Associations of fat and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality: prospective cohort study of UK Biobank participants.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of macronutrient intake with all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the implications for dietary advice. DESIGN:Prospective population based study. SETTING:UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS:195?658 of the 502?536 participants in UK Biobank completed at least one dietary questionnaire and were included in the analyses. Diet was assessed using Oxford WebQ, a web based 24 hour recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were estimated using standard methodology. Cox proportional models with penalised cubic splines were used to study non-linear associations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:All cause mortality and incidence of CVD. RESULTS:4780 (2.4%) participants died over a mean 10.6 (range 9.4-13.9) years of follow-up, and 948 (0.5%) and 9776 (5.0%) experienced fatal and non-fatal CVD events, respectively, over a mean 9.7 (range 8.5-13.0) years of follow-up. Non-linear associations were found for many macronutrients. Carbohydrate intake showed a non-linear association with mortality; no association at 20-50% of total energy intake but a positive association at 50-70% of energy intake (3.14 v 2.75 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.28 (60-70% v 50% of energy)). A similar pattern was observed for sugar but not for starch or fibre. A higher intake of monounsaturated fat (2.94 v 3.50 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 0.58, 0.51 to 0.66 (20-25% v 5% of energy)) and lower intake of polyunsaturated fat (2.66 v 3.04 per 1000 person years, 0.78, 0.75 to 0.81 (5-7% v 12% of energy)) and saturated fat (2.66 v 3.59 per 1000 person years, 0.67, 0.62 to 0.73 (5-10% v 20% of energy)) were associated with a lower risk of mortality. A dietary risk matrix was developed to illustrate how dietary advice can be given based on current intake. CONCLUSION:Many associations between macronutrient intake and health outcomes are non-linear. Thus dietary advice could be tailored to current intake. Dietary guidelines on macronutrients (eg, carbohydrate) should also take account of differential associations of its components (eg, sugar and starch).
Project description:Background:The health benefits and risks of dietary supplement use are controversial. Objective:To evaluate the association among dietary supplement use, levels of nutrient intake from foods and supplements, and mortality among U.S. adults. Design:Prospective cohort study. Setting:NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from 1999 to 2010, linked to National Death Index mortality data. Participants:30 899 U.S. adults aged 20 years or older who answered questions on dietary supplement use. Measurements:Dietary supplement use in the previous 30 days and nutrient intake from foods and supplements. Outcomes included mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Results:During a median follow-up of 6.1 years, 3613 deaths occurred, including 945 CVD deaths and 805 cancer deaths. Ever-use of dietary supplements was not associated with mortality outcomes. Adequate intake (at or above the Estimated Average Requirement or the Adequate Intake level) of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, zinc, and copper was associated with reduced all-cause or CVD mortality, but the associations were restricted to nutrient intake from foods. Excess intake of calcium was associated with increased risk for cancer death (above vs. at or below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: multivariable-adjusted rate ratio, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.07 to 2.45]; multivariable-adjusted rate difference, 1.7 [CI, -0.1 to 3.5] deaths per 1000 person-years), and the association seemed to be related to calcium intake from supplements (?1000 mg/d vs. no use: multivariable-adjusted rate ratio, 1.53 [CI, 1.04 to 2.25]; multivariable-adjusted rate difference, 1.5 [CI, -0.1 to 3.1] deaths per 1000 person-years) rather than foods. Limitations:Results from observational data may be affected by residual confounding. Reporting of dietary supplement use is subject to recall bias. Conclusion:Use of dietary supplements is not associated with mortality benefits among U.S. adults. Primary Funding Source:National Institutes of Health.
Project description:Dietary modifications can improve serum lipids and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, attendance at multiple dietary consultations can be a barrier to achieving behaviour change. This study investigated the effectiveness of a brief dietetic intervention on CVD risk factors in hyperlipidaemic adults. Adults with total cholesterol ? 5.0 mmol/L or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ? 4.0 mmol/L and not currently taking lipid-lowering medication were eligible for a minimum 6-week dietary intervention. Dietary intake data and blood lipids were acquired prior to a single counselling session with an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD). The intervention used targeted feedback with purpose-developed education materials to supplement advice. CVD risk factors and dietary intakes were used to assess pre-post intervention change using linear mixed model regression analyses. Thirty-nine participants (59.3 ± 11.1 years, n = 28 female) were analysed. Mean ± SD follow-up from baseline time was 9.5 ± 2.5 weeks. Significant (p < 0.05) reductions in total cholesterol (-0.51 mmol/L), total:HDL (high density lipoprotein) ratio (-0.27 mmol/L), triglycerides (-0.38 mmol/L), total energy (-870 kJ/day), energy from nutrient-poor foods (-1006 kJ/day) and sodium (-325 mg/day), and improved dietary fat quality (-5.1% of energy/day saturated, +5.0% of energy/day polyunsaturated) and body mass index (-0.4 kg/m2) were achieved. A brief intervention by an APD incorporating targeted, personalised dietary feedback and education in a single counselling session can improve lipid profiles in adults with hyperlipidaemia.
Project description:National surveys have demonstrated a long-term decrease in mean energy intake in Japan, despite the absence of a decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to examine whether total energy intake of survey respondents is associated with completion of an in-person review of dietary records and whether it affects the trend in mean energy intake.We pooled data from individuals aged 20-89 years from the National Nutrition Surveys of 1997-2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 2003-2011. We conducted a linear mixed-effects regression to estimate the association between total energy intake and the lack of an in-person review of semi-weighed household dietary records with interviewers. As some respondents did not have their dietary data confirmed, we used regression coefficients to correct their total energy intake.Compared with respondents completing an in-person review, total energy intake was significantly inversely associated with respondents not completing a review across all sex and age groups (P < 0.001). After correction of total energy intake for those not completing a review, mean energy intake in each survey year significantly increased by 2.1%-3.9% in men and 1.3%-2.6% in women (P < 0.001), but the decreasing trend in mean energy intake was sustained.Total energy intake may be underestimated without an in-person review of dietary records. Further efforts to facilitate completion of a review may improve accuracy of these data. However, the increasing proportion of respondents missing an in-person review had little impact on the decreasing mean caloric intake.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We examined cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns, macronutrient intake, and measures of muscle mass and lean mass in older men.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort (n = 903; mean ± SD age 84.2 ± 4 years) completed brief Block food frequency questionnaires (May 2014-May 2016); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. The D3-creatine (D3Cr) dilution method was used to measure muscle mass; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure appendicular lean mass (ALM). Generalized linear models were used to report adjusted means of outcomes by dietary pattern. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine associations between macronutrients and D3Cr muscle mass and DXA ALM. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, race, clinic site, education, depression, total energy intake, height, and percent body fat.<h4>Results</h4>Greater adherence to a Western dietary pattern (high factor loadings for red meat, fried foods, and high-fat dairy) was associated with higher D3Cr muscle mass (p-trend = .026). Adherence to the Healthy dietary pattern (high factor loadings for fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats) was not associated with D3Cr muscle mass or DXA ALM. Total protein (? = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.14) and nondairy animal protein (? = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.21) were positively associated with D3Cr muscle mass. Nondairy animal protein (? = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.002, 0.11) was positively associated with DXA ALM. Associations with other macronutrients were inconsistent.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Nondairy animal protein intake (within a Western dietary pattern and alone) was positively associated with D3Cr muscle mass in older men.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To study the associations between dietary factors and circulating antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations among late premenopausal women. DESIGN:AMH concentrations were measured in serum samples collected at enrollment from 296 women (aged 35-45 years) in the Sister Study cohort. Usual dietary intakes in the past 12 months were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary exposures of interest included macronutrients, dietary fat subtypes, fiber, and glycemic index. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate associations between dietary variables and serum AMH concentrations. We also used nutrient density models to examine isocaloric replacement of macronutrients. SETTING:Not applicable. PATIENTS:Women aged 35-45 years. INTERVENTIONS:Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Serum AMH concentrations in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). RESULTS:AMH concentrations were positively associated with percentage of energy from carbohydrates (? per 5% calories = 0.141 [95% CI 0.023, 0.259]; P trend = .019), and inversely associated with percentage of energy from fat (? per 5% calories = -0.152 [95% CI -0.299, -0.004]; P trend = .044). In analyses of dietary fat subtypes, AMH decreased with increasing monounsaturated fatty acids (P trend = .082) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P trend = .043), particularly ?-6 fatty acids (P trend = .044), whereas no strong trend was observed for saturated fatty acids. Protein and alcohol intake were not strongly associated with AMH. CONCLUSIONS:Our cross-sectional analyses in a sample of late premenopausal women suggest that dietary fat intake may be inversely associated with circulating AMH concentrations. Further research in prospective studies is warranted to evaluate dietary factors as potential modifiers of ovarian reserve.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the correlation between daily energy intake from macronutrients and cognitive functions in a Chinese population aged less than 65 years. DESIGN:This is a cross-sectional study to explore the relationships between macronutrients' intake and cognitive function. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ?2 test were used to compare the demographic and physical characteristics, lifestyle and laboratory parameters with the intake of macronutrients among different quartiles of % fat/energy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the potential risk factors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). PARTICIPANTS:Young and middle-aged participants (age <65 years) were recruited from Beijing, China. The Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) were used to evaluate the cognitive functions, and the dietary intake of the participants was estimated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). RESULTS:Among the 661 participants, 80 (12.1%) had MCI, while 581 (87.9%) had normal cognitive functions. On evaluating the data based on the age group, educational background, and conditions of hyperlipidaemia and total energy intake, the results revealed that high % fat (upper quartile: adjusted OR (aOR) 3.90, 95% CI1.53 to 9.89, P=0.004), and high % protein intake (upper quartile: aOR 2.77, 95% CI 1.24 to 6.15) were greatly associated with increased frequency of MCI, while high % carbohydrate intake (upper quartile: aOR0.30, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.72) was correlated with decreased prevalence of MCI. CONCLUSION:The dietary pattern with high percentage of energy intake from fat and protein, and low-energy intake from carbohydrate might have been associated with cognitive decline in a Chinese population under 65 years of age.
Project description:Background:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of any detectable organic illnesses. Interest in the effect of dietary opponents to the IBS pathogenesis has been increased in recent years. This study aims to review previous studies to determine the relationship between IBS prevalence in community and dietary energy and macronutrients intakes according to the national nutrition surveys. Methods:A literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE to September, 2018, to identify population-based studies that reported the prevalence of IBS. Daily energy intake, daily carbohydrates, and protein and fat percent contribution to energy intake (%) were obtained from study population-based national nutrition survey. The correlations of prevalence of IBS and dietary intakes were obtained by Spearman coefficient or Pearson coefficient. Results:Global prevalence of IBS was 11.7%. There was no correlation between overall prevalence of IBS of individual countries and national energy intake (P = 0.785), protein proportion (P = 0.063), carbohydrates proportion (P = 0.505), or fat proportion (P = 0.384) according to the years when the studies were conducted. No correlations were detected between dietary intake and male or female IBS prevalence. Interestingly, protein proportion was positively correlated with the prevalence of IBS in Rome III criteria (r = 0.569). Conclusion:Our findings demonstrate that dietary energy and macronutrients intake do not play a direct role in prevalence of IBS. However, IBS diagnostic criteria seem to have a bias on the correlation between prevalence of IBS and dietary intake. Further studies are needed to confirm the correlation between prevalence of IBS and specific dietary intake.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major public health concern in Bangladesh. Diet is an established risk factor for CVD but a tool to assess dietary intake in Bangladesh is lacking. This study aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using the 24-h dietary recall method and corresponding nutritional biological markers among rural and urban populations of Bangladesh. METHOD:Participants of both genders aged 18-60?years were included in the analysis (total n?=?146, rural n?=?94 and urban n?=?52). Two FFQs of 166 items were administered three-months apart, during which time three 24-h dietary recalls were also completed. Participants were asked to recall their frequency of consumption over the preceding 3 months. Urine and blood samples were collected for comparison between FFQ-estimates of nutrients and their corresponding biomarkers. Methods were compared using unadjusted, energy-adjusted, de-attenuated correlation coefficients, 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and quartile classification. RESULTS:Fair to moderate agreement for ranking energy, macro and micronutrients into quartiles was observed (weighted k value ranged from 0.22 to 0.58; p?<?0.001 for unadjusted data) except for vitamin D (weighted k?- 0.05) and zinc (weighted k 0.09). Correlation coefficients of crude energy, macronutrients and common micronutrients including vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium were moderately good, ranging from 0.42 to 0.78; p?<?0.001 but only fair for vitamin A, ? carotene and calcium (0.31 to 0.38; p?<?0.001) and poor for vitamin D and zinc (0.02 and 0.16; p?=?ns, respectively). Energy-adjusted correlations were generally lower except for fat and vitamin E, and in range of -?0.017 (for calcium) to 0.686 (for fat). De-attenuated correlations were higher than unadjusted and energy- adjusted, and significant for all nutrients except for vitamin D (0.017) to 0.801 (for carbohydrate). The Bland Altman tests demonstrated that most of the coefficients were positive which indicated that FFQ provided a greater overestimation at higher intakes. More than one in three participants appeared to overestimate their food consumption based on the ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate cut points suggested by Goldberg. Absolute intake of macronutrients was 1.5 times higher and for micronutrients it ranged from 1.07 (sodium) to 26 times (Zinc). FFQ estimates correlated well for sodium (0.32; p?<?0.001), and vitamin D (0.20; p?= 0.017) with their corresponding biomarkers and iron (0.25; p?=?0.003) with serum ferritin for unadjusted data. Folate, iron (with haemoglobin) and total protein showed inverse association; and fat and potassium showed poor correlation with their corresponding biomarkers for unadjusted data. However, folate showed significant positive correlation (0.189; p?=?0.025) with biomarker after energy adjustment. CONCLUSION:Although FFQ showed overestimation for absolute intake in comparison with 24-h recalls, the validation study demonstrated acceptable agreement for ranking dietary intakes from FFQ with 24-h recall methods and some biomarkers and therefore could be considered as a tool to measure dietary intake for research and CVD risk factors surveillance in Bangladesh. The instrument may not be appropriate for monitoring population adherence to recommended intakes because of the overestimation.
Project description:We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany.Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake.NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P?<0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P?<?0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P?<?0.001).Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients.
Project description:In short-term feeding trials, replacement of other macronutrients with monounsaturated fatty acid reduces blood pressure. However, observational studies have not clearly demonstrated a relationship between monounsaturated fatty acid intake and blood pressure. We report associations of monounsaturated fatty acid intake of individuals with blood pressure in a cross-sectional study.The International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women ages 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, UK and USA. Nutrient intake data were based on four in-depth multipass 24-h dietary recalls/person and two-timed 24-h urine collections/person. Blood pressure was measured eight times at four visits.Mean monounsaturated fatty acid intake ranged from 8.1%kcal (China) to 12.2%kcal (USA). With sequential models to control for possible confounders (dietary, other), linear regression analyses showed significant inverse relationship of total monounsaturated fatty acid intake with DBP for all participants; for 2238 'nonintervened' individuals, the relationship was stronger. Estimated DBP differences with 2-SD higher monounsaturated fatty acids (5.35%kcal) were -0.82?mmHg (P?<?0.05) for all participants and -1.70?mmHg (P?<?0.01) for nonintervened individuals. Inverse associations of dietary total oleic acid (main monounsaturated) with blood pressure in nonintervened individuals were not significant, but those of oleic acid from vegetable sources were stronger and significant (P?<?0.05).Dietary monounsaturated fatty acid intake, especially oleic acid from vegetable sources, may contribute to prevention and control of adverse blood pressure levels in general populations.