The Spillover Effect of Autonomy Frustration on Human Motivation and Its Electrophysiological Representation.
ABSTRACT: It is a commonplace that some people may adopt a controlling style, which brings about autonomy frustration to others. Existing studies on autonomy frustration mainly examined its effect in the primary thwarting context, ignoring its potential spillover to subsequent activities. In this study, we examined whether prior autonomy frustration would have a sustaining negative impact on one’s motivation in another autonomy-supportive activity that follows. In this electrophysiological study, participants worked on two irrelevant tasks organized by two different experimenters. We adopted a between-group design and manipulated participants’ autonomy frustration by providing varied audio instructions during Session 1. In Session 2, all participants were instructed to complete a moderately difficult task that is autonomy-supportive instead, and we observed a less pronounced reward positivity (RewP) difference wave and a smaller P300 in the autonomy-frustration group compared with the control group. These findings suggested that the negative influence of autonomy frustration is longstanding and that it can undermine one’s motivation and attention in a following activity that is autonomy-supportive itself. Thus, our findings provided original neutral evidence for the adverse intertemporal effect of autonomy frustration, and suggested important practical implications.
Project description:According to self-determination theory (SDT), competence is among the three basic psychological needs essential for one's well-being and optimal functioning, and the frustration of these needs is theoretically predicted to induce a restorative response. While previous studies have explored the restoration process of autonomy and relatedness, empirical evidence for such a process is still lacking for competence. In order to explore this process and to examine the effect of prior competence frustration on one's motivation to win in a subsequent competence-supportive task, we adopted a between-group experimental design and manipulated one's competence frustration through task difficulty in an electrophysiological study. Participants in both groups were instructed to work on the time-estimation task and the stop-watch task in two successive sessions respectively. Participants in the experimental group were asked to complete a highly difficult task in the first session and a task of medium difficulty in the second session, while those in the control group were instructed to work on tasks of medium difficulty in both sessions. In the second session, an enlarged feedback-related negativity (FRN) loss-win difference wave (d-FRN) was observed in the experimental group compared to the control group, indicating that the competence-frustrated participants have an enhanced motivation to win in a subsequent competence-supportive task. Thus, results of the present study provided original neural evidence for the restoration process of frustrated competence, which provided important guidelines for the managerial practice.
Project description:The aim of this experiment was to study the growth-promoting and adverse impact of athlete leaders' competence-supportive and-thwarting behavior on the motivation and performance of team members. Male soccer players (N = 144; MAge = 14.2) were allocated to ad-hoc teams of five soccer players. These teams participated in two sessions, being randomly exposed to an athlete leader who acted either competence-supportive, competence-thwarting, or neutral during the second session. When the athlete leader was competence-supportive (versus competence-thwarting), his teammates' intrinsic motivation and performance increased (versus decreased) compared with the control condition. The leader's impact on intrinsic motivation was fully accounted for by team members' competence satisfaction. These findings recommend coaches to invest in the competence-supportive power of their athlete leaders to establish an optimally motivating and performance-enhancing team environment.
Project description:Grounded in self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between autonomy-supportive teaching, mindfulness, and basic psychological need satisfaction/frustration. Secondary school students (n = 390, Mage = 15) responded to a survey form measuring psychological constructs pertaining to the research purpose. A series of multiple regression analysis showed that autonomy-supportive teaching and mindfulness positively predicted need satisfaction and negatively predicted need frustration. In addition, the associations between autonomy-supportive teaching and need satisfaction/frustration were moderated by mindfulness. Students higher in mindfulness were more likely to feel need satisfaction and less likely to experience need frustration, even in a low autonomy-supportive teaching environment. These results speak to the relevance of creating autonomy-supportive teaching environments and highlight mindfulness as a potential pathway to basic psychological need satisfaction in educational settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An unresolved debate lingers over the effect of past behavior on motivational patterns and future behavior stability in the exercise context. Theorists argue that past behavior has a residual effect on future behavior; however, empirical studies have shown that past behavior displays significant power in predicting behavior recurrence in the future. The present research aimed to examine the effect of past behavior and motivational determinants on future exercise adherence. METHODS:Data from 437 Portuguese gym exercisers (female = 235; male = 202) aged between 18 and 53 years (M = 31.14; SD = 9.47), with exercise experience ranging from 6 to 12 months (M = 9.41; SD = 1.33) were considered for research. Participants completed a multi-section survey measuring interpersonal behaviors, basic psychological needs, behavioral regulations, and intentions. Data from past behavior and future exercise adherence were collected using computerized records of their attendance at the gym. RESULTS:Positive and significant correlations paths were evidenced among perceived supportive behaviors, needs satisfaction, autonomous motivation, intentions and future exercise adherence. Similar results were presented among perceived thwarting behaviors, needs frustration, and controlled motivation. Regression paths showed that perceived supportive behavior, basic needs satisfaction, and autonomous motivation displayed positive and significant effects on future behaviors; thus, past behavior displayed the highest coefficient on future exercise adherence. Fitness professionals should aim at creating supportive environments, thus, improving the likelihood of being perceived by exercisers as need-supportive individuals. By doing so, as a result, exercisers would experience increased levels of autonomous motivation and higher rates of future exercise attendance at the gym. Hence, exercisers will gradually form their positive past exercise experience, increasing the probability of engaging in an exercise in the future.
Project description:Competence frustration has been consistently found to undermine one's intrinsic motivation in the same activity. However, the relationship between competence frustration in a preceding activity and one's intrinsic motivation in a subsequent one remains unclear. In order to explore this relationship, self-reported data were collected from 617 undergraduate students of a large comprehensive university in southern China, who took varied courses immediately before taking a less-demanding one. Results suggested a U-shaped relationship between students' competence frustration in a preceding course and intrinsic motivation in a subsequent one. To be specific, for students whose competence frustration reached the inflection point, a restoration process would be activated if the current course would help restore their competence. Importantly, these students' competence frustration in a preceding course was found to positively predict their intrinsic motivation level in a subsequent course. As far as we are concerned, this is the first study to reveal a potential positive effect of need frustration outside of its primary thwarting context, which complements and extends existing literatures on the dynamics between need frustration and intrinsic motivation.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical activity-based intervention conducted during recess time for Spanish students with special needs. The intervention was designed to utilize an autonomy-supportive motivational style to promote feelings of autonomy and to contribute to increased physical activity involvement in these students. Participants were 62 students in the fifth and sixth year of elementary school, with ages between 10 and 12 years (M = 10.75 years, SD = 0.80 years). Students' perceptions of autonomy support, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, sport and physical activity motivation and actual physical activity level were assessed. A quasi-experimental design was employed with two intervention groups (autonomy-supportive and controlling styles), as well as a control group. Results indicated that students in the autonomy-supportive condition demonstrated a significant increase in feelings of autonomy and increased their physical activity levels while demonstrating a significant decrease in extrinsic motivation over the course of the intervention. The results provide support for the expectation that well-designed and theoretically based physical activity interventions can optimize learning and motivational outcomes for students in inclusive physical education settings.
Project description:This study investigated situational changes in learners' degree of autonomous regulation during other-initiated learning activities and examined the influence of the instructional style on such changes. To this end, relative autonomous motivation of 172 fifth to seventh grade students was measured before, during and after execution of a musical learning activity. It was experimentally manipulated whether students were instructed in an autonomy-supportive or a controlling style. As expected based on self-determination theory and the action-based model of cognitive dissonance, relative autonomous motivation increased in the course of the execution of the learning activity. Unexpectedly, this increase was only statistically significant when students were instructed in a controlling style. At all times though, students instructed in an autonomy-supportive style were more autonomously motivated than students instructed in a controlling style. Furthermore, results showed a positive effect of an autonomy-supportive instructional style on students' functional state and their interest in continuing with the learning activity. The pattern of changes in relative autonomous motivation might indicate that in controlling conditions a reduction of dissonance is of functional importance, which is why relative autonomous motivation increased under controlling conditions but not under autonomy-supportive conditions. In an applied perspective, the study demonstrates that executing an activity might be beneficial for fostering autonomous motivation and it corroborates findings that indicate positive effects of an autonomy-supportive instructional style on students' motivation and functional state.
Project description:Background: Based on the refined theory of basic individual values and transformational leadership theory, this study focuses on the associations between coaches' value priorities and their transformational leadership behaviors, exploring the potential mediation versus moderation effect of two alternative variables in this relationship: perceived club pressure or an autonomy supportive environment. Methods: Participants were 266 basketball coaches (85.7% men) from 17 to 66 years old (M = 32.82, SD = 9.2) from 119 different Spanish clubs. On average, they had worked for their current sport clubs for 5.02 years, and they had a mean of 11.10 years of experience. The coaches were all Spanish speakers, and they trained players at different levels of competition. Results: The stronger the importance of the coaches' self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence), the more they displayed transformational behaviors (i.e., individual consideration, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and fostering acceptance of group goals) toward the basketball players and perceived a more autonomy supportive environment and lower pressure from the club. Coaches who held conservation values (i.e., humility and face) displayed inspirational motivation behaviors. When coaches held openness to change values (i.e., stimulation and self-direction thought), they tended to display inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation. Finally, coaches who held beliefs in self-enhancement values (i.e., power) displayed lower transformational behaviors (intellectual stimulation and fostering acceptance of group goals) toward their basketball players, and they perceived higher pressure from the club and a less autonomy supportive environment. Moreover, the club's autonomy supportive environment played a mediator role between self-transcendence values and some transformational behaviors; however, moderator effects were not significant, with the exception of coaches with self-enhancement values, who tended to avoid intellectual stimulation to a larger extent when they perceived high levels of pressure at the club. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of identifying the value base on which to develop transformational leadership programs in order to enhance positive experiences in the sport domain.
Project description:In music education, women are present in great numbers. In professional settings, however, women musicians are not as predominant. With some exceptions, such as Scandinavian countries, women still pursue gender equality in professional music practice. To inquire about the causes of this, we considered if gender-differences in amotivation in conservatoire instrument practice could be associated with aspects of learning environment. Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that learning environments may influence motivation, by satisfying or thwarting students' psychological needs and by selectively endorsing specific extrinsic goals. Thus, we analysed if-women and men-amotivation variations could be explained by differences in behavioural regulations and satisfaction of their psychological needs for competence and autonomy. Participants (67 women and 74 men, 18-47 years old) completed validated scales for amotivation, behavioural regulations, and needs satisfaction. Students exhibited high intrinsic and introjected regulations, and high autonomy and competence needs satisfaction. Students' identified regulation levels were modest, and external regulation and amotivation levels were low. Women students' perceived competence was lower, and their amotivation was higher than men's. Amotivation variations were explained positively by identified regulation and negatively by context-derived satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence (and autonomy, only among women). Results suggest that internalization of extrinsic goals can pose difficulties and that psychological needs satisfaction may counteract amotivation (autonomy being potentially more important for women musicians).
Project description:Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examined the shift in types of motivation to increase PA and healthy dieting among participants of a primary care CLI, and the contribution of lifestyle coaching to potential changes in motivational quality.This prospective cohort study included participants of 29 general practices in the Netherlands that implemented a CLI named 'BeweegKuur'. Questionnaires including items on demographics, lifestyle coaching and motivation were sent at baseline and after 4 months. Aspects of motivation were assessed with the Behavioural Regulation and Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and the Regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (REBS). We performed a drop out analysis to identify selective drop-out. Changes in motivation were analysed with t-tests and effect size interpretations (Cohen's d), and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of motivational change.For physical activity, changes in motivational regulation were fully in line with the tenets of Self Determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing: participants made a shift towards a more autonomous type of motivation (i.e. controlled types of motivation decreased and autonomous types increased). Moreover, an autonomy supportive coaching style was generally found to predict a larger shift in autonomous types of motivation. For healthy dietary behaviour, however, except for a small decrease in external motivation, no favourable changes in different types of motivation were observed. The relation between coaching and motivation appeared to be influenced by the presence of physical activity guidance in the programme.Motivation of participants of a real life primary care CLI had changed towards a more autonomous motivation after 4 months of intervention. Autonomy-supportive lifestyle coaching contributed to this change with respect to physical activity. Lifestyle coaching for healthy diet requires thorough knowledge about the problem of unhealthy dieting and solid coaching skills.