Photocatalytic deaminative benzylation and alkylation of tetrahydroisoquinolines with N-alkylpyrydinium salts.
ABSTRACT: A ruthenium-catalyzed photoredox coupling of substituted N-aryltetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) and different bench-stable pyridinium salts was successfully developed to give fast access to 1-benzyl-THIQs. Furthermore, secondary alkyl and allyl groups were also successfully introduced via the same method. Additionally, the typically applied N-phenyl group in the THIQ substrate could be replaced by the cleavable p-methoxyphenyl (PMP) group and successful N-deprotection was demonstrated.
Project description:The synthesis of 1,2,3-trisubstituted indoles was investigated. More specifically, straightforward synthetic routes towards 1-(1,2-diarylindol-3-yl)-N-PG-THIQs (PG = protecting group, THIQ = tetrahydroisoquinoline) employing transition metal-catalyzed C-H and N-H-bond functionalization were explored. It was found that the synthesis of the target compounds is strongly dependent on the order of events. Hence, depending on the requirements of a synthetic problem the most suitable and promising pathway can be chosen. Additionally, a new synthetic approach towards 1,2-diarylindoles starting from 1-arylindole could be established in the course of our investigation by using a palladium-catalyzed protocol. Such 1,2-diarylindoles were successfully reacted with N-Boc-THIQ to furnish 1,2,3-trisubstituted indoles as target compounds. Furthermore, regioselective N-arylation of protected and unprotected 1-(indol-3-yl)-THIQs was successfully conducted using either simple iron or copper salts as catalysts.
Project description:Chemoenzymatic and enzymatic cascade reactions enable the synthesis of complex stereocomplementary 1,3,4-trisubstituted tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) with three chiral centers in a step-efficient and selective manner without intermediate purification. The cascade employs inexpensive substrates (3-hydroxybenzaldehyde and pyruvate), and involves a carboligation step, a subsequent transamination, and finally a Pictet-Spengler reaction with a carbonyl cosubstrate. Appropriate selection of the carboligase and transaminase enzymes enabled the biocatalytic formation of (1R,2S)-metaraminol. Subsequent cyclization catalyzed either enzymatically by a norcoclaurine synthase or chemically by phosphate resulted in opposite stereoselectivities in the products at the C1 position, thus providing access to both orientations of the THIQ C1 substituent. This highlights the importance of selecting from both chemo- and biocatalysts for optimal results.
Project description:A highly efficient metal-free oxidative direct C(sp3)-H functionalization of N-acyl/sulfonyl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) with a wide range of electron-rich nucleophiles was accomplished under mild conditions through oxidation with DDQ and subsequent trapping of the resulting reactive and stable N-acyl/sulfonyl iminium ions. The synthetic utility of this method was illustrated by a concise and efficient total synthesis of (±)-benzo[a]quinolizidine (10) in 3 steps from the known N-Cbz 1,2,3,4-THIQ 4b.
Project description:Tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) is a key structural component in many biologically active molecules including natural products and synthetic pharmaceuticals. Here, we report on the use of transition-metal mediated [2 + 2 + 2] cyclotrimerisation of alkynes to generate tricyclic THIQs with potential to selectively inhibit AKR1C3.
Project description:Structure-activity relationship translation offers an expeditious means for discovery of new active series. This approach was applied to discover tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ)-based steroidomimetic microtubule disruptors. The two A-ring elements of a three-point steroidal pharmacophore were incorporated into a THIQ-based A,B-ring mimic to which an H-bond acceptor was attached as the third motif. Optimization of the representative 6c through conformational biasing delivered a 10-fold gain in activity and a new series of microtubule disruptors (e.g., 9c) with antiproliferative activity in the nanomolar range. The THIQ derivatives match, or surpass, the activities of the steroidal series and exhibit improved physicochemical properties.
Project description:The Pictet-Spengler reaction (PSR) involves the condensation and ring closure between a ?-arylethylamine and a carbonyl compound. The combination of dopamine and ketones in a PSR leads to the formation of 1,1'-disubstituted tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs), structures that are challenging to synthesize and yet are present in a number of bioactive natural products and synthetic pharmaceuticals. Here we have discovered that norcoclaurine synthase from Thalictrum flavum (TfNCS) can catalyse the PSR between dopamine and unactivated ketones, thus facilitating the facile biocatalytic generation of 1,1'-disubstituted THIQs. Variants of TfNCS showing improved conversions have been identified and used to synthesize novel chiral 1,1'-disubstituted and spiro-THIQs. Enzyme catalysed PSRs with unactivated ketones are unprecedented, and, furthermore, there are no equivalent stereoselective chemical methods for these transformations. This discovery advances the utility of enzymes for the generation of diverse THIQs in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:This report describes a highly enantioselective oxidative sp3 C-H arylation of N-aryltetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) through a dual catalysis platform. The combination of the photoredox catalyst, [Ir(ppy)2(dtbbpy)]PF6, and chiral copper catalysts provide a mild and highly effective sp3 C-H asymmetric arylation of THIQs.
Project description:3-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (3-methyl-THIQs) are potent inhibitors of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), but are not selective due to significant affinity for the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor. Fluorination of the methyl group lowers the pK(a) of the THIQ amine from 9.53 (CH(3)) to 7.88 (CH(2)F), 6.42 (CHF(2)), and 4.88 (CF(3)). This decrease in pK(a) results in a reduction in affinity for the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor. However, increased fluorination also results in a reduction in PNMT inhibitory potency, apparently due to steric and electrostatic factors. Biochemical evaluation of a series of 3-fluoromethyl-THIQs and 3-trifluoromethyl-THIQs showed that the former were highly potent inhibitors of PNMT, but were often nonselective due to significant affinity for the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor, while the latter were devoid of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor affinity, but also lost potency at PNMT. 3-Difluoromethyl-7-substituted-THIQs have the proper balance of both steric and pK(a) properties and thus have enhanced selectivity versus the corresponding 3-fluoromethyl-7-substituted-THIQs and enhanced PNMT inhibitory potency versus the corresponding 3-trifluoromethyl-7-substituted-THIQs. Using the "Goldilocks Effect" analogy, the 3-fluoromethyl-THIQs are too potent (too hot) at the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and the 3-trifluoromethyl-THIQs are not potent enough (too cold) at PNMT, but the 3-difluoromethyl-THIQs are just right. They are both potent inhibitors of PNMT and highly selective due to low affinity for the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor. This seems to be the first successful use of the beta-fluorination of aliphatic amines to impart selectivity to a pharmacological agent while maintaining potency at the site of interest.
Project description:Herein, we report a biocatalytic approach to synthesize plant tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids (THIQAs) from dihydroisoquinoline (DHIQ) precursors using imine reductases and N-methyltransferase (NMT). The imine reductase IR45 was engineered to significantly expand its substrate specificity, enabling efficient and stereoselective conversion of 1-phenyl and 1-benzyl 6,7-dimethoxy-DHIQs into the corresponding (S)-tetrahydroisoquinolines (S-THIQs). Coclaurine N-methyltransferase (CNMT) was able to further efficiently convert these (S)-THIQ intermediates into (S)-THIQAs. By assembling IRED, CNMT, and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in one reaction, we effectively constituted two artificial biosynthetic pathways in Escherichia coli and successfully applied them to the production of five (S)-THIQAs. This highly efficient (100% yield from DHIQs) and easily tailorable (adding other genes) biosynthetic approach will be useful for producing a variety of plant THIQAs.
Project description:Tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) alkaloids are an important group of compounds that exhibit a range of bioactivities. Here, a phosphate buffer-catalyzed Pictet-Spengler reaction (PSR) using unreactive ketone substrates is described. A variety of 1,1'-disubstituted and spiro-tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids were readily prepared in one-step and high yields, highlighting the general applicability of this approach. This study features the role of phosphate in the aqueous-based PSR and provides an atom-efficient, sustainable route to new THIQs.