) pose serious risks to both mothers and infants. However, patients may prefer twins and may be unaware of the risks of twin pregnancies. Increasing use of elective single embryo transfers (eSET) through improved patient education could help to reduce twin births and related adverse health consequences. A systematic review of PUBMED and EMBASE databases was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of patient education among ART users on knowledge of twin pregnancy risks, desire for twins, preference for or use of eSET, and twin pregnancy rates. Of 187 references retrieved, six met the selection criteria. Most focused on patients undergoing their first ART cycle aged < 35?years. Patient education was delivered via written materials, DVDs or discussion. Four studies reporting on knowledge of risks or desire for twins showed significant effects of oral and written descriptions of multiple pregnancy complications, risks of twins versus singletons, and DVDs with factual information. Five studies showed increased eSET use or preference after patients were educated on the risks of multiple pregnancy and success rates associated with different types of ART procedures, when combined with clinic policies that supported single blastocyst transfers or provided options for insurance. In younger ART users, patient education on twin pregnancy risks and success rates of eSET may improve knowledge of twin pregnancy risks and increase use of eSET, and may be important for wider implementation of eSET in countries such as the USA where the use of eSET remains low. Clinic policies of single blastocyst transfers or financial incentives may strengthen these effects.