Distribution and seasonal fluctuations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larval and pupae in residential areas in an urban landscape.
ABSTRACT: Dengue, a vector-borne disease spread by Aedes mosquitoes, is a global threat. In the absence of an efficacious dengue vaccine, vector control is the key intervention tool in Singapore. A good understanding of vector habitats is essential to formulate operational strategies. We examined the distribution, long-term trend and seasonality of Aedes data collected during regulatory inspections in residences and public areas from 2008 to 2017. We also studied the seasonality of climate factors to understand their influence on the detection of Aedes-positive containers. The most frequently reported Aedes-positive containers were domestic containers, drains, discarded receptacles, ornamental containers, flower pot plates/trays, plants, gully traps, canvas/plastic sheet, bins, ground puddle, inspection chambers and roof tops/gutters. We found more Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus-positive containers per inspection in residences and public areas, respectively. The seasonality of Ae. aegypti-positive containers in residences and public areas coincided with that of mean temperature. However, the seasonality of Ae. albopictus-positive containers lagged by one month compared to that of mean temperature. Our study demonstrates the seasonal fluctuations of Aedes-positive containers in an urban environment. Understanding the distribution and seasonality of Aedes breeding helps to facilitate resource planning and community awareness to moderate dengue transmission.
Project description:Dengue is a disease that has undergone significant expansion over the past hundred years. Understanding what factors limit the distribution of transmission can be used to predict current and future limits to further dengue expansion. While not the only factor, temperature plays an important role in defining these limits. Previous attempts to analyse the effect of temperature on the geographic distribution of dengue have not considered its dynamic intra-annual and diurnal change and its cumulative effects on mosquito and virus populations.Here we expand an existing modelling framework with new temperature-based relationships to model an index proportional to the basic reproductive number of the dengue virus. This model framework is combined with high spatial and temporal resolution global temperature data to model the effects of temperature on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission.Our model predicted areas where temperature is not expected to permit transmission and/or Aedes persistence throughout the year. By reanalysing existing experimental data our analysis indicates that Ae. albopictus, often considered a minor vector of dengue, has comparable rates of virus dissemination to its primary vector, Ae. aegypti, and when the longer lifespan of Ae. albopictus is considered its competence for dengue virus transmission far exceeds that of Ae. aegypti.These results can be used to analyse the effects of temperature and other contributing factors on the expansion of dengue or its Aedes vectors. Our finding that Ae. albopictus has a greater capacity for dengue transmission than Ae. aegypti is contrary to current explanations for the comparative rarity of dengue transmission in established Ae. albopictus populations. This suggests that the limited capacity of Ae. albopictus to transmit DENV is more dependent on its ecology than vector competence. The recommendations, which we explicitly outlined here, point to clear targets for entomological investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. METHODS:Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. RESULTS:The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of <15 (40%) followed by 15-45 (35%) and >45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. CONCLUSION:The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aedes-borne arboviruses have emerged as an important public health problem worldwide and, in Mozambique, the number of cases and its geographical spread have been growing. However, information on the occurrence, distribution and ecology of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes remain poorly known in the country. METHODS:Between March and April 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 32 districts in Mozambique to determine the distribution and breeding sites of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Larvae and pupae were collected from a total of 2,807 water-holding containers using pipette, dipper, funnel and sweeping procedures, depending on the container type and location. Both outdoor and indoor water-holding containers were inspected. The immature forms were reared to adults and the identifications of the mosquito species was carried out with a stereomicroscope using a taxonomic key. RESULTS:Aedes aegypti was found in every district sampled, while Ae. albopictus was only found in Moatize district, situated in Tete Province in the central part of the country. Six hundred and twenty-eight of 2,807 (22.4%) containers were positive for Ae. aegypti but only one (0.03%) was positive for Ae. albopictus. The Container Index (CI) of Aedes was highest in densely populated suburban areas of the central region (260/604; 43.0%), followed by suburban areas in northern areas (228/617; 36.9%) whilst the lowest proportion was found in urbanized southern areas (140/1586; 8.8%). The highest CI of Aedes was found in used tires (448/1268; 35.3%), cement tanks (20/62; 32.3%) and drums (21/95; 22.1%). CONCLUSION:Data from our study showed that Ae. aegypti is present nation-wide, since it occurred in every sampled district, whilst Ae. albopictus had a limited distribution. Therefore, the risk of transmission of dengue and chikungunya is likely to have been underestimated in Mozambique. This study highlights the need for the establishment of a national entomological surveillance program for Aedes spp. in Mozambique in order to gain a better understanding about vector bionomics and to support the development of informed effective vector control strategies.
Project description:We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires.
Project description:Background:Refillable water containers are commonly used in rural areas of Lao PDR, and they act as Aedes mosquito breeding sites. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitos are transmission vectors for the dengue virus, which causes dengue fever. Methods:Two isolated rural villages in the central part of Lao PDR were selected as study sites. In the intervention village, domestic water containers were continuously treated with a long-lasting matrix release formulation, containing pyriproxyfen, named SumiLarv®2MR. In the control village, entomological activity was monitored, but no intervention was performed. Baseline data were collected in both villages during the late rainy season (October 2017) then distributed SumiLarv®2MR disks in intervention village. This data was compared with data collected during the intervention periods in the dry season (February 2018), rainy season (July 2018 and 2019), and late rainy season (September 2018) in the region. Results:Compared with the baseline data (20.24%), the percentage of water containers infested with Ae. aegypti larvae was significantly decreased in the treated village, especially in the rainy seasons in July 2018 (4.11%; P < 0.001) and July 2019 (2.46%; P < 0.001), while the percentage of water containers infested with Ae. albopictus larvae did not decrease significantly in prevalence. No reduction in the frequency of Aedes species was seen in the control village. The Ae. albopictus liked to breed in small habitats (the median water volume of its habitats was 5?L and 10?L in the control and treated village, respectively, while the equivalent values for Ae. aegypti were 30?L and 50?L, respectively). Conclusion:The treatment of refillable water storage containers in a rural village with SumiLarv®2MR disks led to significant reductions in the Ae. aegypti population. However, the Ae. albopictus population did not decrease in either the control or treated village. This discrepancy was due to differences in habitat-seeking behaviors and preferred breeding sites such as types of water, water container, and water volume, then led to the differences in results of mosquito prevalence after SumiLarv®2MR disk treatments. The SumiLarv®2MR disk treatment was proven to be effective against the primary dengue-virus vector mosquitoes, Ae. aegypti.
Project description:We assessed the vector competence of Aedes caspius and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Spain for the transmission of Zika virus. Whereas Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were a competent vector, Ae. caspius mosquitoes were unable to transmit Zika virus. We also identified high levels of vertical transmission of Zika virus in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes.
Project description:Arbovirus vector dynamics and spread are influenced by climatic, environmental and geographic factors. Major Chikungunya and Dengue fever outbreaks occurring the last 10 years have coincided with the expansion of the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus to nearly all the continents. We characterized the ecological (larval development sites, population dynamics, insemination and daily survival rates) and genetic (diversity, gene flow, population structure) features of two Aedes albopictus populations from distinct environments (rural and urban) on Réunion Island, in the South-West Indian Ocean. Microsatellite analysis suggests population sub-structuring Ae. albopictus populations. Two genetic clusters were identified that were significantly linked to natural versus urban habitats with a mixed population in both areas. Ae. albopictus individuals prefer urban areas for mating and immature development, where hosts and containers that serve as larval development sites are readily available and support high population densities, whereas natural environments appear to serve as reservoirs for the mosquito.
Project description:Over the past three decades, Europe has witnessed an increased spread of invasive aedine mosquito species, most notably Aedes albopictus, a key vector of chikungunya, dengue and Zika virus. While its distribution in southern Europe is well documented, its dispersal modes across the Alps remain poorly investigated, preventing a projection of future scenarios beyond its current range in order to target mosquito control. To monitor the presence and frequency of invasive Aedes mosquitoes across and beyond the Alps we set oviposition and BG-Sentinel traps at potential points of entry with a focus on motorway service areas across Switzerland. We placed the traps from June to September and controlled them for the presence of mosquitoes every other week between 2013 and 2018. Over the six years of surveillance we identified three invasive Aedes species, including Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus and Ae. koreicus. Based on the frequency and distribution patterns we conclude that Ae. albopictus and Ae. koreicus are being passively spread primarily along the European route E35 from Italy to Germany, crossing the Alps, while Ae. japonicus has been expanding its range from northern Switzerland across the country most likely through active dispersal.
Project description:Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes transmit serious human arboviral diseases including yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Females of the two species have adapted to undergo preimaginal development in natural or artificial collections of freshwater near human habitations and feed on human blood. While there is an effective vaccine against yellow fever, the control of dengue and chikungunya is mainly dependent on reducing freshwater preimaginal development habitats of the two vectors. We show here that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus lay eggs and their larvae survive to emerge as adults in brackish water (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5-30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish and saline respectively). Brackish water with salinity of 2 to 15 ppt in discarded plastic and glass containers, abandoned fishing boats and unused wells in coastal peri-urban environment were found to contain Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae. Relatively high incidence of dengue in Jaffna city, Sri Lanka was observed in the vicinity of brackish water habitats containing Ae. aegypti larvae. These observations raise the possibility that brackish water-adapted Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may play a hitherto unrecognized role in transmitting dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever in coastal urban areas. National and international health authorities therefore need to take the findings into consideration and extend their vector control efforts, which are presently focused on urban freshwater habitats, to include brackish water larval development habitats.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika are among the most important emerging infectious vector-borne diseases worldwide. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), increases in cases of dengue and outbreaks of yellow fever and chikungunya have been reported since 2010. The main vectors of these arboviruses, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, have been reported in DRC, but there is a lack of detailed information on their presence and spread to guide disease control efforts.<h4>Methods</h4>In 2018, two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Kinshasa province (DRC), one in the rainy (January/February) and one in the dry season (July). Four hundred houses were visited in each of the four selected communes (N'Djili, Mont Ngafula, Lingwala and Kalamu). Within the peri-domestic area of each household, searches were conducted for larval habitats, which were then surveyed for the presence of Aedes larvae and pupae. A subset of the immature specimens were reared to adults for morphological identification followed by DNA barcoding of the specimens to validate identifications.<h4>Results</h4>The most rural commune (Mont Ngafula) had the highest pupal index (number of Aedes spp. pupae per 100 inspected houses) at 246 (20) pupae/100 houses, and Breteau index (BI; number of containers positive for immature stages of Aedes spp. per 100 households) at 82.2 (19.5) positive containers/100 houses for the rainy (and dry) season, respectively. The BI was 21.5 (4.7), 36.7 (9.8) and 41.7 (7.5) in Kalamu, Lingwala and N'Djili in the rainy (and dry) season, respectively. The house index (number of houses positive for at least one container with immature stages of Aedes spp. per 100 inspected houses) was, on average, across all communes, 27.5% (7.6%); and the container index (number of containers positive for immature stages of Aedes spp. per 100 inspected containers) was 15.0% (10.0%) for the rainy (and dry) season, respectively. The vast majority of Aedes-positive containers were found outside the houses [adjusted odds ratio 27.4 (95% confidence interval 14.9-50.1)]. During the dry season, the most productive containers were the ones used for water storage, whereas in the rainy season rubbish and tires constituted key habitats. Both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found. Anopheles larvae were found in different types of Aedes larval habitats, especially during the rainy season.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In both surveys and in all communes, the larval indices (BI) were higher than the arbovirus transmission threshold values established by the World Health Organization. Management strategies for controlling Aedes in Kinshasa need to target the key types of containers for Aedes larvae, which are mainly located in outdoor spaces, for larval habitat destruction or reduction.