A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Impact of the Couple CARE for Parents of Newborns Program on the Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence and Relationship Problems.
ABSTRACT: Effective, accessible prevention programs are needed for adults at heightened risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). This parallel group randomized controlled trial examines whether such couples receiving the American version of Couple CARE for Parents of Newborns (CCP; Halford et al. 2009) following the birth of a child, compared with controls, report fewer first occurrences of clinically significant IPV, less frequent physical and psychological IPV, and improved relationship functioning. Further, we test whether intervention effects are moderated by level of risk for IPV. Couples at elevated risk for IPV (N?=?368) recruited from maternity units were randomized to CCP (n?= 188) or a 24-month waitlist (n?=?180) and completed measures of IPV and relationship functioning at baseline, post-program (when child was 8 months old), and two follow-ups (at 15 and 24 months). Intervention effects were tested using intent to treat (ITT) as well as complier average causal effect (CACE; Jo and Muthén 2001) structural equation models. CCP did not significantly prevent clinically significant IPV nor were there significant main effects of CCP on clinically significant IPV, frequency of IPV, or most relationship outcomes in the CACE or ITT analyses. Risk moderated the effect of CCP on male-to-female physical IPV at post-program, with couples with a planned pregnancy declining, but those with unplanned pregnancies increasing. This study adds to previous findings that prevention programs for at-risk couples are not often effective and may even be iatrogenic for some couples.
Project description:Methodological study nested within a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) of yoga plus usual general practitioner (GP) care vs usual GP care for chronic low back pain.To explore the treatment effects of non-compliance using three approaches in an RCT evaluating yoga for low back pain.A large multicentre RCT using intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis found that participants with chronic low back pain who were offered a 12-week progressive programme of yoga plus usual GP care had better back function than those offered usual GP care alone. However, ITT analysis can underestimate the effect of treatment in those who comply with treatment. As such, the data were analysed using other approaches to assess the problem of non-compliance. The main outcome measure was the self-reported Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ).Complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis, per-protocol analysis and on-treatment analysis were conducted on the data of participants who were fully compliant, predefined as attendance of at least three of the first six sessions and at least three other sessions. The analysis was repeated for participants who had attended at least one yoga session (i.e. any compliance), which included participants who were fully compliant. Each approach was described, including strengths and weaknesses, and the results of the different approaches were compared with those of the ITT analysis.For the participants who were fully compliant (n=93, 60%), a larger beneficial treatment effect was seen using CACE analysis compared with per-protocol, on-treatment and ITT analyses at 3 and 12 months. The difference in mean change in RMDQ score between randomised groups was -3.30 [95% confidence interval (CI) -4.90 to -1.70, P<0.001] at 3 months and -2.23 (95% CI -3.93 to -0.53, P=0.010) at 12 months for CACE analysis, -3.12 (95% CI -4.26 to -1.98, P<0.001) at 3 months and -2.11 (95% CI -3.33 to -0.89, P=0.001) at 12 months for per-protocol analysis, and -2.91 (95% CI -4.06 to -1.76, P<0.001) at 3 months and -2.10 (95% CI -3.31 to -0.89, P=0.001) at 12 months for on-treatment analysis. For the participants who demonstrated any compliance (n=133, 85%), the results were generally consistent with the fully compliant group at 3 months, but the treatment effect was smaller. The difference in mean change in RMDQ score between randomised groups was -2.45 (95% CI -3.67 to -1.24) for CACE analysis, -2.30 (95% CI -3.43 to 1.17) for per-protocol analysis and -2.15 (95% CI -3.25 to -1.06) for on-treatment analysis, which was slightly less than that for ITT analysis. In contrast, at 12 months, per-protocol and on-treatment analyses showed a larger treatment effect compared with CACE and ITT analyses: per protocol analysis -1.86 (95% CI -3.02 to -0.71), on-treatment analysis -1.99 (95% CI -3.13 to -0.86) and CACE analysis -1.67 (95% CI -2.95 to -0.40).ITT analysis estimated a slightly smaller treatment effect in participants who complied with treatment. When examining compliance, CACE analysis is more rigorous than per-protocol and on-treatment analyses. Using CACE analysis, the treatment effect was larger in participants who complied with treatment compared with participants who were allocated to treatment, and the difference between ITT and CACE analyses for the fully compliant group at 3 months was small but clinically important. Per-protocol and on-treatment analyses may produce unreliable estimates when the effect of treatment is small.ISRCTN 81079604.
Project description:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent and pressing public health concern that affects people of all gender and sexual identities. Though studies have identified that male couples may experience IPV at rates as high as or higher than women in heterosexual partnerships, the body of literature addressing this population is still nascent. This study recruited 160 male-male couples in Atlanta, Boston, and Chicago to independently complete individual surveys measuring demographic information, partner violence experience and perpetration, and individual and relationship characteristics that may shape the experience of violence. Forty-six percent of respondents reported experiencing IPV in the past year. Internalized homophobia significantly increased the risk for reporting experiencing, perpetrating, or both for any type of IPV. This study is the first to independently gather data on IPV from both members of male dyads and indicates an association between internalized homophobia and risk for IPV among male couples. The results highlight the unique experiences of IPV in male-male couples and call for further research and programmatic attention to address the exorbitant levels of IPV experienced within some of these partnerships.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can have serious health consequences for mothers and the unborn child. Nevertheless, IPV is seldom addressed in the context of parent preparation. AIM:This study aimed to map the prevalence, direction, and severity of IPV in a sample of expectant couples signing up for universally-offered parent preparation. METHOD:A total of 1726 Danish couples expecting their first child provided data on physical and psychological IPV by completing the Family Maltreatment measure during the second trimester of pregnancy. RESULTS:In 18.5% of the couples, at least one partner reported psychological or physical IPV acts during the past year. In more than 8% of couples, one or both partners reported acts and impacts above the ICD-11 threshold for clinically-significant IPV (CS-IPV) during the past year (3.6% physical CS-IPV, 5.3% psychological CS-IPV, and 0.8% both physical and psychological CS-IPV). Among couples with physical IPV below the clinical threshold, pregnant-woman-to-partner (50%) and bidirectional (38.2%) IPV were more common than partner-to-pregnant-woman IPV (11.8%). Among couples with physical CS-IPV, pregnant-woman-to-partner (36.1%), partner-to-pregnant-women (29.1%) and bidirectional (34.4%) forms were equally common. Among couples with psychological IPV, pregnant-woman-to-partner (54.9%) and partner-to-pregnant-woman (39.6%) IPV were more common than bidirectional IPV (5.5%). DISCUSSION:The prevalence of violence was markedly higher in this study compared with previous reports from the Nordic region and highlights a previous oversight of a substantial and clinically significant level of pregnant-woman-to-partner IPV-as well as the reverse. Data from this study call for IPV to be addressed in universally offered parent preparation programs.
Project description:In recent years, major global institutions have amplified their efforts to address intimate partner violence (IPV) against women-a global health and human rights violation affecting 15-71% of reproductive aged women over their lifetimes. Still, some scholars remain concerned about the validity of instruments used for IPV assessment in population-based studies. In this paper, we conducted two validation analyses using novel data from 450 women-men dyads across nine villages in Northern Tanzania. First, we examined the level of inter-partner agreement in reporting of men's physical, sexual, emotional and economic IPV against women in the last three and twelve months prior to the survey, ever in the relationship, and during pregnancy. Second, we conducted a convergent validity analysis to compare the relative efficacy of men's self-reports of perpetration and women's of victimization as a valid indicator of IPV against Tanzanian women using logistic regression models with village-level clustered errors. We found that, for every violence type across the recall periods of the last three months, the last twelve months and ever in the relationship, at least one in three couples disagreed about IPV occurrences in the relationship. Couples' agreement about physical, sexual and economic IPV during pregnancy was high with 86-93% of couples reporting concordantly. Also, men's self-reported perpetration had statistically significant associations with at least as many validated risk factors as had women's self-reported victimization. This finding suggests that men's self-reports are at least as valid as women's as an indicator of IPV against women in Northern Tanzania. We recommend more validation studies are conducted in low-income countries, and that data on relationship factors affecting IPV reports and reporting are made available along with data on IPV occurrences.
Project description:To examine the efficacy of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in improving children's reading attainment, and the extent to which this varies as a function of cumulative intervention intensity (dosage) and timing of outcome measurement. A 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-seven primary schools from three regions in England were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Children (N?=?3084) aged 67 at baseline were the target cohort. The GBG is an interdependent group-contingency behavior management strategy used by teachers in elementary schools. Reading attainment was assessed via national teacher assessment scores at baseline, and the Hodder Group Reading Test at post-test and 1-year post-intervention follow-up. Dosage was assessed using a bespoke online GBG scoreboard system. Multi-level intent-to-treat (ITT) and complier average causal effect (CACE) estimation were utilized. At post-test, no effects of the GBG on children's reading attainment were found in either the ITT or CACE models. At 1-year follow-up, results remained null in the ITT model, but a significant intervention effect was found among moderate compliers (??=?0.10) in the CACE model. The GBG can produce measurable improvements in children's academic attainment, but these effects may take time to become apparent and are contingent upon implementation dosage falling within an optimal range. The project was supported by funding from the Education Endowment Foundation and the National Institute for Health Research. ISRCTN: 64152096.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to substance use by male perpetrators and is associated with an increased risk of depression for women who experience violence. Unite for a Better Life (UBL) is a gender-transformative intervention delivered to men, women, and couples in Ethiopia; previous evidence demonstrated the intervention significantly reduced experience of and perpetration of IPV when delivered to men and led to more equitable household task-sharing when delivered to men and couples. The aim of this analysis is to assess engagement in the UBL intervention and to examine the relationship between random assignment to the intervention and men's past-year substance use and women's reported depressive symptoms as measured at the individual level. METHODS AND FINDINGS:A sample of 64 villages in Gurague zone, Ethiopia, was randomly allocated to 4 arms (men's UBL, women's UBL, couples' UBL, or control). In each village, 106 households were randomly sampled, and households in the intervention arms were invited to participate in UBL, consisting of 14 sessions delivered by trained facilitators. Households in the control arm were offered a short educational session on IPV. Descriptive data on participant engagement in the intervention are reported, and outcomes assessed in an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis include male use of substances (alcohol and khat) and women's depressive symptoms as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results from both adjusted and unadjusted specifications are reported, the latter adjusting for baseline covariates including age, education level, marriage length, polygamy, socioeconomic status, months between intervention and endline, and the baseline level of the outcome variable. The baseline sample includes 6,770 respondents surveyed in 2014-2015, and follow-up data were available from 88% of baseline respondents surveyed in 2017-2018; the majority of respondents report no education, and 61% are Muslim. Respondents reported high attendance rates and engagement in the intervention. In addition, there was evidence of a significant reduction in frequent past-year alcohol intoxication self-reported by men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.85, p = 0.007), and a significant increase in the probability of frequent khat use self-reported by men (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.37-6.96, p = 0.007), both observed in the couples' UBL arm at 24 months' follow-up relative to the control arm. There was a significant increase in symptoms of moderate depression among women in the women's UBL arm only (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.13-2.41, p = 0.010), again relative to the control arm. There was no evidence of shifts in symptoms of mild or severe depression. The primary limitation of this study is the reliance on self-reported data around sensitive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the UBL intervention was associated with a reduction in men's use of alcohol when delivered to couples, but there was no evidence of a decrease in reported symptoms of depression among women in any experimental arm, and some evidence of an increase in symptoms of moderate depression in the women's UBL arm. Further research should explore how to optimize IPV prevention interventions to target related risks of mental health and substance use. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02311699; Socialscienceregistry.org AEARCTR-0000211.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Globally, around 30% of ever-partnered women have experienced physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) during their lifetime. To date, most research into causes and prevention of IPV involves surveys of women, with little research into risk-factors for male perpetration. This paper describes a survey of male partners of women participating in the MAISHA cluster randomised trial (CRT) of an IPV prevention intervention, in Mwanza City, Tanzania. Using linked couples' data, we explore man-, woman-, and relationship-/household-level factors associated with physical and sexual IPV. METHODS:Women were interviewed at baseline and 29-months follow-up. At follow-up, women were asked for consent to invite their partner to participate in the male survey. We describe response rates for the women's follow-up and male partners' surveys, and identify factors associated with women's consent to approach partners. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with women's past-year experiences of physical and sexual IPV. RESULTS:512 (65%) partnered women consented for the partner to be approached, higher among intervention than control women. 425 (83%) male partners were interviewed. Women consenting were disproportionately likely to be in longer-term relationships. Past-year IPV was associated with lower consent among control women, but greater consent in the intervention arm. Factors associated with increased odds of physical IPV were women's childhood experiences of abuse, young age, women's lower income and women's attitudes justifying IPV. Sexual IPV was associated with women's childhood experiences of abuse, young age, educational disparity within couple, men's alcohol use and women's poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS:We successfully conducted a survey of male partners with the full consent of women trial participants. The breadth of factors associated with IPV demonstrates the need for IPV prevention interventions to work with women and men, and specifically couples. Interventions should address risk-factors for both physical and sexual IPV.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health issue. The consistent evidence that alcohol use by one or both partners contributes to the risk and severity of IPV suggests that interventions that reduce alcohol consumption may also reduce IPV. This study sought to review the evidence for effects on IPV of alcohol interventions at the population, community, relationship and individual levels using the World Health Organization ecological framework for violence. METHODS: Eleven databases including Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched for English-language studies and grey literature published 1 January 1992 - 1 March 2013 investigating whether alcohol interventions/policies were associated with IPV reduction within adult (? 18) intimate relationships. Eleven studies meeting design criteria for attributing effects to the intervention and ten studies showing mediation of alcohol consumption were included in the review. The heterogeneity of study designs precluded quantitative meta analysis; therefore, a critical narrative approach was used. RESULTS: Population-level pricing and taxation studies found weak or no evidence for alcohol price changes influencing IPV. Studies of community-level policies or interventions (e.g., hours of sale, alcohol outlet density) showed weak evidence of an association with IPV. Couples-based and individual alcohol treatment studies found a relationship between reductions in alcohol consumption and reductions in IPV but their designs precluded attributing changes to treatment. Randomized controlled trials of combined alcohol and violence treatment programs found some positive effects of brief alcohol intervention as an adjunct to batterer treatment for hazardous drinking IPV perpetrators, and of brief interventions with non-dependent younger populations, but effects were often not sustained. CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence associating problematic alcohol use with IPV, the potential for alcohol interventions to reduce IPV has not been adequately tested, possibly because studies have not focused on those most at risk of alcohol-related IPV. Research using rigorous designs should target young adult populations among whom IPV and drinking is highly prevalent. Combining alcohol and IPV intervention/policy approaches at the population, community, relationship and individual-level may provide the best opportunity for effective intervention.
Project description:Noxious family environments are associated with a wide range of adverse child outcomes. In order to prevent couple and parent-child relationship problems, a number of programs have been developed for couples with newborns. The current paper describes a program of research evaluating the American version of couple CARE for parents of newborns. This version of CCP was administered to low-income, unmarried couples with a new baby in an uncontrolled demonstration project (Study 1), compared with a waitlist control condition in a randomized controlled trial (Study 2), and evaluated with low-income parents recruited from urban hospitals in two major metropolitan areas of the United States (Study 3 and Study 4). Despite participant satisfaction with CCP, preventive effects of the program were limited and there was one potential iatrogenic effect. Results were likely impacted by major challenges with recruiting participants and maintaining their engagement in CCP for the duration of the program. We discuss methodological differences between this series of studies and previous trials of prevention programs and make recommendations for improving service delivery to at-risk new parents. These results have implications for public policies that aim to benefit children and families.
Project description:Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for HIV infection. To further the understanding of the dyadic factors that impact condom use among women, we investigated the impact of three relationship factors (i.e., power, fear, and dependence) on the association between HIV-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills [constructs from the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model] and condom use among abused women. Data from 133 urban, low-income women recruited from several community-based agencies (e.g., domestic violence agencies, women's health organizations, hospitals, Department of Health and Human Services, and Family Court) showed that these women experienced high levels of IPV and that relationship power, fear of abuse, and partner dependence were all associated with condom use. Multivariable models revealed that fear of abuse and partner dependence moderated the association between IMB constructs and condom use but relationship power did not. Results highlight the critical need to incorporate strategies to address relationship factors in HIV prevention programs with abused women.