Efficacy and safety of Shengjiang Xiexin decoction in prophylaxis of chemotherapy-related diarrhea in small cell lung cancer patients: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Diarrhea is a common adverse reaction in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, for which there is currently no effective method of treatment. Shengjiang Xiexin decoction (SXD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has shown efficacy in alleviating irinotecan-induced diarrhea in preliminary clinical studies. The current study is designed to assess the efficacy and safety of SXD for prophylaxis against irinotecan-induced diarrhea. Additionally, we employ a new approach to analyze and evaluate the data based on the patients' uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) genotype, which predicts the risk of diarrhea. METHODS AND DESIGN:A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial will be conducted in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) from five hospitals in China. For this study, 100 irinotecan-naïve patients will be randomly allocated to either the SXD or placebo arms in a 1:1 ratio. Stratified randomization will be used to divide subjects by UGT1A1 genotype into groups with differing risk of diarrhea. The trial will consist of two?cycles of chemotherapy with 14?days of oral administration of SXD or placebo administered beginning between 3?days before and up to 11?days after initiation of each chemotherapy cycle. The primary study outcome is the incidence of diarrhea. Secondary outcomes include the degree of diarrhea, the degree of neutropenia, the rate of alterations in chemotherapy regimens, the amount of antidiarrheal drug taken, the rate of hospitalization, and evaluation of chemotherapy efficacy. DISCUSSION:This study is the first to use the UGT1A1 genotype to stratify patients into groups based on their risk of diarrhea, and to provide a complete assessment of chemotherapy-related diarrhea (CRD), including records of diarrhea duration, grading the severity of diarrhea, and evaluating concomitant symptoms. Study results will provide high-level clinical evidence on the use of SXD as prophylaxis for CRD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR1800018490. Registered on 20 September 2018. Retrospectively registered. http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=25250&htm=4c.
Project description:The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism was suggested to be significantly connected with irinotecan-induced toxicity and response to chemotherapy. However, the results of previous studies are controversial. Hence we carried out a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism on severe diarrhea, neutropenia, and response of patients who had undergone irinotecan-based chemotherapy. The PubMed, Web of Science, Wanfang, and CNKI databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the association of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism with severe diarrhea, neutropenia, and response to irinotecan-based chemotherapy. The combined odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the relationship under a fixed- or random-effects model. Fifty-eight studies including 6087 patients with cancer were included. Our results showed that patients carrying the TA6/7 and TA7/7 genotypes had a greater prevalence of diarrhea and neutropenia than those with the TA6/6 genotype (TA6/7+TA7/7 vs. TA6/6: diarrhea, OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.68-2.83; neutropenia, OR = 2.15, 95%CI = 1.71-2.70), particularly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Stratified analysis showed that Asians with the TA6/7 and TA7/7 genotypes were more likely to have diarrhea and neutropenia, and Caucasians with the TA6/7 and TA7/7 genotypes were more likely to have neutropenia than other groups. However, patients with the TA6/7+TA7/7 genotypes showed a higher response than patients with TA6/6 genotype (OR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.07-1.34), particularly Caucasians (OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.06-1.42) and patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.05-1.48). Our data showed that the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism had a significant relationship with toxicity and response to irinotecan-based chemotherapy. This polymorphism may be useful as a monitoring index for cancer patients receiving irinotecan-based chemotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between UGT1A1 polymorphisms and toxicities in Chinese patients with pancreatic or biliary tract cancer receiving irinotecan-containing regimens as the second- or third-line chemotherapy.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>A total of 36 patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer and 12 patients with unresectable biliary tract cancer were included. Approximately 33 patients were treated with FOLFIRI regimen, a chemotherapy regimen, where FOL stands for folinic acid, F for fluorouracil, and IRI for irinotecan (irinotecan 180 mg/m(2) at day 1, CF 200 mg/m(2) at day 1-2, 5-FU 400 mg/m(2) at day 1-2, followed by continuous infusion of 5-FU 600 mg/m(2) for 22 hours at day 1-2, every 2 weeks). The other 15 patients were treated with irinotecan monotherapy (180 mg/m(2), every 2 weeks). UGT1A1*6/*28 polymorphisms were detected by direct sequencing.<h4>Results</h4>The frequencies of GG, GA, AA genotypes for UGT1A1*6 were 70.8% (n=34), 25.0% (n=12), and 4.2% (n=2), respectively. And those of TA6/TA6, TA6/TA7, TA7/TA7 for UGT1A1*28 were 79.2% (n=38), 18.8% (n=9), and 2.0% (n=1), respectively. A total of 22 patients (45.8%) had grade III-IV neutropenia, and six patients (12.5%) experienced grade III-IV diarrhea. The incidence of grade III-IV neutropenia in patients with UGT1A1*6 GA or AA genotype was 71.4%, which was significantly higher than that with GG genotype (35.3%, P=0.022). No relationship was found between grade III-IV neutropenia and UGT1A1*28 polymorphism. The statistical analysis between grade III-IV diarrhea and UGT1A1*6/*28 polymorphisms was not conducted in view of the limited number of patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In Chinese patients with pancreatic or biliary tract cancer administered irinotecan-containing regimens, those with UGT1A1*6 variant may have a high risk of severe neutropenia.
Project description:Irinotecan is approved and widely administered to metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients; however, it can cause severe toxicities including neutropenia and diarrhea. The polymorphisms of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes can play a crucial role in the increased susceptibility of cancer patients to chemotherapy toxicity. Therefore, we plan to explore the effect of the genetic polymorphism of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) for irinotecan detoxification in mCRC patients. This trial will compare the clinical outcomes and side effects observed in mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan (FOLFIRI) with and without UGT1A1 genotyping and irinotecan dose escalation. A total of 400 mCRC patients were randomized into a study group and a control group.This trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial comparing UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism for irinotecan dose escalation in mCRC patients administered with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI as the first-line setting. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, a study group and a control group, on the basis of receiving UGT1A1 genotyping or not. The study group receive a biweekly FOLFIRI regimen, with irinotecan dose escalation based on UGT1A1 genotyping; whereas the control group receive the conventional biweekly FOLFIRI regimen without UGT1A1 genotyping. The clinicopathological features, response rates, toxicity, and progression-free survival or overall survival will be compared between the two groups.Patients with mCRC undergoing UGT1A1 genotyping may receive escalated doses of irinotecan for a potentially more favorable clinical response and outcome, in addition to comparable toxicities. Such personalized medicine based on genotyping may be feasible for clinical practice.NCT02256800 . Date of registration: 3 October 2014. Date of first patient randomized: 16 January 2015.
Project description:PURPOSE:5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin, irinotecan, and nab-paclitaxel are all active agents in gastrointestinal cancers; the combination, FOLFIRABRAX, has not been previously evaluated. UDP Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) clears SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. UGT1A1*28 polymorphism reduces UGT1A1 enzymatic activity and predisposes to toxicity. We performed a trial to assess the safety and tolerability of FOLFIRABRAX with UGT1A1 genotype-guided dosing of irinotecan. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with previously untreated, advanced gastrointestinal cancers received FOLFIRABRAX with prophylactic pegfilgrastim every 14 days. UGT1A1 *1/*1, *1/*28, and *28/*28 patients received initial irinotecan doses of 180, 135, and 90 mg/m2, respectively. 5-FU 2,400 mg/m2 over 46 hours, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, and nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 were administered. Doses were deemed tolerable if the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate during cycle 1 was ?35% in each genotype group. DLTs were monitored using a sequential procedure. RESULTS:Fifty patients enrolled, 30 pancreatic, 9 biliary tract, 6 gastroesophageal, and 5 others. DLTs occurred in 5 of 23 (22%) *1/*1 patients, 1 of 19 (5%) *1/*28 patients, and 0 of 7 *28/*28 patients. DLTs were all grade 3: diarrhea (3 patients), nausea (2 patients), and febrile neutropenia (1 patient). The overall response rate was 31%. Response rates in pancreatic, gastroesophageal, and biliary tract cancers were 34%, 50%, and 11%, respectively. Eighteen patients (36%) received therapy for at least 24 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:FOLFIRABRAX with genotype-guided dosing of irinotecan is tolerable in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and UGT1A1*1*1 or UGT1A1*1*28 genotypes. Too few *28/*28 patients were enrolled to provide conclusive results. Responses occurred across multiple tumor types.
Project description:Shengjiang Xiexin decoction (SXD), a classic traditional Chinese medical formula chronicled in Shang Han Lun, is used in modern clinical practice to decrease gastrointestinal toxicity induced by the chemotherapeutic drug irinotecan (CPT-11). In this study, the effect of SXD on the pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and its active metabolites (SN-38 and SN-38G), and the underlying mechanisms were further examined. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G in the plasma, bile, liver, intestine, and intestinal contents of control and SXD-pre-treated rats after intravenous administration of CPT-11. SXD pretreatment increased the area under the curve (AUC) and the initial plasma concentration (C0) of CPT-11 but decreased the plasma clearance (CL). The AUC and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of SN-38 decreased, whereas the Cmax of SN-38G increased. Compared with that of the control group, the biliary excretion of CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G was inhibited. The CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G concentrations in the liver, intestine, and intestinal contents were different between the two groups. Furthermore, the hepatic expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp-2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) was significantly down-regulated by SXD, while the hepatic and jejunal uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) expression was elevated. The hydrolysis of CPT-11 to SN-38 by CES and the glucuronidation of SN-38 to SN-38G by UGT were affected by liver and jejunum S9 fractions from rats pre-treated with SXD. Therefore, this study demonstrated for the first time that SXD could alter the pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and its metabolites to alleviate CPT-11-induced diarrhea. And the underlying mechanism of drug interaction between CPT-11 and SXD involves decreasing hepatic Mrp-2 and P-gp expression and altering the activities of CES and UGT.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Differentiating the irinotecan dose on the basis of the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (<i>UGT1A1</i>) genotype improves the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. In this study, we further investigated preoperative irinotecan combined with capecitabine-based chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>We conducted this randomized, open-label, multicenter, phase III trial in China. Eligible patients with clinical T3-4 and/or N+ rectal adenocarcinoma, <i>UGT1A1</i> genotype <i>*1*1</i> or <i>*1*28</i> were randomly allocated to the control group: pelvic radiation of 50 Gy/25 fractions with concurrent capecitabine, followed by oxaliplatin and capecitabine; or the experimental group: radiation with capecitabine combined with weekly irinotecan 80 mg/m<sup>2</sup> for patients with <i>UGT1A1*1*1</i> or 65 mg/m<sup>2</sup> for patients with <i>UGT1A1*1*28</i>, followed by irinotecan and capecitabine. The primary end point was pCR. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02605265).<h4>Results</h4>Of the 360 patients initially enrolled, 356 were evaluated as the modified intention-to-treat population (n = 178 in both groups). Surgery was performed in 87% and 88% of patients in the control and experimental groups, respectively. The pCR rates were 15% (n = 27 of 178) and 30% (n = 53 of 178) in the control and experimental groups (risk ratio, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.97; <i>P</i> = .001). Four and 6 patients achieved complete clinical response in the control and experimental groups, respectively. Grade 3-4 toxicities were recorded in 11 (6%) and 68 (38%) patients in the control and experimental groups, respectively (<i>P</i> < .001). The commonest grade 3-4 toxicities were leukopenia, neutropenia, and diarrhea. The overall surgical complication rate was not significantly different between the two groups (11% <i>v</i> 15%; <i>P</i> < .001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Adding irinotecan guided by <i>UGT1A1</i> genotype to capecitabine-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy significantly increased complete tumor response in Chinese patients.
Project description:Studies have indicated an association between UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-1A1 (UGT1A1) genetic polymorphisms and irinotecan-induced toxicity. We undertook this study to investigate the association between UGT1A1 genetic polymorphisms and toxicity in patients treated with the FOLFIRINOX (comprising oxaliplatin, irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin) chemotherapy regimen in the JASPAC 06 study. Patients screened for UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28, and treated with either the original FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m<sup>2</sup> , irinotecan 180 mg/m<sup>2</sup> , leucovorin 200 mg/m<sup>2</sup> , bolus 5-fluorouracil [5-FU] 400 mg/m<sup>2</sup> , and continuous 5-FU 2400 mg/m<sup>2</sup> ) or a modified FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m<sup>2</sup> , irinotecan 150 mg/m<sup>2</sup> , leucovorin 200 mg/m<sup>2</sup> , and continuous 5-FU 2400 mg/m<sup>2</sup> ) as first-line chemotherapy were included. Of 199 patients eligible for this analysis, 79 patients were treated with the original FOLFIRINOX regimen and 120 patients were treated with the modified FOLFIRINOX regimen. In the original FOLFIRINOX group, 54 were UGT1A1 WT, and 25 were UGT1A1 heterozygous type (-/*6, 12 patients; -/*28, 13 patients). In the modified FOLFIRINOX group, 64 were UGT1A1 WT and 56 were UGT1A1 heterozygous type (-/*6, 33 patients; -/*28, 23 patients). In the original FOLFIRINOX group, the incidence of diarrhea was significantly higher among patients with UGT1A1 heterozygous type than among those with UGT1A1 WT and the incidence of leukopenia and diarrhea was significantly higher among patients with UGT1A1 -/*6 than among those with UGT1A1 -/*28. Patients with UGT1A1 heterozygous type, especially those with UGT1A1 -/*6, tended to show a higher incidence rate of severe adverse events, but this was not statistically significant. However, for patients who received the modified FOLFIRINOX, there was no difference in the frequency of adverse events due to UGT1A1 status. In conclusion, patients with heterozygous UGT1A1 polymorphisms treated with the original FOLFIRINOX regimen experienced severe toxicity more frequently than patients with WT UGT1A1.
Project description:Irinotecan-induced severe neutropenia and diarrhea, which remain unpredictable, has restrained the dose and clinical efficiency of irinotecan administration. In the present study, a total of 70 irinotecan-treated patients with histologically confirmed metastatic gastrointestinal cancer were enrolled. Despite genotyping well-reported alleles, direct sequencing was specifically adopted to avoid ethnic heterogeneity and to identify novel variations. The promoter (-1000 bp) and exon 1 regions of UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A complex locus (UGT1A1) gene family members UGT1A1, UGT1A7 and UGT1A9 were sequenced, and comprehensive analysis of their genetic polymorphisms was performed to determine the association between inherited genetic variations and irinotecan-induced toxicity. A total of 23 different genetic variants were detected in the present study, including 2 novel polymorphisms. The results of the present study revealed that UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A7*3 are risk factors for irinotecan-induced severe neutropenia, and UGT1A9*1b is associated with severe diarrhea. These results may provide biomarkers for the selection of the optimal chemotherapy for Chinese patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer.
Project description:A retrospective study was performed to analyze the relationship between uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) *6/*28 gene polymorphisms and adverse reactions associated with irinotecan (CPT-11)-based chemotherapy. The correlation between UGT1A1 polymorphisms and the clinical efficacy of CPT-11 was also analyzed, along with the influence of age and tumor type.Patients administered a CPT-11-based regimen in the Beijing Cancer Hospital from April 2015 to September 2016 were included in our study (n=81). Blood samples for detecting UGT1A1 were collected from each patient after various administration regimens.Colorectal cancer patients with the UGT1A1*6 mutant genotype had a significantly higher risk of severe delayed diarrhea than that of wild-type individuals when administered a CPT-11 dose ≥130 mg/m2 (P=0.042); the same phenomenon was observed when the UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 mutant genotypes were considered together (P=0.028). However, in lung cancer patients administered a low dose of CPT-11, UGT1A1*6/*28 variants were not significantly associated with severe neutropenia or delayed diarrhea. Furthermore, adult patients with the UGT1A1*6 mutation were more likely to develop severe delayed diarrhea than did wild-type adults (P=0.013); however, the difference was not significant in elderly patients. No significant differences in tumor response were found among the different genotypes (P>0.05).Thus, age and tumor type influence our ability to predict adverse reactions based on UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms in cancer patients. Further, UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms are not correlated with the efficacy of CPT-11-based regimens.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The association between UGT1A1*6/*28 polymorphisms and treatment outcomes of irinotecan in children remains unknown. This retrospective study investigated the influence of UGT1A1*6/*28 polymorphisms on irinotecan toxicity and survival of pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory solid tumors.<h4>Methods</h4>The present study enrolled a total of 44 patients aged younger than 18 years at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between 2014 and 2017.<h4>Results</h4>There were 26 boys and 18 girls; the median age at first VIT course was six years (range: 1-18 years). The tumor types included neuroblastoma (n = 25), rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 11), Wilm's tumor (n = 4), medulloblastoma (n = 2), and desmoplastic small round cell tumor (n = 2). Overall, 203 courses of VIT regimens were prescribed. Neither UGT1A1*6 nor *28 polymorphisms were associated with the incidence rates of severe (grade III-IV) irinotecan-related toxicities, but tended to reduce the patient overall survival (UGT1A1*6, <i>P</i> = 0.146; UGT1A1*28, <i>P</i> = 0.195). Moreover, patients with mutant UGT1A1*6 genotypes were more likely to develop grade I-IV irinotecan-related diarrhea (<i>P</i> = 0.043) and anemia (<i>P</i> = 0.002). Overall, the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism may play a protective role against irinotecan-related diarrhea and abdominal pain.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In relapsed/refractory pediatric solid tumors, the UGT1A1*6 polymorphism was a risk factor of irinotecan-related diarrhea and anemia. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism may serve a protective role in irinotecan-related abdominal pain and diarrhea. Both mutations had a tendency to be risk factors for survival. Nevertheless, prospective studies are required to verify such conclusions.