Workplace violence against hospital healthcare workers in China: a national WeChat-based survey.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Workplace violence (WPV) is a serious issue for healthcare workers and leads to many negative consequences. Several studies have reported on the prevalence of WPV in China, which ranges from 42.2 to 83.3%. However, little information is available regarding the correlates of WPV among healthcare workers and the differences across the different levels of hospitals in China. This study aimed to explore the correlates of WPV and career satisfaction among healthcare workers in China. METHODS:A self-designed WeChat-based questionnaire was used that included demographic and occupational factors. The Chinese version of the Workplace Violence Scale was used to measure WPV. Career satisfaction was assessed using two questions about career choices. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used. RESULTS:A total of 3706 participants (2750 nurses and 956 doctors) responded to the survey. Among the 3684 valid questionnaires, 2078 (56.4%) reported at least one type of WPV in the last year. Multivariate logistic regressions revealed that male sex, shift work, bachelor's degree education, a senior professional title, working more than 50 h per week and working in secondary-level hospitals were risk factors associated with WPV. Healthcare workers who had experienced higher levels of WPV were less likely to be satisfied with their careers. CONCLUSIONS:WPV remains a special concern for the Chinese healthcare system. Interventions to reduce WPV should be implemented by health authorities to create a zero-violence practice environment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Workplace violence (WPV) is a global public health problem and has caused a serious threat to the physical and mental health of healthcare workers. Moreover, WPV also has an adverse effect on the workplace behavior of healthcare workers. This study has three purposes: (1) to identify the prevalence of workplace violence against physicians; (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, job satisfaction, job burnout and turnover intention of Chinese physicians and (3) to verify the mediating role of social support. METHODS:A cross-sectional study adopted a purposive sampling method to collect data from March 2017 through May 2017. A total of nine tertiary hospitals in four provinces, which provide healthcare from specialists in a large hospital after referral from primary and secondary care, were selected as research sites based on their geographical locations in the eastern, central and western regions of China. Descriptive analyses, a univariate analysis, a Pearson correlation, and a mediation regression analysis were used to estimate the prevalence of WPV and impact of WPV on job satisfaction, job burnout, and turnover intention. RESULTS:WPV was positively correlated with turnover intention (r = 0.238, P < 0.01) and job burnout (r = 0.150, P < 0.01), and was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = - 0.228, P < 0.01) and social support (r = - 0.077, P < 0.01). Social support was a partial mediator between WPV and job satisfaction, as well as burnout and turnover intention. CONCLUSIONS:The results show a high prevalence of workplace violence in Chinese tertiary hospitals, which should not be ignored. The effects of social support on workplace behaviors suggest that it has practical implications for interventions to promote the stability of physicians' teams. TRIAL REGISTRATION:(Project Identification Code: HMUIRB2014005), Registered March 1, 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is known as violence in healthcare settings and referring to the violent acts that are directed towards doctors, nurses or other healthcare staff at work or on duty. Moreover, WPV can cause a large number of adverse outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence to test the link between exposure to WPV against doctors, psychological stress, sleep quality and health status in China. OBJECTIVES:This study had three objectives: (1) to identify the incidence rate of WPV against doctors under a new classification, (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health of Chinese doctors and (3) to verify the partial mediating role of psychological stress. DESIGN:A cross-sectional online survey study. SETTING:The survey was conducted among 1740 doctors in tertiary hospitals, 733 in secondary hospital and 139 in primary hospital across 30 provinces of China. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 3016 participants were invited. Ultimately, 2617 doctors completed valid questionnaires. The effective response rate was 86.8%. RESULTS:The results demonstrated that the prevalence rate of exposure to verbal abuse was the highest (76.2%), made difficulties (58.3%), smear reputation (40.8%), mobbing behaviour (40.2%), intimidation behaviour (27.6%), physical violence (24.1%) and sexual harassment (7.8%). Exposure to WPV significantly affected the psychological stress, sleep quality and self-reported health of doctors. Moreover, psychological stress partially mediated the relationship between work-related violence and health damage. CONCLUSION:In China, most doctors have encountered various WPV from patients and their relatives. The prevalence of three new types of WPV have been investigated in our study, which have been rarely mentioned in past research. A safer work environment for Chinese healthcare workers needs to be provided to minimise health threats, which is a top priority for both government and society.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to examine workplace violence (WPV) towards healthcare professionals in a multiethnic area in China, including prevalence, influencing factors, healthcare professionals' response to WPV, expected antiviolence training measures and content, and evaluation of WPV interventions. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study. SETTING:A grade III, class A hospital in the capital of Yunnan Province, which is the province with the most diverse ethnic minority groups in China. PARTICIPANTS:In total, 2036 healthcare professionals participated, with a response rate of 83.79%. RESULTS:The prevalence of physical and psychological violence was 5.5% and 43.7%, respectively. Healthcare professionals of ethnic minority were more likely to experience psychological violence (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.05). Stratified by gender, male healthcare professionals of ethnic minority suffered from more physical violence (OR=3.31, 95% CI 1.12 to 9.79), while female healthcare professionals suffered from psychological violence (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.36). We also found a unique work situation in China: overtime duty on-call work (18:00-07:00) was a risk factor for psychological violence (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.93). Healthcare professionals of ethnic minority are less likely to order perpetrators to stop or to report to superiors when faced with psychological violence. They are also more interested in receiving training in force skills and self-defence. Both Han and ethnic minority participants considered security measures as the most useful intervention, while changing the time of shift the most useless one. CONCLUSION:Our study comprehensively described WPV towards healthcare professionals in a multiethnic minority area. More research on WPV conducted in multiethnic areas is needed.
Project description:Background Though workplace violence (WPV) is a global problem for healthcare professionals, research within in-hospital care has mainly focused on WPV in emergency healthcare settings. Thus, the number of qualitative studies that explores experiences of WPV in general hospital wards with a longer length of stay is limited. Aim The aim of this study was to explore how healthcare professionals in surgical hospital wards experience and manage WPV perpetrated by patients or visitors. Method The study applied a qualitative, inductive approach using focus group interviews for data collection. A purposeful sample of 16 healthcare professionals working in surgical wards was included. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis. Findings. The analysis resulted in four main themes: workplace violence characteristics, partly predictable yet not prevented, approaching workplace violence, and consequences from workplace violence. During the focus group interviews, the healthcare professionals described various acts of physical violence, verbal abuse, and gender discrimination perpetrated by patients or their visitors. Despite the predictability of some of the incidents, preventive strategies were absent or inadequate, with the healthcare professionals not knowing how to react in these threatful or violent situations. They experienced that WPV could result in negative consequences for the care of both the threatful or violent person and the other patients in the ward. WPV caused the healthcare professionals to feel exposed, scared, and unprotected. Conclusion and clinical implications. Exposure to WPV is a problem for healthcare professionals in surgical wards and has consequences for the patients. Preventive strategies, guidelines, and action plans are urgently needed to minimise the risk of WPV and to ensure a safe work and care environment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) is high (54%) in Bangladesh. Moreover, female garment workers report higher rates of IPV and are also vulnerable to workplace violence (WPV). Experience of violence puts women at increased risk of developing depressive symptoms, which are related with low self-esteem, lower life satisfaction and lower productivity. To our knowledge, there has been no previous research on depression among female garment workers and its connections to IPV and WPV in Bangladesh. This paper aims to address this gap by studying the relationship of IPV, WPV and depression among female garment workers.<h4>Methods</h4>The data for this paper comes from a cross-sectional survey of female garment workers (n = 800) conducted as baseline survey of a quasi-experimental study known as HERrespect. Survey data were collected during September-December, 2016 among randomly selected female garment workers from eight garment factories in and around Dhaka city. Structural equation modelling was conducted to explore the relationship among IPV, WPV and depression.<h4>Results</h4>The findings show high rates of any IPV (69%); WPV (73%, experienced or witnessed) and depressive symptomatology (40%) among female garment workers. The analysis of pathways shows that IPV impacts a woman's experience of WPV and work related stress leading to the development of depression; while WPV had direct and mediated pathways to depression. Experience of controlling by their husband leads to WPV and increased work related stress, and thus leads to depression. It also reveals that a worker's ability to mobilize resources in emergency, however, increased self-esteem and reduced work related stress.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study shows the pathways through which experience of IPV and WPV lead to development of depressive symptoms among female garment workers. The link between women's ability to mobilize resources with self-esteem and work related stress indicates the need for socio-economic empowerment of women and may suggest that combined intervention to address IPV and women's empowerment could be successful in dealing with WPV and mental health.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Violence towards emergency department healthcare workers is pervasive and directly linked to provider wellness, productivity and job satisfaction. This qualitative study aimed to identify the cognitive and behavioural processes impacted by workplace violence to further understand why workplace violence has a variable impact on individual healthcare workers.<h4>Design</h4>Qualitative interview study using a phenomenological approach to initial content analysis and secondary thematic analysis.<h4>Setting</h4>Three different emergency departments.<h4>Participants</h4>We recruited 23 emergency department healthcare workers who experienced a workplace violence event to participate in an interview conducted within 24 hours of the event. Participants included nurses (n=9; 39%), medical assistants (n=5; 22%), security guards (n=5; 22%), attending physicians (n=2; 9%), advanced practitioners (n=1; 4%) and social workers (n=1; 4%).<h4>Results</h4>Five themes emerged from the data. The first two supported existing reports that workplace violence in healthcare is pervasive and contributes to burn-out in healthcare. Three novel themes emerged from the data related to the objectives of this study: (1) variability in primary cognitive appraisals of workplace violence, (2) variability in secondary cognitive appraisals of workplace violence and (3) reported use of both avoidant and approach coping mechanisms.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Healthcare workers identified workplace violence as pervasive. Variability in reported cognitive appraisal and coping strategies may partially explain why workplace violence negatively impacts some healthcare workers more than others. These cognitive and behavioural processes could serve as targets for decreasing the negative effect of workplace violence, thereby improving healthcare worker well-being. Further research is needed to develop interventions that mitigate the negative impact of workplace violence.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence of physical violence and threats against health workers and the aftermath in tertiary, secondary and primary care facilities in China. DESIGN:A cross-sectional questionnaire study. SETTING:5 tertiary hospitals, 8 secondary hospitals and 32 primary care facilities located in both urban and rural areas of Zhejiang Province, China, were chosen as the study sites. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 4862 health workers who have contact with patients completed a survey from July 2016 to July 2017. OUTCOME MEASURES:The prevalence of physical violence, threats and Yi Nao, specific forms of physical violence and their aftermath were measured by a self-designed and verified questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between perceived organisational encouragement of reporting workplace violence (WPV) and physical violence, threats and Yi Nao after controlling for age, sex, level of facility, professional ranking and type of health worker. RESULTS:Among all respondents, 224 (4.6%) were physically attacked and 848 (17.4%) experienced threats in the past year. Respondents in secondary hospitals were more likely to experience physical violence (AOR=3.29, 95% CI 2.21 to 4.89), threats (AOR=1.61, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.98) and Yi Nao (AOR=2.47, 95% CI 2.10 to 2.91), compared with primary care providers. Lack of organisational policies to report WPV was associated with higher likelihood of physical violence (AOR=3.64, 95% CI 2.57 to 5.18) and threats (AOR=2.21, 95% CI 1.76 to 2.78). Among physical violence cases, only 29.1% reported the attack to police mainly because most felt it useless to do so (58.8%). Only 25.7% were investigated and 72.4% of attackers received no punishment. Of all those attacked or threatened, 59.4% wanted to quit current post and 76.0% were fearful of dealing with urgent or severe cases. CONCLUSIONS:Proper management of the aftermath of violence against health workers is inadequate. Formal guidelines for reporting and managing WPV are urgently needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Women in Bangladesh experience high rates of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). IPV is more prevalent against income earning women compared to their non-earning counterparts, and Workplace Violence (WPV) is also common. Such violence is a violation of women's rights, and also constrains them from contributing to their personal growth, household, community and the economy at large. There is limited evidence on what works to prevent IPV and WPV amongst garment workers. This paper describes an evaluation of HERrespect, an intervention which aims to reduce IPV and WPV against female garment workers in and around Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS:The trial employs a quasi-experimental design, with four intervention and four control factories. In the intervention factories a randomly selected cohort of married female line workers, a cohort of male line workers, and all middle management staff received the intervention. The intervention strategies involved (1) gender transformative group-based training for workers and management staff; (2) joint session between workers (15 female and male) and middle-management staff; (3) factory-wide activities; (4) awareness raising among top management; (5) factory policy review and development and 6) a community based campaign. For the evaluation, a cohort of randomly selected female workers and a cohort of selected management staff have been established. All workers (n?=?800) and management staff (n?=?395) from these cohorts were interviewed at baseline using two different questionnaires, and will be interviewed in the endline, 24 months post-baseline. Intention to treat analysis will be used for assessing the impact of HERrespect, comparing the intervention and control factories. DISCUSSION:To our knowledge this is the first study that seeks to evaluate the impact on IPV and WPV, of group sessions with female workers, male workers, and management; factory-wide campaigns and a community intervention among female garment workers in Bangladesh. Apart from informing programmers and policy makers about intervention effectiveness in reducing IPV and WPV against female garment workers this study will also present evidence on an intervention tailored to the situation in the garment sector, which makes HERrespect scalable. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03304015, retrospectively registered on October 06, 2017.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In China, medical staff of children's hospitals are commonly exposed to violence. However, few studies on medical violence are conducted in the settings of children's hospitals. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence, magnitude, consequences, and potential risk factors of workplace violence (WPV) against medical staff of children's hospitals.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective cross-sectional design was used. A self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect data on 12 children's hospitals. The questionnaires were distributed to a stratified proportional random sample of 2,400 medical staff; 1,932 valid questionnaires were collected. A chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 68.6% of respondents had experienced at least one WPV incident involving non-physical and/or physical violence in the past year. The perpetrators were mainly family members of patients (94.9%). Most of the WPV occurred during the day shift (70.7%) and in wards (41.8%). Males were 1.979 times (95% CI, 1.378 to 2.841) more likely than females to experience physical violence. Emergency departments were more exposed to physical violence than other departments. Oncology was 2.733 times (95% CI, 1.126 to 6.633) more exposed to non-physical violence than the emergency department. As a result of WPV, victims felt aggrieved and angry, work enthusiasm declined, and work efficiency was reduced. However, only 5.6% of the victims received psychological counseling.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Medical staff are at high risk of violence in China's children's hospitals. Hospital administrators and related departments should pay attention to the consequences of these incidents. There is a need for preventive measures to protect medical staff and provide a safer workplace environment. Our results can provide reference information for intervention strategies and safety measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the impact of a restricted access policy on workplace violence in a healthcare setting. METHODS:We surveyed healthcare workers before and after the implementation of a restricted-access policy at a tertiary hospital in north-eastern China. Data were collected in April 2017 and January 2019. Fisher's exact test were used to compare the difference in workplace violence prevalence between responses to two surveys. Survey 1 (S1) collected data from 345 healthcare professionals who had worked in the inpatient ward for at least 12?months. Survey 2 (S2) included 338 healthcare workers from the same ward who had been employed for more than two years. The effective response rates for the two studies was 79.31 and 83.25%, respectively. All 18 female security guards were included in the investigation in S2. RESULTS:The prevalence of psychological violence was 62.03% in S1 and 34.62% in S2, the difference in prevalence showing statistical significance (P?=?0.000), while the prevalence of physical violence was 3.77 and 4.73% respectively, showing no statistical significance (P?=?0.573). The change in the rate of injury caused by physical violence was also statistically significant at 76.92 and 31.25% (P?=?0.025), respectively. Security guards were at high risk of workplace violence under the policy. Most healthcare professionals thought this policy ameliorated treatment order, the sense of security, anxiety about workplace violence, and so forth, but one-third of the respondents thought that it caused patient dissatisfaction. CONCLUSION:While the restricted access policy may be effective for healthcare professionals in avoiding or dealing with violence, such policy could contribute to new problems regarding the safety of security guards and the potential dissatisfaction of patients. The policy should be further developed to alleviate this phenomenon.