Hepatic CEACAM1 expression indicates donor liver quality and prevents early transplantation injury.
ABSTRACT: Although CEACAM1 (CC1) glycoprotein resides at the interface of immune liver injury and metabolic homeostasis, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains elusive. We aimed to determine whether/how CEACAM1 signaling may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. In the mouse, donor liver CC1 null mutation augmented IRI-OLT (CC1-KO?WT) by enhancing ROS expression and HMGB1 translocation during cold storage, data supported by in vitro studies where hepatic flush from CC1-deficient livers enhanced macrophage activation in bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures. Although hepatic CC1 deficiency augmented cold stress-triggered ASK1/p-p38 upregulation, adjunctive ASK1 inhibition alleviated IRI and improved OLT survival by suppressing p-p38 upregulation, ROS induction, and HMGB1 translocation (CC1-KO?WT), whereas ASK1 silencing (siRNA) promoted cytoprotection in cold-stressed and damage-prone CC1-deficient hepatocyte cultures. Consistent with mouse data, CEACAM1 expression in 60 human donor liver biopsies correlated negatively with activation of the ASK1/p-p38 axis, whereas low CC1 levels associated with increased ROS and HMGB1 translocation, enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses, and inferior early OLT function. Notably, reduced donor liver CEACAM1 expression was identified as one of the independent predictors for early allograft dysfunction (EAD) in human OLT patients. Thus, as a checkpoint regulator of IR stress and sterile inflammation, CEACAM1 may be considered as a denominator of donor hepatic tissue quality, and a target for therapeutic modulation in OLT recipients.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a major risk factor of early graft dysfunction and acute/chronic rejection as well as a key obstacle to expanding the donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling may enhance cytoprotective programs, clinical use of glucocorticoid is limited because of adverse effects, whereas clinical relevance of GR-facilitated cytoprotection in OLT remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the significance of hepatic GR in clinical OLT and verify the impact of recombinant human relaxin (rhRLX), which may function as a GR agonist in a tissue/disease-specific manner. Fifty-one OLT patients were recruited under an institutional research board (IRB) protocol. Liver biopsies were collected after cold storage (presurgery) and 2 hours postreperfusion (before abdominal closure), followed by western blotting-assisted hepatic analyses. Forty-three percent of OLTs failed to increase GR perioperatively under surgical stress. Post-/pre-GR ratios at postoperative day 1 correlated negatively with serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/cleaved caspase-3 and positively with B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) levels. In a murine OLT model with extended (18-hour) cold storage, treatment with rhRLX ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion (IR) damage and improved survival while up-regulating hepatocyte GR and Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 expression in OLT. rhRLX-induced GR suppressed hepatocyte high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) translocation/release, accompanied by decreased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), suppressed interleukin 1 beta (IL1?), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL)10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), CXCL1, and CXCL2 levels, and attenuated neutrophil/macrophage accumulation in OLT. Inhibition of GR in hepatocyte culture and in OLT diminished rhRLX-mediated cytoprotection. CONCLUSION:This translational study underscores the role of rhRLX-GR signaling as a regulator of hepatocellular protection against IR stress in OLT. In the context of a recent phase III clinical trial demonstrating positive outcomes of rhRLX in patients with acute heart failure, studies on rhRLX for the management of IRI in OLT recipients are warranted. (Hepatology 2018;68:258-273).
Project description:Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a risk factor for early graft dysfunction and an obstacle to expanding donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We have reported on the crucial role of macrophage Notch1 signaling in mouse warm hepatic IRI model. However, its clinical relevance or therapeutic potential remain unknown. Here, we used Serelaxin (SER), to verify Notch1 induction and putative hepatoprotective function in ischemia-reperfusion-stressed OLT. C57BL/6 mouse livers subjected to extended (18-hour) cold storage were transplanted to syngeneic recipients. SER treatment at reperfusion ameliorated IRI, improved post-OLT survival, decreased neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine programs, while simultaneously increasing Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) target genes. In bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures, SER suppressed proinflammatory while enhancing antiinflammatory gene expression concomitantly with increased NICD and Hes1. Hepatic biopsies from 21 adult primary liver transplant patients (2 hours postreperfusion) were divided into low-NICD (n = 11) and high-NICD (n = 10) expression groups (western blots). Consistent with our murine findings, human livers characterized by high NICD were relatively IRI resistant, as shown by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at day 1 post-OLT. Our study documents the efficacy of SER-Notch1 signaling in mouse OLT and highlights the protective function of Notch1 in liver transplant patients.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Mice with global null mutation (Cc1 -/-) or with liver-specific inactivation (L-SACC1) of Cc1 (also known as Ceacam1) gene display hyperinsulinaemia resulting from impaired insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis and obesity. Because increased lipolysis contributes to the metabolic phenotype caused by transgenic inactivation of CEACAM1 in the liver, we aimed to further investigate the primary role of hepatic CEACAM1-dependent insulin clearance in insulin and lipid homeostasis. To this end, we examined whether transgenic reconstitution of CEACAM1 in the liver of global Cc1 -/- mutant mice reverses their abnormal metabolic phenotype. METHODS:Insulin response was assessed by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp analysis and energy balance was analysed by indirect calorimetry. Mice were overnight-fasted and refed for 7 h to assess fatty acid synthase activity in the liver and the hypothalamus in response to insulin release during refeeding. RESULTS:Liver-based rescuing of CEACAM1 restored insulin clearance, plasma insulin level, insulin sensitivity and steatohepatitis caused by global deletion of Cc1. It also reversed the gain in body weight and total fat mass observed with Cc1 deletion, in parallel to normalising energy balance. Mechanistically, reversal of hyperphagia appeared to result from reducing fatty acid synthase activity and restoring insulin signalling in the hypothalamus. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Despite the potential confounding effects of deleting Cc1 from extrahepatic tissues, liver-based rescuing of CEACAM1 resulted in full normalisation of the metabolic phenotype, underscoring the key role that CEACAM1-dependent hepatic insulin clearance pathways play in regulating systemic insulin sensitivity, lipid homeostasis and energy balance.
Project description:Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a major risk factor of early graft dysfunction and a key obstacle to expanding the donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although graft autophagy is essential for resistance against hepatic IRI, its significance in clinical OLT remains unknown. Despite recent data identifying heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a putative autophagy inducer, its role in OLT and interactions with sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a key autophagy regulator, have not been studied. We aimed to examine HO-1-mediated autophagy induction in human OLT and in a murine OLT model with extended (20 hours) cold storage, as well as to analyze the requirement for SIRT1 in autophagy regulation by HO-1. Fifty-one hepatic biopsy specimens from OLT patients were collected under an institutional review board protocol 2 hours after portal reperfusion, followed by Western blot analyses. High HO-1 levels correlated with well-preserved hepatocellular function and enhanced SIRT1/LC3B expression. In mice, HO-1 overexpression by genetically modified HO-1 macrophage therapy was accompanied by decreased OLT damage and increased SIRT1/LC3B expression, whereas adjunctive inhibition of SIRT1 signaling diminished HO-1-mediated hepatoprotection and autophagy induction. Our translational study confirms the clinical relevance of HO-1 cytoprotection and identifies SIRT1-mediated autophagy pathway as a new essential regulator of HO-1 function in IR-stressed OLT.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Mice with global null mutation of Ceacam1 (Cc1<sup>-/-</sup>), display impairment of insulin clearance that causes hyperinsulinemia followed by insulin resistance, elevated hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and visceral obesity. In addition, they manifest abnormal vascular permeability and elevated blood pressure. Liver-specific rescuing of Ceacam1 reversed all of the metabolic abnormalities in Cc1<sup>-/-liver+</sup> mice. The current study examined whether Cc1<sup>-/-</sup> male mice develop endothelial and cardiac dysfunction and whether this relates to the metabolic abnormalities caused by defective insulin extraction.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Myography studies showed reduction of agonist-stimulated nitric oxide production in resistance arterioles in Cc1<sup>-/-</sup>, but not Cc1<sup>-/-liver+</sup> mice. Liver-based rescuing of CEACAM1 also attenuated the abnormal endothelial adhesiveness to circulating leukocytes in parallel to reducing plasma endothelin-1 and recovering plasma nitric oxide levels. Echocardiography studies revealed increased septal wall thickness, cardiac hypertrophy and reduced cardiac performance in Cc1<sup>-/-</sup>, but not Cc1<sup>-/-xliver+</sup> mice. Insulin signaling experiments indicated compromised IRS1/Akt/eNOS pathway leading to lower nitric oxide level, and activated Shc/MAPK pathway leading to more endothelin-1 production in the aortae and hearts of Cc1<sup>-/-</sup>, but not Cc1<sup>-/-xliver+</sup> mice. The increase in the ratio of endothelin-1 receptor A/B indicated an imbalance in the vasomotor activity of Cc1<sup>-/-</sup> mice, which was normalized in Cc1<sup>-/-xliver+</sup> mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The data underscore a critical role for impaired CEACAM1-dependent hepatic insulin clearance pathways and resulting hyperinsulinemia and lipid accumulation in aortae and heart in regulating the cardiovascular function.
Project description:BACKGROUND. Orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) is the primary therapy for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. However, ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) can severely compromise allograft survival. To understand the evolution of immune responses underlying OLT-IRI, we evaluated longitudinal cytokine expression profiles from adult OLT recipients before transplant through 1 month after transplant. METHODS. We measured the expression of 38 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in preoperative and postoperative recipient circulating systemic blood (before transplant and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after transplant) and intraoperative portal blood (before and after reperfusion) of 53 OLT patients and analyzed this expression in relation to biopsy-proven IRI (n = 26 IRI+; 27 IRI-), clinical liver function tests early (days 1-7) after transplant, and expression of genes encoding cytokine receptors in biopsies of donor allograft taken before and after reperfusion. RESULTS. Bilirubin and arginine transaminase levels early after transplant correlated with IRI. Fourteen cytokines were significantly increased in the systemic and/or portal blood of IRI+ recipients that shifted from innate to adaptive-immune responses over time. Additionally, expression of cognate receptors for 10 of these cytokines was detected in donor organ biopsies by RNAseq. CONCLUSION. These results provide a mechanistic roadmap of the early immunological events both before and after IRI and suggest several candidates for patient stratification, monitoring, and treatment. FUNDING. Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32CA009120, Keck Foundation award 986722, and a Quantitative & Computational Biosciences Collaboratory Postdoctoral Fellowship.
Project description:Although modifications of gut microbiota with antibiotics (Abx) influence mouse skin and cardiac allografts, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether and how recipient Abx pretreatment may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. Mice (C57BL/6) with or without Abx treatment (10 days) were transplanted with allogeneic (BALB/c) cold-stored (18 hours) livers, followed by liver and blood sampling (6 hours). We divided 264 human OLT recipients on the basis of duration of pre-OLT Abx treatment into control (Abx-free/Abx <10 days; n = 108) and Abx treatment (Abx ≥10days; n = 156) groups; OLT biopsy (Bx) samples were collected 2 hours after OLT (n = 52). Abx in mice mitigated IRI-stressed OLT (IRI-OLT), decreased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] stress), enhanced LC3B (autophagy), and inhibited inflammation, whereas it increased serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatic PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4) expression. PGE2 increased EP4, suppressed CHOP, and induced autophagosome formation in hepatocyte cultures in an EP4-dependent manner. An EP4 antagonist restored CHOP, suppressed LC3B, and recreated IRI-OLT. Remarkably, human recipients of Abx treatment plus OLT (Abx-OLT), despite severe pretransplantation clinical acuity, had higher EP4 and LC3B levels but lower CHOP levels, which coincided with improved hepatocellular function (serum aspartate aminotransferase/serum aspartate aminotransferase [sALT/sAST]) and a decreased incidence of early allograft dysfunction (EAD). Multivariate analysis identified "Abx-free/Abx <10 days" as a predictive factor of EAD. This study documents the benefits of Abx pretreatment in liver transplant recipients, identifies ER stress and autophagy regulation by the PGE2/EP4 axis as a homeostatic underpinning, and points to the microbiome as a therapeutic target in OLT.
Project description:The Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates host cell defense responses against oxidative stress and maintains the cellular redox balance.We investigated the function/molecular mechanisms by which Keap1-Nrf2 complex may influence liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in a mouse model of hepatic cold storage (20h at 4°C) followed by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).The Keap1 hepatocyte-specific knockout (HKO) in the donor liver ameliorated post-transplant IRI, evidenced by improved hepatocellular function and OLT outcomes (Keap1 HKO?Keap1 HKO; 100% survival), as compared with controls (WT?WT; 50% survival; p<0.01). By contrast, donor liver Nrf2 deficiency exacerbated IRI in transplant recipients (Nrf2 KO?Nrf2 KO; 40% survival). Ablation of Keap1 signaling reduced macrophage/neutrophil trafficking, pro-inflammatory cytokine programs, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis, while simultaneously promoting anti-apoptotic functions in OLTs. At the molecular level, Keap1 HKO increased Nrf2 levels, stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of anti-oxidant Trx1, HIF-1?, and HO-1. Pretreatment of liver donors with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) disrupted Akt/HIF-1A signaling and recreated hepatocellular damage in otherwise IR-resistant Keap1 HKO transplants. In parallel in vitro studies, hydrogen peroxide-stressed Keap1-deficient hepatocytes were characterized by enhanced expression of Nrf2, Trx1, and Akt phosphorylation, in association with decreased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cell culture supernatants.Keap1-Nrf2 complex prevents oxidative injury in IR-stressed OLTs through Keap1 signaling, which negatively regulates Nrf2 pathway. Activation of Nrf2 induces Trx1 and promotes PI3K/Akt, crucial for HIF-1? activity. HIF-1?-mediated overexpression of HO-1/Cyclin D1 facilitates cytoprotection by limiting hepatic inflammatory responses, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent manner.
Project description:Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs inevitably in liver transplantations and frequently during major resections, and can lead to liver dysfunction as well as systemic disorders. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays a pathogenic role in hepatic IRI. In the normal liver, HMGB1 is located in the nucleus of hepatocytes; after ischemia reperfusion, it translocates to the cytoplasm and it is further released to the extracellular space. Unlike the well-explored functions of nuclear and extracellular HMGB1, the role of cytoplasmic HMGB1 in hepatic IRI remains elusive. We hypothesized that cytoplasmic HMGB1 interacts with binding proteins involved in the hepatocellular response to IRI. In this study, binding proteins of cytoplasmic HMGB1 during hepatic IRI were identified. Liver tissues from rats with warm ischemia reperfusion (WI/R) injury and from normal rats were subjected to cytoplasmic protein extraction. Co-immunoprecipitation using these protein extracts was performed to enrich HMGB1-protein complexes. To separate and identify the immunoprecipitated proteins in eluates, 2-dimensional electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry detection were performed. Two of the identified proteins were verified using Western blotting: betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT) and cystathionine ?-lyase (CTH). Therefore, our results revealed the binding of HMGB1 to BHMT and CTH in cytoplasm during hepatic WI/R. This finding may help to better understand the cellular response to IRI in the liver and to identify novel molecular targets for reducing ischemic injury.
Project description:OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND:Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune and parenchymal cells can detect danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from cells damaged during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), in heart attack or stroke settings, but also as an unavoidable consequence of solid organ transplantation. Despite IRI being a significant clinical problem across all solid organ transplants, there are limited therapeutics and patient-specific diagnostics currently available. METHODS:We screened portal blood samples obtained from 67 human liver transplant recipients both pre- [portal vein (PV) sample] and post-(liver flush; LF) reperfusion for their ability to activate a panel of PRRs, and analyzed this reactivity in relation to biopsy-proven IRI. RESULTS:PV samples from IRI+ orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients (n = 35) decreased activation of hTLR4- and hTLR9-transfected cells, whereas PV from IRI- patients (n = 32) primarily increased hTLR7 and hNOD2 activation. LF samples from OLT-IRI patients significantly increased activation of hTLR4 and hTLR9 over IRI- LF. In addition, the change from baseline reactivity to hTLR4/9/NOD2 was significantly higher in IRI+ than IRI- OLT patients. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that TLR4/7/9 and NOD2 are involved in either promoting or attenuating hepatic IRI, and suggest a diagnostic screening of portal blood for reactivity to these PRRs might prove useful for prediction and/or therapeutic intervention in OLT patients before transplantation.