Monoamine oxidase B rs1799836 G allele polymorphism is a risk factor for early development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT: Background:Dopamine replacement therapy is an established treatment for motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but its long-term use is often limited by the eventual development of motor complications, including levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Genetic background, particularly polymorphisms of dopamine metabolism genes, may affect the occurrence of dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease patients. Methods:We investigated polymorphisms of dopamine metabolism genes, including catechol-O-methyltransferase, monoamine oxidase B, dopamine beta-hydroxylasedopamine, dopamine receptors D1, D2, and D3, and dopamine transporter, in 110 patients with Parkinson's disease. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to detect associations between genotypes and levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Results:Monoamine oxidase B rs1799836 was the only polymorphism correlated with risk of dyskinesia. Patients with an AG or GG genotype were more likely to have dyskinesia than those with an AA genotype (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-9.10). Also, Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with an AG or GG genotype developed dyskinesia earlier than those with an AA genotype (log-rank test, p?=?.004). Conclusions:In Parkinson's disease patients, the monoamine oxidase B rs1799836 G allele is associated with a greater likelihood of developing dyskinesia than the A allele, possibly due to its association with lower monoamine oxidase B activity in the brain. Thus, detection of monoamine oxidase B polymorphisms may be useful for determining the optimal dosing of antiparkinson medications.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Genetic polymorphisms involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission may influence susceptibility to PD. METHODS: We investigated the relationship of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), dopamine receptor (DR) D2 and DRD4 polymorphisms and PD risk with special attention to the interaction with cigarette smoking among 238 patients with PD and 369 controls in a Japanese population. RESULTS: Subjects with the AA genotype of MAOB rs1799836 showed a significantly increased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12 - 2.58) compared with the AG and GG genotypes combined. The AA genotype of COMT rs4680 was marginally associated with an increased risk of PD (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 0.98 - 3.50) compared with the GG genotype. The DRD2 rs1800497 and DRD4 rs1800955 polymorphisms showed no association with PD. A COMT -smoking interaction was suggested, with the combined GA and AA genotypes of rs4680 and non-smoking conferring significantly higher risk (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 2.13 - 7.41) than the AA genotype and a history of smoking (P for interaction = 0.061). No interactions of smoking with other polymorphisms were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The COMT rs4680 and MAOB rs1799836 polymorphisms may increase susceptibility to PD risk among Japanese. Future studies involving larger control and case populations and better pesticide exposure histories will undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the polymorphisms involved in the dopamine pathway in PD.
Project description:The noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems are affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes and proteins that are components of these systems can affect products of transcription and translation and lead to altered enzymatic activity and alterations in overall dopamine and noradrenaline levels. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) are the enzymes that regulate degradation of dopamine, while dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) is involved in synthesis of noradrenaline. COMT Val158Met (rs4680), DBH rs1611115 (also called -1021C/T or -970C/T), and MAOB rs1799836 (also called A644G) polymorphisms have been previously associated with AD. We assessed whether these polymorphisms are associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers including total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau proteins (p-tau181, p-tau199, and p-tau231), amyloid-?42 (A?42), and visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1) to test possible relationships of specific genotypes and pathological levels of CSF AD biomarkers. The study included 233 subjects: 115 AD, 53 mild cognitive impairment, 54 subjects with other primary causes of dementia, and 11 healthy controls. Significant decrease in A?42 levels was found in patients with GG compared to AG COMT Val158Met genotype, while t-tau and p-tau181 levels were increased in patients with AA compared to AG COMT Val158Met genotype. A?42 levels were also decreased in carriers of A allele in MAO-B rs1799836 polymorphism, while p-tau181 levels were increased in carriers of T allele in DBH rs1611115 polymorphism. These results indicate that COMT Val158Met, DBH rs1611115, and MAOB rs1799836 polymorphisms deserve further investigation as genetic markers of AD.
Project description:Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of the main enzymes in dopamine metabolism and is reported to be associated with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD) and pharmacotherapy. However, researchers mostly focus on the most common polymorphism, rs4680. In this case-control study, we investigated the association of SNPs other than rs4680 with the levodopa (L-dopa) response and other clinical features in Chinese PD patients. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COMT gene were genotyped, and clinical data were collected. Patients with the TT genotype of rs165728 or rs174699 had larger daily levodopa equivalent doses (LEDs) than the patients with CC and CT genotypes under the dominant model (p?=?0.01421 for rs165728 and p?=?0.02302 for rs174699). Under the dominant model, the patients with GG at rs4680 G?>?A had a lower occurrence of dyskinesia than those with AA and AG (p?=?0.0196). Patients with CC at rs4633 had a lower occurrence of dyskinesia than those with TT and TC (p?=?0.0429) under the dominant model. The frequencies of the rs174675 T and rs933271 C alleles were higher in PD patients than in the controls (p?<?0.05). Our primary results showed the possible association of SNPs other than the most common functional rs4680 in COMT with interindividual variance in the L-dopa daily dose and susceptibility to dyskinesia in Chinese patients, although this was an exploratory study based on a small sample size. Larger and more randomized samples are necessary for further investigation.
Project description:Parkinson's disease is primarily caused by dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons, however, nondopaminergic (ND) systems are also involved. ND targets are potentially useful to reduce doses of levodopa or to treat nonlevodopa-responsive symptoms. Recent studies have investigated the role of ND drugs for motor and nonmotor symptoms. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, mixed inhibitors of sodium/calcium channels and monoamine oxidase-B have recently been found to improve motor fluctuations. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists and serotonin 5HT1B receptor agonists demonstrated benefit in levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Conversely, studies using antiepileptic drugs and adrenoreceptor antagonist had conflicting results. Moreover, metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists also failed to improve symptoms. The current review summarizes the most recent findings on ND drugs over the last 2 years.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the comparative effectiveness of dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase type-B (MAO-B) inhibitors available for treatment of Parkinson's disease. METHODS:We performed a systematic literature search identifying randomized controlled trials investigating 4 dopamine agonists (cabergoline, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) and 3 MAO-B inhibitors (selegiline, rasagiline, safinamide) for Parkinson's disease. We extracted and pooled data from included clinical trials in a joint model allowing both direct and indirect comparison of the seven drugs. We considered dopamine agonists and MAO-B inhibitors given as monotherapy or in combination with levodopa. Selected endpoints were change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score, serious adverse events and withdrawals. We estimated the relative effectiveness of each dopamine agonist and MAO-B inhibitor versus comparator drug. RESULTS:Altogether, 79 publications were included in the analysis. We found all the investigated drugs to be effective compared with placebo when given as monotherapy except safinamide. When considering combination treatment, the estimated relative effects of selegiline, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, cabergoline, rasagiline and safinamide were 2.316 (1.819, 2.951), 2.091 (1.889, 2.317), 2.037 (1.804, 2.294), 1.912 (1.716, 2.129), 1.664 (1.113, 2.418), 1.584 (1.379, 1.820) and 1.179 (1.031, 1.352), respectively, compared with joint placebo and levodopa treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Dopamine agonists were found to be effective as treatment for Parkinson's disease, both when given as monotherapy and in combination with levodopa. Selegiline and rasagiline were also found to be effective for treating Parkinson's disease, and selegiline was the best option in combination with levodopa among all the drugs investigated.
Project description:Action selection relies on the coordinated activity of striatal direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs and iMSNs, respectively). Loss of dopamine in Parkinson's disease is thought to disrupt this balance. While dopamine replacement with levodopa may restore normal function, the development of involuntary movements (levodopa-induced dyskinesia [LID]) limits therapy. How chronic dopamine loss and replacement with levodopa modulate the firing of identified MSNs in behaving animals is unknown. Using optogenetically labeled striatal single-unit recordings, we assess circuit dysfunction in parkinsonism and LID. Counter to current models, we found that following dopamine depletion, iMSN firing was elevated only during periods of immobility, while dMSN firing was dramatically and persistently reduced. Most notably, we identified a subpopulation of dMSNs with abnormally high levodopa-evoked firing rates, which correlated specifically with dyskinesia. These findings provide key insights into the circuit mechanisms underlying parkinsonism and LID, with implications for developing targeted therapies.
Project description:Parkinson's disease is characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopamine neurons. Dopamine replacement therapy with levodopa alleviates parkinsonian motor symptoms but is complicated by the development of involuntary movements, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Aberrant activity in the striatum has been hypothesized to cause LID. Here, to establish a direct link between striatal activity and dyskinesia, we combine optogenetics and a method to manipulate dyskinesia-associated neurons, targeted recombination in active populations (TRAP). We find that TRAPed cells are a stable subset of sensorimotor striatal neurons, predominantly from the direct pathway, and that reactivation of TRAPed striatal neurons causes dyskinesia in the absence of levodopa. Inhibition of TRAPed cells, but not a nonspecific subset of direct pathway neurons, ameliorates LID. These results establish that a distinct subset of striatal neurons is causally involved in LID and indicate that successful therapeutic strategies for treating LID may require targeting functionally selective neuronal subtypes.
Project description:L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa) treatment is the major pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease. However, almost all patients receiving levodopa eventually develop debilitating involuntary movements (dyskinesia). While it is known that striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) are involved in the genesis of this movement disorder, the molecular basis of dyskinesia is not understood. In this study, we identify distinct cell-type-specific gene expression changes that occur in sub-classes of SPNs upon induction of a parkinsonian lesion followed by chronic levodopa treatment. We identify several hundred genes whose expression is correlated with levodopa dose, many of which are under the control of AP-1 and ERK signaling. In spite of homeostatic adaptations involving several signaling modulators, AP-1-dependent gene expression remains highly dysregulated in direct pathway SPNs (dSPNs) upon chronic levodopa treatment. We also discuss which molecular pathways are most likely to dampen abnormal dopaminoceptive signaling in spiny projection neurons, hence providing potential targets for antidyskinetic treatments in Parkinson's disease. To profile the cell-type-specific responses of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) to striatal dopamine depletion, we conducted TRAP analysis of the two major classes of these neurons: dSPNs that express the dopamine receptor 1a (Drd1a), and iSPNs that express the dopamine receptor 2 (Drd2). To disrupt dopamine innervation to both of these SPN populations that reside in the striatum, we injected the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), unilaterally, in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in hemizygous Drd1-TRAP and Drd2-TRAP adult (9-14 weeks) male mice (kept on a C57BL/6J genetic background). This lesion procedure causes nigral dopamine cell death within a few days, along with a widespread and near-complete loss of dopaminergic innervation to the entire dorsal striatum on one side of the brain (a hemiparkinsonian model). We first examined the effects of dopamine depletion alone, compared to a mock lesion (ascorbate / saline injected). We then examined the effects of chronic levodopa treatment upon the molecular profiles of dopamine- depleted dSPNs and iSPNs, with two dose regimens. The ‘high-dose’ L-DOPA regimen (3 mg/kg on days 1-3, followed by 6 mg/kg on days 4-9) was expected to induce severe dyskinesia in all MFB-lesioned mice. The low-dose L-DOPA regimen (1 mg/kg on days 1-3, followed by 2 mg/kg on days 4-9) was expected to reverse limb use asymmetry without causing conspicuous dyskinesias. To equalize the effects of stress and handling across all groups, including control groups, all mice were equally handled and thus received saline injections when not receiving levodopa injections. Each treatment group contained 7-10 replicates. TRAP-purified mRNAs from either Drd1a- or Drd2-expressing SPNs were reverse-transcribed, amplified, and used to interrogate Affymetrix 430_2.0 GeneChip microarrays.
Project description:Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors have an established role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease as monotherapy or adjuvant to levodopa. Two major recognitions were required for their introduction into this therapeutic field. The first was the elucidation of the novel pharmacological properties of selegiline as a selective MAO-B inhibitor by Knoll and Magyar and the original idea of Riederer and Youdim, supported by Birkmayer, to explore its effect in parkinsonian patients with on-off phases. In the 1960s, MAO inhibitors were mainly studied as potential antidepressants, but Birkmayer found that combined use of levodopa and various MAO inhibitors improved akinesia in Parkinson's disease. However, the serious side effects of the first non-selective MAO inhibitors prevented their further use. Later studies demonstrated that MAO-B, mainly located in glial cells, is important for dopamine metabolism in the brain. Recently, cell and molecular studies revealed interesting properties of selegiline opening new possibilities for neuroprotective mechanisms and a disease-modifying effect of MAO-B inhibitors.
Project description:The response to dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson's disease depends on many clinical and genetic factors. The very common motor fluctuations (MF) and dyskinesia affect approximately half of patients after 5 years of treatment with levodopa. We did an evaluation of a combined effect of 16 clinical parameters and 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms to build clinical and clinical-pharmacogenetic models for prediction of time to occurrence of motor complications and to compare their predictive abilities. In total, 220 Parkinson's disease patients were included in the analysis. Their demographic, clinical, and genotype data were obtained. The combined effect of clinical and genetic factors was assessed using The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator penalized regression in the Cox proportional hazards model. Clinical and clinical-pharmacogenetic models were constructed. The predictive capacity of the models was evaluated with the cross-validated area under time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve. Clinical-pharmacogenetic model included age at diagnosis (HR = 0.99), time from diagnosis to initiation of levodopa treatment (HR = 1.24), COMT rs165815 (HR = 0.90), DRD3 rs6280 (HR = 1.03), and BIRC5 rs9904341 (HR = 0.95) as predictive factors for time to occurrence of MF. Furthermore, clinical-pharmacogenetic model for prediction of time to occurrence of dyskinesia included female sex (HR = 1.07), age at diagnosis (HR = 0.97), tremor-predominant Parkinson's disease (HR = 0.88), beta-blockers (HR = 0.95), alcohol consumption (HR = 0.99), time from diagnosis to initiation of levodopa treatment (HR = 1.15), CAT rs1001179 (HR = 1.27), SOD2 rs4880 (HR = 0.95), NOS1 rs2293054 (HR = 0.99), COMT rs165815 (HR = 0.92), and SLC22A1 rs628031 (HR = 0.80). Areas under the curves for clinical and clinical-pharmacogenetic models for MF after 5 years of levodopa treatment were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively. Areas under the curves for clinical and clinical-pharmacogenetic models for dyskinesia after 5 years of levodopa treatment were 0.71 and 0.68, respectively. These results show that clinical-pharmacogenetic models do not have better ability to predict time to occurrence of motor complications in comparison to the clinical ones despite the significance of several polymorphisms. Models could be improved by a larger sample size and by additional polymorphisms, epigenetic predictors or serum biomarkers.