Association between respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization in infancy and childhood asthma.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Respiratory syncytial virus infection in early childhood has been linked to longer-term respiratory morbidity; however, debate persists around its impact on asthma. The objective was to assess the association between respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization and childhood asthma. METHODS:Asthma hospital admissions and medication use through 18 years were compared in children with (cases) and without (controls) respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization in the first 2 years of life. All children born in National Health Service Scotland between 1996 and 2011 were included. RESULTS:Of 740?418 children (median follow-up: 10.6 years), 15?795 (2.1%) had a respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization at ?2 years (median age: 143 days). Asthma hospitalizations were three-fold higher in cases than controls (8.4% vs 2.4%; relative risk: 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.1-3.5; P?
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A relationship between hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and asthma development has been suggested in case-control studies.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study was to assess the risk of current wheeze, asthma, and lung function at school age in infants previously hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis compared to non-hospitalized children.<h4>Methods</h4>For this study, data from a prospective birth cohort of unselected, term-born infants (n?=?553), of whom 4 (0.7%) were hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis, and a prospective patient cohort of 155 term infants hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis were used. Respiratory outcomes at age 6 in children hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis were compared to non-hospitalized children.<h4>Results</h4>The risk of current wheeze was higher in hospitalized patients (n?=?159) compared to non-hospitalized children (n?=?549) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). Similarly, the risk of current asthma, defined as a doctor's diagnosis of asthma plus current symptoms or medication use, was higher in hospitalized patients (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.3-7.5). Compared to non-hospitalized children, RSV bronchiolitis hospitalization was associated with lower lung function (mean difference FEV1% predicted -6.8 l (95% CI (-10.2 to -3.4).<h4>Conclusions and clinical relevance</h4>This is the first study showing that hospitalization for RSV bronchiolitis during infancy is associated with increased risk of wheezing, current asthma, and impaired lung function as compared to an unselected birth cohort at age 6.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To develop a valid research tool to measure infant respiratory illness severity using parent-reported symptoms. STUDY DESIGN:Nose and throat swabs were collected monthly for 1 year and during respiratory illnesses for 2 years in a prospective study of term and preterm infants in the Prematurity, Respiratory Outcomes, Immune System and Microbiome study. Viral pathogens were detected using Taqman Array Cards. Parents recorded symptoms during respiratory illnesses using a Childhood Origins of Asthma (COAST) scorecard. The COAST score was validated using linear mixed effects regression modeling to evaluate associations with hospitalization and specific infections. A data-driven method was also used to compute symptom weights and derive a new score, the Infant Research Respiratory Infection Severity Score (IRRISS). Linear mixed effects regression modeling was repeated with the IRRISS illness data. RESULTS:From April 2013 to April 2017, 50 term, 40 late preterm, and 28 extremely low gestational age (<29 weeks of gestation) infants had 303 respiratory illness visits with viral testing and parent-reported symptoms. A range of illness severity was described with 39% of illness scores suggestive of severe disease. Both the COAST score and IRRISS were associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection and hospitalization. Gestational age and human rhinovirus infection were inversely associated with both scoring systems. The IRRISS and COAST scores were highly correlated (r = 0.93; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS:Using parent-reported symptoms, we validated the COAST score as a measure of respiratory illness severity in infants. The new IRRISS score performed as well as the COAST score.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory tract viruses lead to common colds in most infants, whereas a minority develop acute severe bronchiolitis often requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that such an excessive response to respiratory tract viral infection is caused by host factors reflected in pre-existing increased bronchial responsiveness. OBJECTIVE:We sought to compare bronchial responsiveness and lung function in 1-month-old neonates who later develop acute severe bronchiolitis with those who do not. METHODS:We measured infant lung function (n=402) and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (n=363) using the raised-volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique before any respiratory symptoms in 1-month-old neonates from the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood birth cohort born to mothers with asthma. The children were prospectively monitored for respiratory symptoms and given a diagnosis of acute severe bronchiolitis according to a fixed algorithm. RESULTS:Thirty-four (8.5%) infants had acute severe bronchiolitis before 2 years of age, 21 (62%) were hospitalized, and 23 (67%) of the cases were associated with respiratory syncytial virus. Children who later had acute severe bronchiolitis irrespective of viral species had a 2.5-fold increased responsiveness to methacholine (provocative dose of methacholine producing a 15% decrease in transcutaneous oxygen pressure [PD(15)]) at age 1 month compared with control subjects (median PD(15) in cases vs control subjects, 0.13 vs 0.33 ?mol; P=.01), whereas differences in baseline airflow were not significant for forced expiratory volume at 0.5 seconds (mean z score for cases vs control subjects, -0.18 vs -0.01; P=.36) and forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (mean z score for cases vs control subjects, -0.37 vs -0.09; P=.13). CONCLUSION:Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in at-risk neonates precedes acute severe bronchiolitis in response to infections with respiratory tract virus.
Project description:Severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been associated with later pneumonia hospitalization among children. To determine risk for pneumonia after RSV hospitalization in infancy, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,813 infants admitted to a hospital in Kenya and identified readmissions for pneumonia among this group during early childhood (<60 months of age). Incidence of readmission for pneumonia was higher for children whose first admission as infants was for LRTI and who were <3 months of age than for children who were first admitted as infants for non-LRTI, irrespective of RSV status. Incidence of readmission for pneumonia with wheeze was higher for children whose first admission involved RSV compared with those who had non-RSV LRTI. Excess pneumonia risk persisted for 2 years after the initial hospitalization. Close postdischarge follow-up of infants with LRTI, with or without RSV, could help prevent severe pneumonia later in childhood.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection is implicated in asthma development. RSV immunoprophylaxis during infancy is efficacious in preventing RSV-related hospitalizations and has been associated with decreased wheezing in the first years of life. OBJECTIVE:We investigated whether greater adherence to immunoprophylaxis in infants at high risk for severe RSV would be associated with decreased childhood asthma. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort investigation including children born from 1996-2003 who were enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California or Tennessee Medicaid and eligible to receive RSV immunoprophylaxis. Asthma was defined at 4.5 to 6 years of age by using asthma-specific health care visits and medication fills. We classified children into immunoprophylaxis eligibility groups and calculated adherence (percentage receipt of recommended doses). We used a set of statistical strategies (multivariable logistic regression and propensity score [PS]-adjusted and PS-matched analyses) to overcome confounding by medical complexity because infants with higher adherence (?70%) have higher prevalence of chronic lung disease, lower birth weight, and longer nursery stays. RESULTS:By using multivariable logistic regression and PS-adjusted models in the combined group, higher adherence to RSV immunoprophylaxis was not associated with decreased asthma. However, in PS-matched analysis, treated children with 70% or greater adherence had decreased odds of asthma compared with those with 20% or less adherence (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78). CONCLUSIONS:This investigation of RSV immunoprophylaxis in high-risk children primarily found nonsignificant associations on prevention of asthma in specific preterm groups. Our findings highlight the need for larger studies and prospective cohorts and provide estimates of potential preventive effect sizes in high-risk children.
Project description:Introduction: In early childhood, wheezing due to lower respiratory tract illness is often associated with infection by commonly known respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (RV). How respiratory viral infections lead to wheeze and/or asthma is an area of active research. Areas covered: This review provides an updated summary of the published information on the development of post-viral induced atopy and asthma and the mechanisms involved. We focus on the contribution of animal models in identifying pathways that may contribute to atopy and asthma following respiratory virus infection, different polymorphisms that have been associated with asthma development, and current options for disease management and potential future interventions. Expert commentary: Currently there are no prophylactic therapies that prevent infants infected with respiratory viruses from developing asthma or atopy. Neither are there curative therapies for patients with asthma. Therefore, a better understanding of genetic factors and other associated biomarkers in respiratory viral induced pathogenesis is important for developing effective personalized therapies.
Project description:Our aim is to explore (1) whether gestational medication use, mode of delivery, and early postnatal exposure correlate with childhood asthma, (2) the dose responsiveness of such exposure, and (3) their links to early- and late-onset asthma. We conducted a matched case-control study based on the Taiwan Children Health Study, which was a nationwide survey that recruited 12-to-14-year-old school children in 14 communities. 579 mothers of the participants were interviewed by telephone. Exclusive breastfeeding protected children from asthma. Notably, childhood asthma was significantly associated with maternal medication use during pregnancy, vacuum use during vaginal delivery, recurrent respiratory tract infections, hospitalization, main caregiver cared for other children, and early daycare attendance. Exposure to these factors led to dose responsiveness in relationships to asthma. Most of the exposures revealed a greater impact on early-onset asthma, except for vacuum use and daycare attendance.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and hospitalization in infants and children globally. Many observational studies have found an association between RSV LRTI in early life and subsequent respiratory morbidity, including recurrent wheeze of early childhood (RWEC) and asthma. Conversely, two randomized placebo-controlled trials of efficacious anti-RSV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in heterogenous infant populations found no difference in physician-diagnosed RWEC or asthma by treatment group. If a causal association exists and RSV vaccines and mAbs can prevent a substantial fraction of RWEC/asthma, the full public health value of these interventions would markedly increase. The primary alternative interpretation of the observational data is that RSV LRTI in early life is a marker of an underlying predisposition for the development of RWEC and asthma. If this is the case, RSV vaccines and mAbs would not necessarily be expected to impact these outcomes. To evaluate whether the available evidence supports a causal association between RSV LRTI and RWEC/asthma and to provide guidance for future studies, the World Health Organization convened a meeting of subject matter experts on February 12-13, 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. After discussing relevant background information and reviewing the current epidemiologic evidence, the group determined that: (i) the evidence is inconclusive in establishing a causal association between RSV LRTI and RWEC/asthma, (ii) the evidence does not establish that RSV mAbs (and, by extension, future vaccines) will have a substantial effect on these outcomes and (iii) regardless of the association with long-term childhood respiratory morbidity, severe acute RSV disease in young children poses a substantial public health burden and should continue to be the primary consideration for policy-setting bodies deliberating on RSV vaccine and mAb recommendations. Nonetheless, the group recognized the public health importance of resolving this question and suggested good practice guidelines for future studies.
Project description:Virus-induced wheezing episodes in infancy often precede the development of asthma. Whether infections with specific viral pathogens confer differential future asthma risk is incompletely understood.To define the relationship between specific viral illnesses and early childhood asthma development.A total of 259 children were followed prospectively from birth to 6 years of age. The etiology and timing of specific viral wheezing respiratory illnesses during early childhood were assessed using nasal lavage, culture, and multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The relationships of these virus-specific wheezing illnesses and other risk factors to the development of asthma were analyzed.Viral etiologies were identified in 90% of wheezing illnesses. From birth to age 3 years, wheezing with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (odds ratio [OR], 2.6), rhinovirus (RV) (OR, 9.8), or both RV and RSV (OR , 10) was associated with increased asthma risk at age 6 years. In Year 1, both RV wheezing (OR, 2.8) and aeroallergen sensitization (OR, 3.6) independently increased asthma risk at age 6 years. By age 3 years, wheezing with RV (OR, 25.6) was more strongly associated with asthma at age 6 years than aeroallergen sensitization (OR, 3.4). Nearly 90% (26 of 30) of children who wheezed with RV in Year 3 had asthma at 6 years of age.Among outpatient viral wheezing illnesses in infancy and early childhood, those caused by RV infections are the most significant predictors of the subsequent development of asthma at age 6 years in a high-risk birth cohort.
Project description:Between 75 000 and 125 000 U.S. infants are hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis every year. Up to half will be diagnosed with asthma in later childhood. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with susceptibility to asthma and respiratory infections. Measured vitamin D is largely bound to vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP); VDBP levels are influenced by its gene (GC) haplotype.We assessed the relationship between polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588, which define haplotypes GC1s, GC1f, and GC2, and RSV bronchiolitis susceptibility and subsequent asthma.We retrospectively recruited 198 otherwise healthy children (93% White) hospitalized for severe RSV bronchiolitis in Boston and 333 parents into a follow-up study to assess asthma diagnosis. Data were analysed using family-based genetic association tests. We independently validated our results in 465 White children hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis and 930 White population controls from the Netherlands.The rs7041_C allele (denoting haplotype GC1s) was overtransmitted (P = 0.02, additive model) in the entire Boston cohort, in Whites (P = 0.03), and especially in children subsequently diagnosed with asthma (P = 0.006). The GC1f haplotype was undertransmitted in the asthma subgroups (all races and White, both P < 0.05). The rs7041_C allele was also more frequent in the RSV bronchiolitis group compared with controls (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02, 1.4, P = 0.03) in the Netherlands, especially in mechanically ventilated patients (P = 0.009).GC1s haplotype carriage may increase the risk of RSV bronchiolitis in infancy and subsequent asthma development. The GC1s haplotype is associated with higher VDBP levels, resulting in less freely available vitamin D.Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) haplotypes influence free vitamin D levels. We report an association between a VDBP haplotype and hospitalization for RSV bronchiolitis in infancy in two independent cohorts.