Elucidating the Regulon of a Fur-like Protein in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP).
ABSTRACT: Intracellular iron concentration is tightly regulated to maintain cell viability. Iron plays important roles in electron transport, nucleic acid synthesis, and oxidative stress. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific genomic island carries a putative metal transport operon that includes MAP3773c, which encodes a Fur-like protein. Although well characterized as a global regulator of iron homeostasis in multiple bacteria, the function of Fur (ferric uptake regulator) in MAP is unknown as this organism also carries IdeR (iron dependent regulator), a native iron regulatory protein specific to mycobacteria. Computational analysis using PRODORIC identified 23 different pathways involved in respiration, metabolism, and virulence that were likely regulated by MAP3773c. Thus, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) was performed to confirm the putative regulon of MAP3773c (Fur-like protein) in MAP. ChIP-Seq revealed enriched binding to 58 regions by Fur under iron-replete and -deplete conditions, located mostly within open reading frames (ORFs). Three ChIP peaks were identified in genes that are directly related to iron regulation: MAP3638c (hemophore-like protein), MAP3736c (Fur box), and MAP3776c (ABC transporter). Fur box consensus sequence was identified, and binding specificity and dependence on Mn2+ availability was confirmed by a chemiluminescent electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). The results confirmed that MAP3773c is a Fur ortholog that recognizes a 19 bp DNA sequence motif (Fur box) and it is involved in metal homeostasis. This work provides a regulatory network of MAP Fur binding sites during iron-replete and -deplete conditions, highlighting unique properties of Fur regulon in MAP.
Project description:In gram-negative bacteria, iron acquisition proteins are commonly regulated by Fur (ferric uptake regulator), which binds iron-regulated promoters (the Fur box). We hypothesized that Coxiella burnetii requires iron and employs an iron-regulatory system and used various approaches to define a Fur regulon. Cloned C. burnetii fur complemented an Escherichia coli fur deletion mutant. A ferrous iron transporter gene (CBU1766), a putative iron binding protein-encoding gene (CBU0970), and a cation efflux pump gene (CBU1362) were identified by genome annotation and using a Fur titration assay. Bioinformatically predicted Fur box-containing promoters were tested for transcriptional control by iron. Five genes demonstrated at least a twofold induction with minimal iron. Putatively regulated genes were evaluated in a two-plasmid regulator/promoter heterologous expression system. These data suggested a very limited Fur-regulated system in C. burnetii. In an in vitro tissue culture model, a significant increase in bacterial growth was observed with infected cells treated with deferoxamine in comparison to growth under iron-replete conditions. In an iron-overloaded animal model in vivo, the level of bacterial growth detected in the iron-injected animals was significantly decreased in comparison to growth in control animals. In a low-iron-diet animal model, a significant increase in splenomegaly was observed, but no significant change in bacterial growth was identified. The small number of predicted iron acquisition systems, few Fur-regulated genes, and enhanced replication under a decreased iron level predict a requirement of a low level of iron for survival, perhaps to avoid creation of additional reactive oxygen radicals.
Project description:In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein regulates iron homeostasis gene expression through binding to conserved sequences in promoters of iron-responsive genes. We have expanded the gonococcal Fur regulon using a custom microarray to monitor iron-responsive gene expression throughout the growth curve combined with a genome-wide in silico analysis to predict Fur boxes (FB), and in vivo FuRTA assays to detect genes able to bind Fur. Keywords: time course: (1hr ,2hr, 3hr, 4hr) Overall design: The effect of iron on global gene expression was determined over a 4-h time period by comparing the RNA profile of the organism grown in iron-deplete conditions to growth in iron-replete conditions.
Project description:The recent identification of the iron response regulator (Irr) in Bradyrhizobium japonicum raised the question of whether the global regulator Fur is present in that organism. A fur gene homolog was isolated by the functional complementation of an Escherichia coli fur mutant. The B. japonicum Fur bound to a Fur box DNA element in vitro, and a fur mutant grown in iron-replete medium was derepressed for iron uptake activity. Thus, B. japonicum expresses at least two regulators of iron metabolism.
Project description:Bacterial cells modulate transcription in response to changes in iron availability. The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) senses intracellular iron availability and plays a central role in maintaining iron homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis Here we utilized FrvA, a high-affinity Fe2+ efflux transporter from Listeria monocytogenes, as an inducible genetic tool to deplete intracellular iron. We then characterized the responses of the Fur, FsrA, and PerR regulons as cells transition from iron sufficiency to deficiency. Our results indicate that the Fur regulon is derepressed in three distinct waves. First, uptake systems for elemental iron (efeUOB), ferric citrate (fecCDEF), and petrobactin (fpbNOPQ) are induced to prevent iron deficiency. Second, B. subtilis synthesizes its own siderophore bacillibactin (dhbACEBF) and turns on bacillibactin (feuABC) and hydroxamate siderophore (fhuBCGD) uptake systems to scavenge iron from the environment and flavodoxins (ykuNOP) to replace ferredoxins. Third, as iron levels decline further, an "iron-sparing" response (fsrA, fbpAB, and fbpC) is induced to block the translation of abundant iron-utilizing proteins and thereby permit the most essential iron-dependent enzymes access to the limited iron pools. ChIP experiments demonstrate that in vivo occupancy of Fur correlates with derepression of each operon, and the graded response observed here results, at least in part, from higher-affinity binding of Fur to the "late"-induced genes.
Project description:The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a predominant bacterial regulator controlling the iron assimilation functions in response to iron availability. Our previous microarray analysis on Yersinia pestis defined the iron-Fur modulon. In the present work, we reannotated the iron assimilation genes in Y. pestis, and the resulting genes in complementation with those disclosed by microarray constituted a total of 34 genome loci (putative operons) that represent the potential iron-responsive targets of Fur. The subsequent real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) in conjunction with the primer extension analysis showed that 32 of them were regulated by Fur in response to iron starvation. A previously predicted Fur box sequence was then used to search against the promoter regions of the 34 operons; the homologue of the above box could be predicted in each promoter tested. The subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that a purified His(6) tag-fused Fur protein was able to bind in vitro to each of these promoter regions. Therefore, Fur is a global regulator, both an activator and a repressor, and directly controls not only almost all of the iron assimilation functions but also a variety of genes involved in various non-iron functions for governing a complex regulatory cascade in Y. pestis. In addition, real-time RT-PCR, primer extension, EMSA, and DNase I footprinting assay were used to elucidate the Fur regulation of the ybt locus encoding a virulence-required iron uptake system. By combining the published data on the YbtA regulation of ybt, we constructed a concise Fur/YbtA regulatory network with a map of the Fur-promoter DNA interactions within the ybt locus. The data presented here give us an overview of the iron-responsive Fur regulon in Y. pestis.
Project description:The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) is found in a wide variety of environments and must monitor and respond to various environmental signals such as the availability of iron, an essential element for bacterial growth. An important regulator of iron homeostasis is Fur (ferric uptake regulator), and here we present the first study of the Fur regulon in DC3000. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), 312 chromosomal regions were highly enriched by coimmunoprecipitation with a C-terminally tagged Fur protein. Integration of these data with previous microarray and global transcriptome analyses allowed us to expand the putative DC3000 Fur regulon to include genes both repressed and activated in the presence of bioavailable iron. Using nonradioactive DNase I footprinting, we confirmed Fur binding in 41 regions, including upstream of 11 iron-repressed genes and the iron-activated genes encoding two bacterioferritins (PSPTO_0653 and PSPTO_4160), a ParA protein (PSPTO_0855), and a two-component system (TCS) (PSPTO_3382 to PSPTO_3380).
Project description:The Neisseria gonorrhoeae ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein controls expression of iron homeostasis genes in response to intracellular iron levels. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of an N. gonorrhoeae fur strain, we defined the gonococcal Fur and iron regulons and characterized Fur-controlled expression of an ArsR-like DNA binding protein. We observed that 158 genes (8% of the genome) showed differential expression in response to iron in an N. gonorrhoeae wild-type or fur strain, while 54 genes exhibited differential expression in response to Fur. The Fur regulon was extended to additional regulators, including NrrF and 13 other small RNAs (sRNAs), and two transcriptional factors. One transcriptional factor, coding for an ArsR-like regulator (ArsR), exhibited increased expression under iron-replete conditions in the wild-type strain but showed decreased expression across iron conditions in the fur strain, an effect that was reversed in a fur-complemented strain. Fur was shown to bind to the promoter region of the arsR gene downstream of a predicted ?(70) promoter region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis confirmed binding of the ArsR protein to the norB promoter region, and sequence analysis identified two additional putative targets, NGO1411 and NGO1646. A gonococcal arsR strain demonstrated decreased survival in human endocervical epithelial cells compared to that of the wild-type and arsR-complemented strains, suggesting that the ArsR regulon includes genes required for survival in host cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the N. gonorrhoeae Fur functions as a global regulatory protein to repress or activate expression of a large repertoire of genes, including additional transcriptional regulatory proteins.Gene regulation in bacteria in response to environmental stimuli, including iron, is of paramount importance to both bacterial replication and, in the case of pathogenic bacteria, successful infection. Bacterial DNA binding proteins are a common mechanism utilized by pathogens to control gene expression under various environmental conditions. Here, we show that the DNA binding protein Fur, expressed by the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae, controls the expression of a large repertoire of genes and extends this regulon by controlling expression of additional DNA binding proteins. One of these proteins, an ArsR-like regulator, was required for N. gonorrhoeae survival within host cells. These results show that the Fur regulon extends to additional regulatory proteins, which together contribute to gonococcal mechanisms of pathogenesis.
Project description:Iron is limiting in the human host, and bacterial pathogens respond to this environment by activating genes required for bacterial virulence. Transcriptional regulation in response to iron in Gram-negative bacteria is largely mediated by the ferric uptake regulator protein Fur, which in the presence of iron binds to a specific sequence in the promoter regions of genes under its control and acts as a repressor. Here we describe DNA microarray, computational and in vitro studies to define the Fur regulon in the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis group B (strain MC58). After iron addition to an iron-depleted bacterial culture, 153 genes were up-regulated and 80 were down-regulated. Only 50% of the iron-regulated genes were found to contain Fur-binding consensus sequences in their promoter regions. Forty-two promoter regions were amplified and 32 of these were shown to bind Fur by gel-shift analysis. Among these genes, many of which had never been described before to be Fur-regulated, 10 were up-regulated on iron addition, demonstrating that Fur can also act as a transcriptional activator. Sequence alignment of the Fur-binding regions revealed that the N. meningitidis Fur-box encompasses the highly conserved (NATWAT)3 motif. Cluster analysis was effective in predicting Fur-regulated genes even if computer prediction failed to identify Fur-box-like sequences in their promoter regions. Microarray-generated gene expression profiling appears to be a very effective approach to define new regulons and regulatory pathways in pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:The Fur protein is a primary regulator that monitors and controls cytoplasmic iron levels. We now report the identification of a regulatory pathway mediated by the Salmonella response regulator RstA that promotes Fur activity. Genome-wide expression experiments revealed that under iron-replete conditions, expression of the RstA protein from a plasmid lowered transcription levels of various genes involved in iron acquisition. The RstA protein controlled iron-responsive genes through the Fur-Fe(II) protein because deletion of the fur gene or iron depletion abrogated RstA-mediated repression of these genes. The RstA protein maintained wild-type levels of the Fur protein but exceptionally activated transcription of the feoAB operon encoding the ferrous iron transporter FeoB by binding directly to the feoA promoter. This FeoB induction resulted in increased ferrous iron uptake, which associates with the Fur protein because lack of RstA-dependent transcriptional activation of the feoA promoter and feoB-deletion abolished repression of the Fur target genes by the RstA protein. Under iron-replete conditions, RstA expression retarded Salmonella growth but enabled the Fur protein to repress the target genes beyond the levels which were simply accomplished by iron.
Project description:The ResD response regulator activates transcription of diverse genes in Bacillus subtilis in response to oxygen limitation. ResD regulon genes that are the most highly induced during nitrate respiration include the nitrite reductase operon (nasDEF) and the flavohemoglobin gene (hmp), whose products function in nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. Transcription of these genes is also under the negative control of the NO-sensitive NsrR repressor. Recent studies showed that the NsrR regulon contains genes with no apparent relevance to NO metabolism and that the ResD response regulator and NsrR coordinately regulate transcription. To determine whether these genes are direct targets of NsrR and ResD, we used chromatin affinity precipitation coupled with tiling chip (ChAP-chip) and ChAP followed by quantitative PCR (ChAP-qPCR) analyses. The study showed that ResD and NsrR directly control transcription of the ykuNOP operon in the Fur regulon. ResD functions as an activator at the nasD and hmp promoters, whereas it functions at the ykuN promoter as an antirepressor of Fur and a corepressor for NsrR. This mechanism likely participates in fine-tuning of transcript levels in response to different sources of stress, such as oxygen limitation, iron limitation, and exposure to NO.