Population Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Cyclophosphamide in Ethiopian Breast Cancer Patients.
ABSTRACT: Cyclophosphamide (CPA) containing chemotherapy regimen is the standard of care for breast cancer treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. Wide inter-individual variations in pharmacokinetics (PK) of cyclophosphamide (CPA) influence the efficacy and toxicity of CPA containing chemotherapy. Data on the pharmacokinetics (PK) profile of CPA and its covariates among black African patients is lacking. We investigated population pharmacokinetic/pharmacogenetic/pharmacodynamic (PK-PG-PD) of CPA in Ethiopian breast cancer patients. During the first cycle of CPA-based chemotherapy, the population PK parameters for CPA were determined in 267 breast cancer patients. Absolute neutrophil count was recorded at baseline and day 20 post-CPA administration. A population PK and covariate model analysis was performed using non-linear mixed effects modeling. Semi-mechanistic and empiric drug response models were explored to describe the relationship between the area under concentration-time curve (AUC), and neutrophil toxicity. One compartment model better described CPA PK with population clearance and apparent volume of distribution (VD) of 5.41 L/h and 46.5 L, respectively. Inter-patient variability in CPA clearance was 54.5%. Patients carrying CYP3A5*3 or *6 alleles had lower elimination rate constant and longer half-life compared to wild type carriers. CYP2C9 *2 or *3 carriers were associated with increased clearance of CPA. Patients who received 500 mg/m2 based CPA regimen were associated with a 32.3% lower than average clearance and 37.1% lower than average VD compared to patients who received 600 mg/m2. A 0.1 m2 unit increase in body surface area (BSA) was associated with a 5.6% increment in VD. The mean VD (33.5 L) in underweight group (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) was significantly lower compared to those of overweight (48.1 L) or obese patients (51.9 L) (p < 0.001). AUC of CPA was positively correlated with neutropenic toxicity. In conclusion, we report large between-patient variability in clearance of CPA. CYP3A5 and CYP2C9 genotypes, BSA, BMI, and CPA dosage regimen influence PK of CPA. Plasma CPA exposure positively predicts chemotherapy-associated neutropenic toxicity.
Project description:AIMS:This study aimed to analyse the effects of genetic polymorphisms in drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, and clinical laboratory data on the pharmacokinetic parameters of apixaban. METHODS:Data were collected from 81 Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation. Pharmacogenomic data were stratified by ABCB1, ABCG2 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms. The pharmacokinetic profile of apixaban was described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using a nonlinear mixed effect modelling (NONMEM™) program. RESULTS:The nonlinear relationship between oral clearance (CL/F) of apixaban and creatinine clearance (Ccr) was observed. The population mean of CL/F for a typical patient (Ccr value of 70 ml min-1 ) with the CYP3A5*1/*1 and ABCG2 421C/C or C/A genotypes was estimated to be 3.06 l h-1 . When Ccr values were set to the typical value, the population mean of CL/F was 1.52 times higher in patients with the CYP3A5*1/*1 genotype compared with patients with the CYP3A5*1/*3 or *3/*3 genotype, while the population mean of CL/F was 1.49 times higher in patients with the ABCG2 421C/C or C/A genotype compared with patients with the ABCG2 421A/A genotype. However, no covariates affected the population mean of the apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) of apixaban. The population mean of Vd/F was estimated to be 24.7 l. CONCLUSION:The present study suggests that the ABCG2 421A/A and CYP3A5*3 genotypes and renal function are intrinsic factors affecting apixaban pharmacokinetics. These findings may provide useful information for precision medicine using apixaban, to avoid the risk of adverse reactions.
Project description:Cyclosporine, everolimus, and tacrolimus are the cornerstone of immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation. These drugs are characterized by narrow therapeutic windows, highly variable pharmacokinetics (PK), and metabolism by CYP3A enzymes. Recently, the decreased activity allele, CYP3A4*22, was described as a potential predictive marker for CYP3A4 activity. This study investigated the effect of CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and CYP3A combined genotypes on cyclosporine, everolimus, and tacrolimus PK in renal transplant patients. CYP3A4*22 carriers showed a significant lower clearance for cyclosporine (-15%), and a trend was observed for everolimus (-7%) and tacrolimus (-16%). Patients carrying at least one CYP3A5*1 allele had 1.5-fold higher tacrolimus clearance compared with noncarriers; however, CYP3A5*3 appeared to be nonpredictive for everolimus and cyclosporine. CYP3A combined genotype did not significantly improve prediction of clearance compared with CYP3A5*3 or CYP3A4*22 alone. These data suggest that dose individualization of cyclosporine, everolimus, or tacrolimus therapy based on CYP3A4*22 is not indicated.CPT: Pharmacometrics Systems Pharmacology (2014); 3, e100; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.78; published online 12 February 2014.
Project description:AIMS:This prospective, randomized study was initiated to assess the impact of pharmacokinetically (PK)-guided paclitaxel (PTX) dosing on toxicity and efficacy compared with body-surface area (BSA)-based dosing in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients. METHODS:A total of 319 stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving first-line chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive 3-weekly carboplatin plus PTX at a starting dose of 175 mg/m2 with subsequent PTX dosing based on either BSA or PK-guided dosing targeting time above a PTX plasma concentration of 0.05 ?mol/L (PTXTc > 0.05 ) between 26 and 31 hours. The primary safety endpoint was grade 4 haematological toxicity. The secondary endpoints were neuropathy, objective response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS:In total, 275 (86%) patients completed ?2 cycles of chemotherapy (140 in BSA arm and 135 in PK arm). In cycle 1, with the same PTX dose, average PTXTc > 0.05 was 37 hours (range = 18-57 hours). Over cycles 2-4, patients in the PK arm had significantly lower average PTX doses and exposure compared with the BSA arm (128 vs 161 mg/m2 , P < .0001 and 29 vs 35 hours, P < .0001). PK-guided dosing significantly reduced the cumulative incidence of grade 4 haematological toxicity (15% vs 24%, P = .004), grade 4 neutropenia (15% vs 23%, P = .009) and grade ? 2 neuropathy (8% vs 21%, P = .005). Objective response rate (32% vs 26%, P = .28) and overall survival (21.0 vs 24.0 months, P = .815) were similar in PK and BSA arms. Progression-free survival was slightly improved in PK arm (4.67 vs 4.17 months, P = .026). CONCLUSION:PK-guided PTX dosing significantly reduced grade 4 haematological toxicities and grade ? 2 neuropathy without an adverse impact on clinical outcomes.
Project description:Pulmonary administration of polymyxins is increasingly used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as those in patients with cystic fibrosis. However, there is a lack of pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and toxicity data of aerosolized polymyxin B to inform rational dosage selection. The PK and PD of polymyxin B following pulmonary and intravenous dosing were examined in neutropenic infected mice, and the data were analyzed by a population PK model. Dose fractionation study was performed for total daily doses between 2.06 and 24.8 mg base/kg of weight against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, PAO1, and FADDI-PA022 (MIC of 1 mg/liter for all three strains). Histopathological examination of the lung was undertaken at 24 h posttreatment in both healthy and neutropenic infected mice. A two-compartment PK model was required for both epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and plasma drug exposure. The model consisted of central and peripheral compartments and was described by bidirectional first-order distribution clearance. The ratio of the area under the curve to the MIC (AUC/MIC) was the most predictive PK/PD index to describe the antimicrobial efficacy of aerosolized polymyxin B in treating lung infections in mice (R2 of 0.70 to 0.88 for ELF and 0.70 to 0.87 for plasma). The AUC/MIC targets associated with bacteriostasis against the three P. aeruginosa strains were 1,326 to 1,506 in ELF and 3.14 to 4.03 in plasma. Histopathological results showed that polymyxin B aerosols significantly reduced lung inflammation and preserved lung epithelial integrity. This study highlights the advantageous PK/PD characteristics of pulmonary delivery of polymyxin B over intravenous administration in achieving high drug exposure in ELF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pharmacokinetics (PK) are severely altered in critically ill patients due to changes in volume of distribution (Vd) and/or drug clearance (Cl). This affects the target attainment of antibiotics in critically ill children. We aimed to identify gaps in current knowledge and to compare published PK parameters and target attainment of antibiotics in critically ill children to healthy children and critically ill adults. METHODS:Systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Articles were labelled as relevant when they included information on PK of antibiotics in critically ill, non-neonatal, pediatric patients. Extracted PK-parameters included Vd, Cl, (trough) concentrations, AUC, probability of target attainment, and elimination half-life. RESULTS:50 relevant articles were identified. Studies focusing on vancomycin were most prevalent (17/50). Other studies included data on penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and aminoglycosides, but data on ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, penicillin and metronidazole could not be found. Critically ill children generally show a higher Cl and larger Vd than healthy children and critically ill adults. Reduced target-attainment was described in critically ill children for multiple antibiotics, including amoxicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin, amikacin and daptomycin. 38/50 articles included information on both Vd and Cl, but a dosing advice was given in only 22 articles. CONCLUSION:The majority of studies focus on agents where TDM is applied, while other antibiotics lack data altogether. The larger Vd and higher Cl in critically ill children might warrant a higher dose or extended infusions of antibiotics in this patient population to increase target-attainment. Studies frequently fail to provide a dosing advice for this patient population, even if the necessary information is available. Our study shows gaps in current knowledge and encourages future researchers to provide dosing advice for special populations whenever possible.
Project description:A treosulfan (Treo)-based conditioning regimen prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been successfully used in treating hematological malignant and nonmalignant diseases. We report Treo pharmacokinetics (PK) in patients with thalassemia major undergoing HSCT (n?=?87), receiving Treo at a dose of 14?g/m2 /day. Median Treo AUC and clearance (CL) was 1,326?mg*h/L and 10.8?L/h/m2 , respectively. There was wide interindividual variability in Treo AUC and CL (64 and 68%) which was not explained by any of the variables tested. None of the Treo PK parameters were significantly associated with graft rejection or toxicity; however, Treo CL <7.97?L/h/m2 was significantly associated with poor overall (hazard ratio (HR) 2.7, confidence interval (CI) (1.09-6.76), P?=?0.032) and event-free survival (HR 2.4, CI (0.98-5.73), P?=?0.055). Further studies in a larger cohort are warranted to identify the factors explaining the variation in Treo PK as well as to establish a therapeutic range of Treo for targeted dose adjustment to improve HSCT outcome.
Project description:The genes that encode for CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are located in the same region (CYP3A cluster) on chromosome 7. Midazolam (MDZ) is a substrate for both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. We hypothesize that MDZ disposition in vivo is associated with genotypes of the CYP3A cluster. A meta-analysis of the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters from seven clinical trials was carried out, in which MDZ was administered both intravenously and orally. DNA samples were available from 116 patients. There were significant ethnic differences in the allelic frequencies of these four common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP3A cluster. Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between CYP3A5(*)3 and CYP3A4(*)1A in Caucasians, and between CYP3A5(*)1 and CYP3A4(*)1B in African Americans. There were no differences in MDZ disposition in vivo between different genotypes, haplotypes and diplotypes in the CYP3A cluster (P>0.05). No significant differences in MDZ PK parameters were observed between Caucasians and African Americans. Women had higher weight-corrected systemic and oral clearance than men, but dose-adjusted AUC and bioavailability differences were not observed between sexes. The clinical importance of elevated CYP3A activity in women remains to be determined. The r(GC)'s of MDZ PK parameters were between 0.3 and 13.6%. In conclusion, the meta-analysis of seven studies suggests that environmental factors explain the majority of CYP3A activity variation. Further studies are necessary to define the functional significance of SNPs in the CYP3A cluster and the effects of CYP3A genotypes on MDZ disposition in vivo.
Project description:AIMS:Thiotepa is widely used in high-dose chemotherapy. Previous studies have shown relations between exposure and severe organ toxicity. Thiotepa is metabolized by cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase enzymes. Polymorphisms of these enzymes may affect elimination of thiotepa and tepa, its main metabolite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of known allelic variants in CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GSTA1 and GSTP1 genes on pharmacokinetics of thiotepa and tepa. METHODS:White patients (n = 124) received a high-dose regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and carboplatin as intravenous infusions. Genomic DNA was analysed using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Plasma concentrations of thiotepa and tepa were determined using validated GC and LC-MS/MS methods. Relations between allelic variants and elimination pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using nonlinear mixed effects modelling (nonmem). RESULTS:The polymorphisms CYP2B6 C1459T, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, GSTA1 (C-69T, G-52A) and GSTP1 C341T had a significant effect on clearance of thiotepa or tepa. Although significant, most effects were generally not large. Clearance of thiotepa and tepa was predominantly affected by GSTP1 C341T polymorphism, which had a frequency of 9.3%. This polymorphism increased non-inducible thiotepa clearance by 52% [95% confidence interval (CI) 41, 64, P < 0.001] and decreased tepa clearance by 32% (95% CI 29, 35, P < 0.001) in heterozygous patients, which resulted in an increase in combined exposure to thiotepa and tepa of 45% in homozygous patients. CONCLUSIONS:This study indicates that the presently evaluated variant alleles explain only a small part of the substantial interindividual variability in thiotepa and tepa pharmacokinetics. Patients homozygous for the GSTP1 C341T allele may have enhanced exposure to thiotepa and tepa.
Project description:The current study was a follow-up to an in vivo study in which atazanavir oral clearance was shown to be dependent on genetically determined CYP3A5 expression status, but only in non-African Americans. The aim of this study was to identify atazanavir metabolites generated by CYP3A5 and to evaluate this metabolite pattern in the African-American versus non-African-American CYP3A5 expressors from the previous study. First, the in vitro metabolism of atazanavir was evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLM) and CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoforms. Second, the metabolite pattern generated by CYP3A5 was evaluated in human plasma samples from the previous study. Atazanavir metabolites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. Metabolite areas under the time-concentration curves (AUCs) were normalized to atazanavir AUC to generate an AUC ratio. Sixteen metabolites were observed in human liver microsomal incubations representing five "phase I" biotransformation pathways. Mono-oxidation products (M1 and M2) were formed by CYP3A5 at a faster rate than CYP3A4 by 32- and 2.6-fold, respectively. This finding was replicated in HLM from a genetically determined CYP3A5 expressor versus nonexpressor. In the in vivo samples, the M1 and M2 AUC ratios were approximately 2-fold higher in CYP3A5 expressors versus nonexpressors (P < 0.05), and the difference was similar in African Americans and non-African Americans. Thus, CYP3A5 produced a unique metabolite "signature" for atazanavir in vitro and in vivo, independent of race. Therefore, other pharmacological factors are likely to explain the apparent lack of effect of genetically determined CYP3A5 expressor status on atazanavir oral clearance in African Americans from the previous study.
Project description:Preclinical studies have demonstrated the synergistic anti-tumour activity of combination therapy with the oral cytostatics, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) and cyclophosphamide (CPA), in human breast cancer xenograft models. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this oral combination chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. In all, 101 patients with metastatic breast cancer were enrolled in the study, and the data for 94 eligible patients of these were evaluated. The patients received twice daily oral combinations of 5'-DFUR (1200 mg/body/day) and CPA (100 mg/body/day) for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week rest period. After a median of 19 treatment cycles (range 1-66 cycles), 16 patients (17.0%) had a complete response, and 40 patients (42.6%) had partial responses. The response rate was 59.6% (95% CI, 49.0-69.6%). The median time to progression and overall survival times were 11.7 and 40.3 months, respectively. The toxicity was mild and tolerable, and the related grade 3/4 clinical adverse effects consisted of haematological toxicity in 21 patients (22%) and nonhaematological toxicity in five patients (5%). These results suggest that the oral combination chemotherapy of 5'-DFUR and CPA has low toxicity and is a novel, very convenient and effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer.