LncRNA DRAIC inhibits proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer cells through interfering with NFRKB deubiquitination mediated by UCHL5.
ABSTRACT: Background:Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) as a widespread and pivotal epigenetic molecule participates in the occurrence and progression of malignant tumors. DRAIC, a kind of lncRNA whose coding gene location is on 15q23 chromatin, has been found to be weakly expressed in a variety of malignant tumors and acts as a suppressor, but its characteristics and role in gastric cancer (GC) remain to be elucidated. Methods:Sixty-seven primary GC tissues and paired paracancerous normal tissues were collected. Bioinformatics is used to predict the interaction molecules of DRAIC. DRAIC and NFRKB were overexpressed or interfered exogenously in GC cells by lentivirus or transient transfection. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and western blotting were used to evaluate the expression of DRAIC, UCHL5 and NFRKB. The combinations of DRAIC and NFRKB or UCHL5 and NFRKB were verified by RNA-IP and Co-IP assays. Ubiquitination-IP and the treatment of MG132 and CHX were used to detect the ubiquitylation level of NFRKB. The CCK-8 and transwell invasion and migration assays measured the proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells. Results:DRAIC is down-regulated in GC tissues and cell lines while its potential interacting molecules UCHL5 and NFRKB are up-regulated, and DRAIC is positively correlated with NFRKB protein instead of mRNA. Lower DRAIC and higher UCHL5 and NFRKB indicated advanced progression of GC patients. DRAIC could increase NFRKB protein significantly instead of NFRKB mRNA and UCHL5, and bind to UCHL5. DRAIC combined with UCHL5 and attenuated binding of UCHL5 and NFRKB, meanwhile promoting the degradation of NFRKB via ubiquitination, and then inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of GC cells, which can be rescued by oeNFRKB. Conclusion:DRAIC suppresses GC proliferation and metastasis via interfering with the combination of UCHL5 and NFRKB and mediating ubiquitination degradation.
Project description:Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, with a high rate of malignancy and mortality. Seeking new biomarkers and potential drug targets is urgent for effective treatment of the disease. Deubiquitinase UCHL5/UCH37, as an important component of the 26S proteasome, plays critical roles in ubiquitinated substrate degradation. Although previous studies have shown that UCHL5 promotes tumorigenesis, its role in lung cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the expression and clinical significance of UCHL5 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results demonstrated that the UCHL5 expression level was significantly upregulated in NSCLC tissues compared with the adjacent noncancerous tissues. The level of UCHL5 was associated with tumor size, lymph node invasion, TNM stage and malignant tumor history in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Importantly, high UCHL5 expression predicted a poor overall survival (OS) and a poor disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with LUAD. Univariate regression analysis showed that tumor size, lymph node invasion, TNM stage and UCHL5 expression were associated with OS and DFS in patients with LUAD. The multivariate analysis indicated that the UCHL5 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR=1.171, 95% CI=1.052-1.303) and DFS (HR=1.143, 95% CI=1.031-1.267) in these patients. UCHL5 knockdown in LUAD cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and reduced the expression of key cell cycle proteins. These findings indicate that UCHL5 may serve as a potential prognostic marker and a new therapeutic target for patients with LUAD.
Project description:Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most prevalent gynecological malignancy with high mortality. Chemotherapy plays a pivotal role both in an adjuvant setting and in exclusive treatment. However, current pharmacotherapies are limited and not ideal for improving the overall survival of EC patients. Thus, identification of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for initiation and progression of EC is imperative for developing novel therapeutic strategies. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L5 (UCHL5) has been found to aggravate tumor growth and metastasis in several different types of tumor models such as esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and epithelial ovarian cancer. However, whether UCHL5 influences the growth of EC has not been elucidated. To expose the role of UCHL5 on EC, bioinformatics analysis was conducted, and it hinted that UCHL5 was overexpressed in EC tissues and associated with lower overall survival. Consistently, the overexpression of UCHL5 in EC tissues and cell lines was further confirmed by western blot (WB) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) compared with non-tumor control. Lentivirus vectors carrying UCHL5 shRNA or CD sequences were used to reduce or overexpress the UCHL5 gene, respectively. Cell proliferation and cycle were facilitated, and cell apoptosis was decreased when the UCHL5 gene was overexpressed in EC cell lines. These results were opposite in UCHL5 knockdown EC cells. Additionally, the expression of ?-catenin is positively related to UCHL5 levels and the tumorigenic effects of UCHL5 overexpression were reversed by the Wnt/?-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV939. Thus, Wnt/?-catenin pathway activation may be a partial mechanism responsible for the promoting effects of UCHL5 on EC growth. In conclusion, UCHL5 accelerated the growth of EC via the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and was expected to be an attractive target for EC treatment.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been reported to play critical roles in gastric cancer, but true biomarkers remain unknown. In this study, we found a new lncRNA LINC00355 that was involved in malignant progression of gastric cancer (GC) and further revealed its role and mechanism. Differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified through bioinformatics, and qRT-PCR was used to validate the expression of LINC00355 in gastric cancer tissues and cells. The biological role of LINC00355 in GC was detected by gene overexpression and knockdown experiments. Subcellular fractionation, qRT-PCR, and FISH were performed to detect the subcellular localization. Co-IP and western blotting were used to study the ubiquitination-mediated regulation of P53 and the expression of the E3 ligases RAD18 and UBE3C. The results showed that LINC00355 was significantly increased in gastric cancer cell lines and patient tissues and closely correlated with late stages, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis of patients. High expression of LINC00355 promoted the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistic studies found that LINC00355 that mainly located in the nucleus, acting as a transcriptional activator, promoted transcription of RAD18 and UBE3C, which both bind to P53 and mediate the ubiquitination and degradation of P53. Furthermore, LINC00355 overexpression enhanced the ubiquitination process, and LINC00355 knockdown alleviated it. These results indicated that LINC00355 induces gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion by promoting transcription of RAD18 and UBE3C, which mediates ubiquitination of P53 and thereby plays a critical role in survival and tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells. LINC00355 may represent a new mechanism for GC progression and provide a potential marker for GC diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:USP14 is a cysteine protease deubiquitinase associated with the proteasome and plays important catalytic and allosteric roles in proteasomal degradation. USP14 inhibition has been considered a therapeutic strategy for accelerating degradation of aggregation-prone proteins in neurodegenerative diseases and for inhibiting proteasome function to induce apoptotic cell death in cancers. Here we studied the effects of USP14 inhibition in mammalian cells using small molecule inhibitors and an inactive USP14 mutant C114A. Neither the inhibitors nor USP14 C114A showed consistent or significant effects on the level of TDP-43, tau or ?-synuclein in HEK293T cells. However, USP14 C114A led to a robust accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, which were isolated by ubiquitin immunoprecipitation and identified by mass spectrometry. Among these proteins we confirmed that ubiquitinated ?-catenin accumulated in the cells expressing USP14 C114A with immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation experiments. The proteasome binding domain of USP14 C114A is required for its effect on ubiquitinated proteins. UCHL5 is the other cysteine protease deubiquitinase associated with the proteasome. Interestingly, the inactive mutant of UCHL5 C88A also caused an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in HEK293T cells but did not affect ?-catenin, demonstrating USP14 but not UCHL5 has a specific effect on ?-catenin. We used ubiquitin immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify the accumulated ubiquitinated proteins in UCHL5 C88A expressing cells which are mostly distinct from those identified in USP14 C114A expressing cells. Among the identified proteins are well established proteasome substrates and proteasome subunits. Besides ?-catenin, we also verified with immunoblotting that UCHL5 C88A inhibits its own deubiquitination and USP14 C114A inhibits deubiquitination of two proteasomal subunits PSMC1 and PSMD4. Together our data suggest that USP14 and UCHL5 can deubiquitinate distinct substrates at the proteasome and regulate the ubiquitination of the proteasome itself which is tightly linked to its function.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are emerging as major regulators of cellular phenotypes and implicated as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Here, we report a novel tumor-suppressive locus on human chromosome 15q23 that contains two multiexonic lncRNA genes of 100 kb each: DRAIC (LOC145837) and the recently reported PCAT29. The DRAIC lncRNA was identified from RNA-seq data and is downregulated as prostate cancer cells progress from an androgen-dependent (AD) to a castration-resistant (CR) state. Prostate cancers persisting in patients after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) select for decreased DRAIC expression, and higher levels of DRAIC in prostate cancer are associated with longer disease-free survival (DFS). Androgen induced androgen receptor (AR) binding to the DRAIC locus and repressed DRAIC expression. In contrast, FOXA1 and NKX3-1 are recruited to the DRAIC locus to induce DRAIC, and FOXA1 specifically counters the repression of DRAIC by AR. The decrease of FOXA1 and NKX3-1, and aberrant activation of AR, thus accounts for the decrease of DRAIC during prostate cancer progression to the CR state. Consistent with DRAIC being a good prognostic marker, DRAIC prevents the transformation of cuboidal epithelial cells to fibroblast-like morphology and prevents cellular migration and invasion. A second tumor-suppressive lncRNA PCAT29, located 20 kb downstream of DRAIC, is regulated identically by AR and FOXA1 and also suppresses cellular migration and metastasis. Finally, based on TCGA analysis, DRAIC expression predicts good prognosis in a wide range of malignancies, including bladder cancer, low-grade gliomas, lung adenocarcinoma, stomach adenocarcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, skin melanoma, and stomach adenocarcinoma.This study reveals a novel tumor-suppressive locus encoding two hormone-regulated lncRNAs, DRAIC and PCAT29, that are prognostic for a wide variety of cancer types.
Project description:DRAIC is a 1.7 kb spliced long noncoding RNA downregulated in castration-resistant advanced prostate cancer. Decreased DRAIC expression predicts poor patient outcome in prostate and seven other cancers, while increased DRAIC represses growth of xenografted tumors. Here, we show that cancers with decreased DRAIC expression have increased NF-?B target gene expression. DRAIC downregulation increased cell invasion and soft agar colony formation; this was dependent on NF-?B activation. DRAIC interacted with subunits of the I?B kinase (IKK) complex to inhibit their interaction with each other, the phosphorylation of I?B?, and the activation of NF-?B. These functions of DRAIC mapped to the same fragment containing bases 701-905. Thus, DRAIC lncRNA inhibits prostate cancer progression through suppression of NF-?B activation by interfering with IKK activity. SIGNIFICANCE: A cytoplasmic tumor-suppressive lncRNA interacts with and inhibits a major kinase that activates an oncogenic transcription factor in prostate cancer. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/5/950/F1.large.jpg.
Project description:Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHLs) are a subset of deubiquitinating enzymes, and are involved in numerous physiological processes. However, the role of UCHLs during gonad development has not been studied in crustaceans. In this study, we have first cloned and analyzed expression profiling of Sp-uchl3 and Sp-uchl5 genes from mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length cDNA of Sp-uchl3 is of 1804 bp. Its expression level in the ovary was significantly higher than in other tissues (p < 0.01), and during gonadal development, its expression in both O1 and O5 stages was significantly higher than in the other three stages of ovaries (p < 0.05), while in T3 it was higher than in the former two stages of testes (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the full-length cDNA of Sp-UCHL5 is 1217 bp. The expression level in the ovary was significantly higher than in other tissues (p < 0.01). Its expression in ovaries was higher than in testes during gonadal development (p < 0.05). The expression level in the O5 stage was the highest, followed by the O3 stage in ovarian development, and with no significant difference in the testis development (p > 0.05). These results provide basic data showing the role of Sp-UCHL3 and Sp-UCHL5 in the gonad development of the crab.
Project description:Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Accurate prediction of disease progression is difficult, and new biomarkers for clinical use are essential. Recently, we reported that the proteasome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme UCHL5/Uch37 is a new prognostic marker in both rectal cancer and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, we have assessed by immunohistochemistry UCHL5 tumor expression in gastric cancer. The study cohort comprised 650 patients, who underwent surgery in Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, between 1983 and 2009. We investigated the association of cytoplasmic UCHL5 tumor expression to assess clinicopathological parameters and patient survival. Positive cytoplasmic UCHL5 tumor immunoexpression is linked to increased survival of patients with small (<5 cm) tumors (p = 0.001), disease stages I-II (p = 0.025), and age 66 years or older (p = 0.037). UCHL5 is thus a potential marker in gastric cancer with new prognostic relevance.
Project description:hRpn13/ADRM1 links substrate recruitment with deubiquitination at the proteasome through its proteasome- and ubiquitin-binding Pru domain and DEUBAD domain, which binds and activates deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) UCHL5/Uch37. Here, we edit the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line to delete part of the hRpn13 Pru, producing cells that express truncated hRpn13 (trRpn13), which is competent for UCHL5 binding but defective for proteasome interaction. trRpn13 cells demonstrate reduced levels of proteasome-bound ubiquitinated proteins, indicating that the loss of hRpn13 function at proteasomes cannot be fully compensated for by the two other dedicated substrate receptors (hRpn1 and hRpn10). Previous studies indicated that the loss of full-length hRpn13 causes a corresponding reduction of UCHL5. We find UCHL5 levels unaltered in trRpn13 cells, but hRpn11 is elevated in ?hRpn13 and trRpn13 cells, perhaps from cell stress. Despite the ?90 DUBs in human cells, including two others in addition to UCHL5 at the proteasome, we found deletion of UCHL5 from HCT116 cells to cause increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins in whole-cell extract and at proteasomes, suggesting that UCHL5 activity cannot be fully assumed by other DUBs. We also report anticancer molecule RA190, which binds covalently to hRpn13 and UCHL5, to require hRpn13 Pru and not UCHL5 for cytotoxicity.
Project description:Proteasome inhibitors have demonstrated that targeting protein degradation is effective therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). Here we show that deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) USP14 and UCHL5 are more highly expressed in MM cells than in normal plasma cells. USP14 and UCHL5 short interfering RNA knockdown decreases MM cell viability. A novel 19S regulatory particle inhibitor b-AP15 selectively blocks deubiquitylating activity of USP14 and UCHL5 without inhibiting proteasome activity. b-AP15 decreases viability in MM cell lines and patient MM cells, inhibits proliferation of MM cells even in the presence of bone marrow stroma cells, and overcomes bortezomib resistance. Anti-MM activity of b-AP15 is associated with growth arrest via downregulation of CDC25C, CDC2, and cyclin B1 as well as induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis and activation of unfolded protein response. In vivo studies using distinct human MM xenograft models show that b-AP15 is well tolerated, inhibits tumor growth, and prolongs survival. Combining b-AP15 with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, lenalidomide, or dexamethasone induces synergistic anti-MM activity. Our preclinical data showing efficacy of b-AP15 in MM disease models validates targeting DUBs in the ubiquitin proteasomal cascade to overcome proteasome inhibitor resistance and provides the framework for clinical evaluation of USP14/UCHL5 inhibitors to improve patient outcome in MM.