Roles of the vagina and the vaginal microbiota in urinary tract infection: evidence from clinical correlations and experimental models.
ABSTRACT: Mounting evidence indicates that the vagina can harbor uropathogenic bacteria. Here, we consider three roles played by the vagina and its bacterial inhabitants in urinary tract infection (UTI) and urinary health. First, the vagina can serve as a reservoir for Escherichia coli, the most common cause of UTI, and other recognized uropathogens. Second, several vaginal bacterial species are frequently detected upon urine culture but are underappreciated as uropathogens, and other vaginal species are likely under-reported because of their fastidious nature. Third, some vaginal bacteria that are not widely viewed as uropathogens can transit briefly in the urinary tract, cause injury or immunomodulation, and shift the balance of host-pathogen interactions to influence the outcomes of uropathogenesis. This chapter describes the current literature in these three areas and summarizes the impact of the vaginal microbiota on susceptibility to UTI and other urologic conditions.
Project description:A first step in urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogenesis in the otherwise healthy host is the movement of uropathogenic Escherichia coli from the intestinal tract to the urinary tract. We conducted a genomic subtraction to isolate genetic regions associated with this movement. A representative UTI isolate present in the rectum, vagina, and bladder of a woman with UTI was chosen as the tester; the driver was a phylogenetically distant rectal isolate (based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis) with a profile of uropathogenic virulence genes similar to that of the tester. Tester-specific regions identified by the subtraction were screened, using DNA dot blot hybridization, against a collection of 88 uropathogens isolated from the rectum, urine, and/or vagina of women with UTIs and 54 E. coli isolates from the same women that were found only in the rectum. Twelve genetic regions occurred more often in multisite isolates than in rectal site-only isolates. Eleven of these 12 genetic regions are homologous to regions in the sequenced uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 strain.
Project description:Host-associated reservoirs account for the majority of recurrent and oftentimes recalcitrant infections. Previous studies established that uropathogenic E. coli - the primary cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) - can adhere to vaginal epithelial cells preceding UTI. Here, we demonstrate that diverse urinary E. coli isolates not only adhere to, but also invade vaginal cells. Intracellular colonization of the vaginal epithelium is detected in acute and chronic murine UTI models indicating the ability of E. coli to reside in the vagina following UTI. Conversely, in a vaginal colonization model, E. coli are detected inside vaginal cells and the urinary tract, indicating that vaginal colonization can seed the bladder. More critically, bacteria are identified inside vaginal cells from clinical samples from women with a history of recurrent UTI. These findings suggest that E. coli can establish a vaginal intracellular reservoir, where it may reside safely from extracellular stressors prior to causing an ascending infection.
Project description:INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS:Women have a 20% risk of developing a urinary tract infection (UTI) following urogynecologic surgery. This study assessed the association of postoperative UTI with bacteria in preoperative samples of catheterized urine. METHODS:Immediately before surgery, vaginal swabs, perineal swabs, and catheterized urine samples were collected, and the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was sequenced. The cohort was dichotomized in two ways: (1) standard day-of-surgery urine culture result (positive/negative), and (2) occurrence of postoperative UTI (positive/negative). Characteristics of bladder, vaginal, and perineal microbiomes were assessed to identify factors associated with postoperative UTI. RESULTS:Eighty-seven percent of the 104 surgical patients with pelvic organ prolapse/urinary incontinence (POP/UI) were white; mean age was 57 years. The most common genus was Lactobacillus, with a mean relative abundance of 39.91% in catheterized urine, 53.88% in vaginal swabs, and 30.28% in perineal swabs. Two distinct clusters, based on dispersion of catheterized urine (i.e., bladder) microbiomes, had highly significant (p?<?2.2-16) differences in age, microbes, and postoperative UTI risk. Postoperative UTI was most frequently associated with the bladder microbiome; microbes in adjacent pelvic floor niches also contributed to UTI risk. UTI risk was associated with depletion of Lactobacillus iners and enrichment of a diverse mixture of uropathogens. CONCLUSIONS:Postoperative UTI risk appears to be associated with preoperative bladder microbiome composition, where an abundance of L. iners appears to protect against postoperative UTI.
Project description:We aimed to assess whether patients colonized with certain organisms in the genitourinary tract would have greater urinary tract infection (UTI) risk during the post-transplantation period, and whether information on the perioperatively colonized organisms may help identify the causal organisms during early UTI.We retrospectively reviewed the culture results of preoperative urine, preoperative urethral swab, and postoperative urinary catheter tip specimens of 420 renal transplant recipients. The colonization status was compared to the culture results during the first UTI episode within 6 months after transplantation.Twenty six (6.2%) patients developed early UTI, and the presence of common uropathogens in the perioperative genitourinary specimen was positively associated with a higher early UTI risk odds ratio [OR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44 to 7.24; P = 0.003). However, the actual causal organism during UTI was observed perioperatively only in 15 patients (40.5%). Neither perioperative colonization nor early UTI was associated with subsequent acute cellular rejection or graft failure.Renal transplantation patients who were colonized with common uropathogens were more likely to develop early UTI. However, the usefulness of the culture results of perioperative colonizers in predicting the causal organism during early UTI seems limited due to the low concordance rate.
Project description:The rise of antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens has complicated the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs), particularly in patients who are afflicted by recurrent episodes of UTIs. Antimicrobial-resistant (AR) uropathogens persistently colonizing individuals at asymptomatic time points have been implicated in the pathophysiology of UTIs. The dynamics of uropathogen persistence following the resolution of symptomatic disease are, however, mostly unclear. To further our understanding, we determined longitudinal AR uropathogen carriage and clonal persistence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in the intestinal and urinary tracts of patients affected by recurrent and nonrecurrent UTIs. Clonal tracking of isolates in consecutively collected urine and fecal specimens indicated repeated transmission of uropathogens between the urinary tract and their intestinal reservoir. Our results further implicate three independent routes of recurrence of UTIs: (i) following an intestinal bloom of uropathogenic bacteria and subsequent bladder colonization, (ii) reinfection of the urinary tract from an external source, and (iii) bacterial persistence within the urinary tract. Taken together, our observation of clonal persistence following UTIs and uropathogen transmission between the intestinal and urinary tracts warrants further investigations into the connection between the intestinal microbiome and recurrent UTIs.IMPORTANCE The increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens is challenging the continued efficacy of empiric antibiotic therapy for UTIs, which are among the most frequent bacterial infections worldwide. It has been suggested that drug-resistant uropathogens could persist in the intestine after the resolution of UTI and cause recurrences following periurethral contamination. A better understanding of the transmission dynamics between the intestinal and urinary tracts, combined with phenotypic characterization of the uropathogen populations in both habitats, could inform prudent therapies designed to overcome the rising resistance of uropathogens. Here, we integrate genomic surveillance with clinical microbiology to show that drug-resistant clones persist within and are readily transmitted between the intestinal and urinary tracts of patients affected by recurrent and nonrecurrent UTIs. Thus, our results advocate for understanding persistent intestinal uropathogen colonization as part of the pathophysiology of UTIs, particularly in patients affected by recurrent episodes of symptomatic disease.
Project description:Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a prominent global health care burden. Although UTI is readily treated with antibiotics in healthy adults, complicated cases in immune-compromised individuals and the emerging antibiotic resistance of several uropathogens have accelerated the need for new treatment strategies. Here, we surveyed the composition of urinary exosomes in a mouse model of uropathgenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) UTI to identify specific urinary tract defense constituents for therapeutic development. We found an enrichment of the iron-binding glycoprotein lactoferrin in the urinary exosomes of infected mice. In subsequent in vitro studies, we identified human bladder epithelial cells as a source of lactoferrin during UPEC infection. We further established that exogenous treatment with human lactoferrin (hLf) reduces UPEC epithelial adherence and enhances neutrophil antimicrobial functions including bacterial killing and extracellular trap production. Notably, a single intravesicular dose of hLf drastically reduced bladder bacterial burden and neutrophil infiltration in our murine UTI model. We propose that lactoferrin is an important modulator of innate immune responses in the urinary tract and has potential application in novel therapeutic design for UTI.
Project description:Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains to be one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in developing countries. And a widespread use of antibiotics against uropathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant species. A laboratory based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shashemene referral hospital to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens.We have collected 384 clean catch mid-stream urine samples from all suspected UTI outpatients using sterile screw capped container. The urine samples were cultured and processed for subsequent uropathogens isolation. The isolated pure cultures were grown on BiOLOG Universal Growth agar (BUG) and identified using GEN III OmniLog® Plus ID System identification protocols. The identified species were then exposed to selected antibiotics to test for their susceptibility.The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection in the area was 90.1%. Most frequently isolated uropathogen in our study was Escherichia coli (39.3%). While, Staphylococcus species (20.2%), Leuconostoc species (11.4%), Raoultella terrigena/Klebsiella spp./ (8.4%), Salmonella typhimurium (6.3%), Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis (6.3%), Citerobacter freundii (5.2%) and Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei/ (2.7%) were the other isolates. We find that the relationship between uropathogens and some of UTI risk factors was statistically significant (P?<?0.05). Gentamicin was the most effective drug against most of the isolates followed by chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin. In contrast, amoxicillin, vancomycin and cephalexin were the antibiotics to which most of the isolates developed resistance.Urinary tract infection was highly prevalent in the study area and all uropathogens isolated developed a resistance against mostly used antibiotics.
Project description:Midstream urine (MSU) culture remains the gold standard diagnostic test for confirming urinary tract infection (UTI). We previously showed that patients with chronic lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) below the diagnostic cutoff on MSU culture may still harbor bacterial infection and that their antibiotic treatment was associated with symptom resolution. Here, we evaluated the results of the United Kingdom's MSU culture in symptomatic patients and controls. Next, we compared the bacterial enrichment capabilities of the MSU culture with those of a 50-µl uncentrifuged culture, a 30-ml centrifuged sediment culture, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study was conducted on urine specimens from 33 LUTS patients attending their first clinical appointment (mean age, 48.7?years; standard deviation [SD], 16.5?years), 30 LUTS patients on treatment (mean age, 47.8?years; SD, 16.5?years) whose symptoms had relapsed, and 29 asymptomatic controls (mean age, 40.7?years, SD, 15.7?years). We showed that the routine MSU culture, adopting the UK interpretation criteria tailored to acute UTI, failed to detect a variety of bacterial species, including recognized uropathogens. Moreover, the diagnostic MSU culture was unable to discriminate between patients and controls. In contrast, genomic analysis of urine enriched by centrifugation discriminated between the groups, generating a more accurate understanding of species richness. In conclusion, the United Kingdom's MSU protocol misses a significant proportion of bacteria, which include recognized uropathogens, and may be unsuitable for excluding UTI in patients with LUTS.
Project description:Background/aim:Lactic acid bacteria prevent the overgrowth of pathogenic agents and opportunistic pathogens in the vagina. Moreover, lactic acid bacteria contribute to the preservation of vaginal microbiota by producing antimicrobial agents. Previous studies showed that some lactic acid bacteria exhibited antimicrobial activity against Candida species causing yeast vaginosis as well as many bacterial pathogens. Materials and methods:The antifungal activities of various lactic acid bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy women on some Candida species isolated from the vagina were investigated by agar diffusion technique. Results:Most of the lactic acid bacteria that belong to the species of Lactobacillus crispatus, L. fermentum, L. acidophilus, L. paracesei subsp. paracesei, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum exhibited antifungal activity in varying ratios against C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis strains isolated from the vagina. Conclusion:The lactic acid bacteria are useful microorganisms associated with a variety of probiotic properties. In this sense, our lactic acid bacteria isolates with high antifungal activity may be promising candidates as probiotic microorganisms in the inhibition of vaginal candidiasis, which is one of the most prevalent problems, or in the protection against candidiasis. We will continue our studies in this area.
Project description:Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major global infectious disease affecting millions of people annually. Human urinary copper (Cu) content is elevated during UTI caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC upregulates the expression of Cu efflux genes during clinical UTI in patients as an adaptive response to host-derived Cu. Whether Cu is mobilized to urine as a host response to UTI and its role in protection against UTI remain unresolved. To address these questions, we tested the hypothesis that Cu is a host effector mobilized to urine during UTI to limit bacterial growth. Our results reveal that Cu is mobilized to urine during UTI caused by the major uropathogens Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in addition to UPEC, in humans. Ceruloplasmin, a Cu-containing ferroxidase, is found at higher levels in UTI urine than in healthy control urine and serves as the molecular source of urinary Cu during UTI. Our results demonstrate that ceruloplasmin decreases the bioavailability of iron in urine by a transferrin-dependent mechanism. Experimental UTI with UPEC in nonhuman primates recapitulates the increased urinary Cu content observed during clinical UTI. Furthermore, Cu-deficient mice are highly colonized by UPEC, indicating that Cu is involved in the limiting of bacterial growth within the urinary tract. Collectively, our results indicate that Cu is a host effector that is involved in protection against pathogen colonization of the urinary tract. Because urinary Cu levels are amenable to modulation, augmentation of the Cu-based host defense against UTI represents a novel approach to limiting bacterial colonization during UTI.